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Sociology Test 2 Review

by: Koehne Barlow

Sociology Test 2 Review SOCI 2013

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > SOCI 2013 > Sociology Test 2 Review
Koehne Barlow
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agents of socialization, anticipating re-socialization and socialization, social interaction and reality, elements of social structure, statuses, ascribed, master status, social role, types of role...
Study Guide
sociology, Test 2
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Koehne Barlow on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2013 at University of Arkansas taught by ROBERT MORTENSON in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Sociology Agents of Socialization:  Continuing and lifelong socialization process involves many different social forces  Family o Gender roles: expectations regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females  School o Teaches values and customs of larger society o Can also reinforce divisive aspects of society  Peer group o As children grow older, peer groups increasingly assume role of Mead’s significant others o Gender differences are noteworthy among adolescents  Mass media technology o Media innovations are important agents of socialization o Concerns about teen use of internet; however, use of technology not always negative o New communication technologies in developing countries  Workplace o Learning to behave appropriately within occupational setting is a fundamental aspect of human socialization  Religion and State o Government and organized religion impact life course by reinstituting some rites of passage Anticipating Re-Socialization and Socialization  Rites of passage: o Means of dramatizing and validating changes in status  Life course approach: o Looking closely at social factors that influence people throughout their lives  Youth hood, emerging adulthood, not quite adulthood  Anticipating socialization: o Person rehearses future occupations and social relationships  Re- Socialization: o Discarding dormer behavior patterns and accepting new ones during transitions in one’s life  Total institution: o Regulates all aspects of a person’s life under a single authority  Degradation ceremony: o Ritual in which individual becomes secondary and rather invisible in overbearing social environment Social Interaction and Reality:  Reality is shaped by perceptions, evaluations, and definitions o Nature of social interaction and what constitutes reality varies across cultures o Ability to define social reality reflects groups power within a society o Important aspect of the process of social change involves redefining or reconstructing social reality Elements of Social Structure: Statuses  Status: any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society o Person can hold more than one at the same time Statuses:  Ascribed and achieved statuses: o Ascribed status: status one is born with o Achieved status: status one earns  Master status: o Status that dominates other statuses and determines a persons general position in society o In U.S., ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses Social Role:  What are social roles? o Social role: set of expectations for people who occupy a given status  Types of roles: o Role conflict: when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person o Role Strain: Difficulties that arise when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations o Role exit: process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s identity to establish a new role  Ebaugh’s four stages:  Doubt  Search for alternatives  Action or departure stage  Creation of a new identity Groups:  Group: any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact on a regular basis o Primary group: small group with intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation o Secondary group: formal, impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understanding o In-groups: any groups or categories to which people feel like they belong o Out-groups: any groups or categories to which people feel like they do not belong  Conflict between in-groups and out-groups can turn violent on a personal and political level Temporary or permanent alliances geared toward common goal  Some are initially short-lived o Example: survivor Reference groups:  Reference group: any group that individuals use as standard for evaluation their own behavior o Set and enforce standards of conduct and belief, also perform a comparison function o Often two or more reference groups influence us at the same time Social Networks:  Social Network: series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people o Social networks one of five basic elements of social structure o Research indicates that in person and online not everyone participates equally in social networks Social Institutions:  Social institution: organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs  Functionalist Perspective 1. Replacing personnel 2. Teaching new recruits 3. Producing and distributing goods and services 4. Preserving order 5. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose  Conflict perspective: o Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within society o Social institutions such as education have inherently conservative natures  Internationalist Perspective: o Social institutions affect everyday behavior o Social behavior conditioned by roles and statuses we accept Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies  Formal organization: group designed for special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency o In our society, formal organizations fulfill enormous variety of personal and societal needs o Ascribed statuses can influence how we see ourselves within formal organizations  Bureaucracy: component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency o Ideal type: a construct or model for evaluating specific class o Weber emphasized basic similarity of structure and process found in dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business  Characteristics of Weber’s ideal bureaucracy:  Division of labor  Hierarchy of authority  Written rules and regulations  Impersonality  Employment based on technical qualifications  Characteristics of a Bureaucracy: o Fragmentation of work can remove connection workers have to overall objective of the bureaucracy o Alienation: condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society o Trained incapacity: workers become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems o A hierarchy of authority means each position is under supervision o Written rules and regulations ensure uniform performance of every task  Provide continuity  Goal displacement: when rules and regulations overshadow larger goals of organization and become dysfunctional o Employment based on technical qualifications: ideally, performance measured against specific standards  Peter principle: every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence (Peter and Hull 1969)  Bureaucracy pervades modern life; through McDonaldization, it has reached new heights o Bureaucratization as a Process  Bureaucratization: process by which group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic  Can take place within small group settings o Oligarchy: Rule by a Few  Iron law of oligarchy: even a democratic organization eventually develops into a bureaucracy ruled by a few o Classical theory or scientific management approach: workers motivated almost entirely by economic rewards o Human relations approach: role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy emphasized Durkeim’s Mechanical and Organic Solidarity  Division of Labor (1893-1933) o Mechanical solidarity: collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity, implying all individuals perform the same tasks o Organic solidarity: collective consciousness resting on the need society’s members have for one another Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach  Human societies undergo process of change characterized by dominant pattern known as sociocultural evolution o Level of technology  Technology: “cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires” o Preindustrial Societies  Hunting-and-gathering society: people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available  Horticultural societies: people plant seeds and crops  Agrarian societies: people are primarily engaged in production of food; more specialized than horticultural society o Industrial Societies  Societies that depend on mechanization to produce its goods and services  People depend on mechanization to produce goods and services  People rely on inventions and energy sources  People move away from family as a self-sufficient production unit o Postindustrial and Postmodern Societies  Postindustrial society: economic system engaged primarily in processing and controlling information  Postmodern society: technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images What is Deviance?  Deviance: behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society o Involves violation of group or norms, which may or may not be formalized into law o Subject to social definition within a particular society and at a particular time  Deviance and Social Stigma o Stigma: labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups  Deviance and Technology: o Technological innovations can redefine social interactions and standards of behavior related to them Social Control:  Social control: techniques and strategies employed for preventing deviant human behavior in any society o Parents o Peer groups o Government o Bureaucratic organizations  Sanctions: penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm o Death penalty is the ultimate formal sanction o Subject of controversy centered on effectiveness of this sanction as a social norm Conformity and Obedience  The Milgram Experiment o Experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject o Conformity: going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior o Obedience: compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchal Informal and Formal Social Control  Informal social control: used causally to enforce norms o Smiles, laughter, crying, etc.  Formal social control: o Carried out by authorized agents  Informal social control can undermine formal social control, encouraging people to violate social norms Law and Society:  Some norms are so important to a society that they are formalized into laws o Law: governmental society control  The legal order reflects values of those in a position to exercise authority  Control theory: connection to members of society leads people to systematically conform to society’s norms Functionalist Perspective:  Durkheim’s Legacy: o Punishments established within a culture help define acceptable behavior and contribute to stability o Erikson illustrated boundary-maintenance function of deviance o Anomie: loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective  Merton’s Theory of Deviance o Anomie theory of deviance:  Five basic forms of adaptation  Conformity  Retreatism  Innovation  Ritualism  Rebellion Interactionalist perspective:  Cultural Transmission: humans learn how to behave in social situations, whether properly or improperly  Differential association: process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules


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