Geo 1610 EXAM 2 REVIEW
Geo 1610 EXAM 2 REVIEW GEOL 1610
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Brooksbank on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 1610 at University of North Texas taught by Johnny Byers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Review Geology 3/9/16 Soils: 1. Three types of weathering: Mechanical weathering / Chemical weathering / Differential weathering 2. Three things that effect weathering: HEAT / PRESSURE / FLUIDS Hot, wet environments = Rapid weathering Dry environments = Slow weathering 3. Deﬁnition of Soil, ClORPT equation: Soil: Upper layer of earth where plants grow, mix of organic remains, clay, rock particles Climate, Organisms, Relief, Parent Material, Time 4. Deﬁnition of regolith, pedon and horizonation: Regolith: Layer of rock and minerals that cover earths surface Pedon: Smallest unit of Soil Horizonation: A layer of soil, parallel to the soil surface with characteristics produced by soil forming processes 5. Field approach to deﬁning Horizonation: Soil forming processes: Color, structure, texture, mottles, boundaries, Korotovina 6. Master Horizon’s O,A,B,C,R,K. O: Surface horizon - Organic material, dark leaf litter A: Zone of intense weathering - Eluviation (EXIT), darker than underlying horizon E: Leached Horizon - Light in Color, Eluviation of organic material B: Zone of accumulation of products of wealth - Blocky / prismatic structure, red color C: Unaltered / slightly altered Parent Material - Sediments R: Hard Bedrock K: Well cemented carbonate Horizon - Limestone 7. Distribution of pedalfers, and pedals across the continent … 8. What are Alﬁsols, Aridisols and Mollisols and Verisols? What vegetation do they support? What are their parent materials? Where are they found? Alﬁsols: Forest Soils B horizon - Found in pedalfers Aridisols: Soils of dry regions - Found in DRY regions Mollisols: Grassland soils steppes and prairies - Found in forest with clay B horizon Vertisols: Shrinking and swelling dark clay Soil Sedimentary: 9. What percentage of all rock outcroppings are sedimentary? 75% 10. How are ancient environments reconstructed? Looking at the primary structure you can see the deposition taken place leading to RECONSTRUCTION 11.What are the three basic types of sedimentary rock? Detrital, Chemical, Organic 12. How are sedimentary rocks classiﬁed? Texture and Composition 13. What are the common types of cements? How do we test for them? Calcite, Silica, Limonite, Hematite, Glauconite Review Geology 3/9/16 14. What does angular versus rounded sediments tell us about the rocks? Angular: Short Distance / High energy Round: Long Distance 15. How are chemical rocks created? What are some examples of chemical rocks? Previously dissolved substances from H2O Conglomerate = Pebbles cement Breccia = Angular cement 16. Biogenic rocks, how they are formed and examples. Plant and animal remains like snails (Example: coal/anthracite) 17. Coal formation process and resulting rock types. Forest - Peat - Subituminous - Bituminous - Anthracite Coal - formed in swamp, organic material 18. What does primary structure in rock tell us? Deposition, environmental to interpret where the rock came from and how it was carried Metamorphism: 19. What are the agents of metamorphism? Heat / Pressure / Chemical (ﬂuids) 20. Foliated vs non foliated metamorphic rock what causes the difference? Foliated = Shale/sandstone Non-foliated = Quartz/Quartzite 21. What are the major settings of metamorphism? Regional, Contact, thermal, Fault zones, impact, hydrothermal, burial 22. What are the scales of metamorphism and where do they occur? Large Scale: Regional - Appellation Mountains Small Scale - Contact Metamorphism - Magma chambers, heated, fault zones 23. How is Hydrothermal formed? Elements Deposited by solution water heated by magma chambers 24. What are the textural terms of foliated metamorphic rock from low grade to high grade metamorphism Slaty - Phyllitic - Schistose - Gneissic 25. What are index materials? minerals that serve as good indicators of metamorphic grades What is a migmatite? Half melted, half metamorphic rock. First ﬂowing - felsic rock melts ﬁrst basaltic melts last 26. Parent materials for slate, Marble, quartzite, greenstone, etc. Slate - Shale Marble - limestone Quartzite - High silica sandstone Mass Wasting/Weathering: 27. What are the controls on mass wasting? GRAVITY - PRIMARY CONTROL 28. Small shallow to deep circular depressions in bedrock how do you make those? Pot holes are made into bedrock when gravel and rocks more around in the wind and grind a hole into the bedrock Review Geology 3/9/16 29. Expose a pluton what happens: Cooled chamber of magma under the surface of the earth. It is held together by pressure, so if you remove this pressure, the pluton will fall apart. 30. Acid Rain Caused by the burning of fossil fuels, kills vegetation 31. Dissolution Minerals dissolving through solution - Chemical reaction solid material dispersed 32. Woodbine Sandstone 33. Biogenic Weathering Roots / burrows of animals / plants 34. Soliﬂuction Groundwater ﬁlls pore spaces in soil freeze thaw activity (Creep) Permafrost 35. Differential Weathering Weathering occurs at different rates 36. Three major types of chemical weathering Oxidation / Hydrolysis / dissolution (Carbonation) 37. Mechanical/Physical Weathering agents Frost wedging Root wedging WATER ICE WIND PRIMARY AGENT - WATER (Physical forces) Notes: - Texture: the mixture of sand, silt and clay (Gritty? Smooth?) - Structure: Distinctive structures based on texture and rainfall (blocky, angular, granular) - Clay ﬁlms: go down proﬁle ﬁrst, smallest and coat faces (USE THIS AS AN INDICATOR OF HOW MUCH WEATHERING HAS TAKEN PLACE) - STABILITY AND WEATHERING: You have to have a stable surface: 0 deposition, you reset it when you pick it up and bury it again Rainwater: - The burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) releases sulfur into the air that combines with oxygen to for sulfur dioxide - Exhausts from cars cause the formation of nitogen oxides in the air - From these gases, airborne sulfuric acid and nitric acid can reformed and be dissolved in the water vapor in the air - Acid Rain gasses may originate in urban areas, but are often carried for hundreds of miles in the atmosphere - BURNING FOSSIL FUELS = ACID RAIN Examples of Chemical Weathering - Dissolution: Carbonic acid organisms and dead stuff - Hydrolysis: Creates Spheroidal weathering (caused by hydrolysis, shape) SHAPE THAT RESULTS FROM CHEMICAL WEATHERING, cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water - Oxidation: Oxygen, rust
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