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UA - BCMB 242 - Class Notes - Week 1

Created by: Haley Etheridge Elite Notetaker

UA - BCMB 242 - Class Notes - Week 1

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology and Man
Professor: Daryl Lam
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Microbiology and lab
Name: Microbiology and Man Lab Exam Review
Description: These notes cover the labs we covered for the first lab exam. I hope they help!
Uploaded: 03/09/2016
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background image Microbiology Lab Exam #1 Exercise 1­2: Glo Germ Hand Wash Education System The  Glo Germ Hand Wash Education System  was developed to train people to wash their  hands more effectively. The lotion contains minute plastic particles (artificial germs) that fluoresce when illuminated 
with ultraviolent (UV) radiation but are invisible with normal lighting.
This provides immediate feedback to the washers as to the effectiveness of their hand washing 
and provides information about where they have to concentrate their efforts in the future.
Nontoxic, synthetic fluorescent “germs” Exercise 3­1: Introduction to the Light Microscope Bright field microscopy produces an image made from light that is transmitted through a 
specimen.
Because most biological specimens are transparent, the contrast between the specimen and the 
background can be improved with the application of stains to the specimen.
Image formation begins with light coming from an internal or an external light source. Light passes through the  condenser lens , which concentrates the light and makes illumination  of the specimen more uniform. Refraction  (bending) of light as it passes through the  objective lens  from the specimen  produces a magnified real image. Total magnification of the specimen can be calculated by using the following formula: o Total Mag. = Mag. By the Objective Lens (4, 10, 40, 100) X Mag. By the Ocular Lens  (Always 10) Image clarity is more difficult to maintain as the magnification increases. Clarity of an image is called  resolution . The  limit of resolution  (or resolving power) is an actual measurement of how far apart two  points must be for the microscope to view them as being separate.  Numerical aperture  is a measure of a lens’s ability to “capture” light coming from the  specimen and use it to make the image. Using immersion oil between the specimen and the oil objective lens increases its numerical 
aperture and, in turn, makes its limit of resolution smaller.
In  dark­field microscopy , a special condenser is used so only the light reflected off the  specimen enters the objective. Phrase contrast microscopy  uses special optical components to exploit subtle differences in  the refractive indices of water and cytoplasmic components to produce contrast. Fluorescence microscopy  uses a fluorescent dye that emits fluorescence when illuminated with  ultraviolet radiation. Course­focus adjustment knob – brings image into focus Fine­focus adjustment knob – brings the image into sharpest
background image Exercise 1­4: Common Aseptic Transfers and Inoculation Methods Aseptically  – without contamination of yourself, others, the culture, the sterile medium, or the  surroundings. A medium that contains living microbes is called a  culture . If a culture contains a single species it is said to be a  pure culture . Limiting aerosol production is a safety issue and not an issue of keeping pure cultures pure. Minimize the potential of contamination. Be organized. Place all media tubes in a test tube rack when not in use whether they are sterile or not. Take your time. Never hold a tube culture by its cap. Hold the inoculating loop or needle like a pencil in your dominant hand and relax. Adjust your Bunsen burner so its flame has an inner and outer cone. Broths  are used to grow microbes when fresh cultures or large numbers of cells are required. Agar slants  are generally used to grow stock cultures that can be refrigerated after incubation  and maintained for several weeks. Plated media  are typically used for obtaining isolation of species, differential testing, and  quantifying bacterial densities. In all cases, using these media requires aseptic inoculation in which a portion of an existing pure
culture is transferred to a sterile medium to start a new pure culture.
Exercise 2 ­1: Ubiquity of Microorganisms “Ubiquitous in nature” – this means that the organism being considered can be found just about 
everywhere.
Many microorganisms are  free living  – they do not reside on or in a specific plant or animal  host and are not known to cause disease. They are  nonpathogenic . Other microorganisms are  pathogens  and generally are associated with their host. Even many  commensal  or  mutualistic  stains inhabiting our bodies are  opportunistic  pathogens . That is, they are capable of producing a disease state if introduced into a suitable  part of the body. Any area, including sites outside the host organism, where a microbe resides and serves as a 
potential source of infection is called a reservoir.
Exercise 3 ­10: Bacterial Motility: Wet Mount and Hanging Drop Preparations wet mount preparation  is made by placing the specimen in a drop of water on a microscope  slide and covering it with a cover glass. Motility  often can be observed at low or high dry magnification, but viewing must be done  quickly because of drying of the preparation. You should look for independent darting of the cells.

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Microbiology and Man
Professor: Daryl Lam
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Microbiology and lab
Name: Microbiology and Man Lab Exam Review
Description: These notes cover the labs we covered for the first lab exam. I hope they help!
Uploaded: 03/09/2016
6 Pages 50 Views 40 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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