History 173 Final Exam Study Guide
History 173 Final Exam Study Guide History 173
Long Beach State
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History Final Exam Study Guide 1. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:"I fear all we have done is awaken a sleeping giant and filled him with a terrible resolve." Admiral Yamamoto, 1941 2. About _______ Americans served in uniform during WWII: 16 million 3. By 1945, women made up ________________ of the workforce on the homefront. more than one third (By 1945, women made up more than one third of the workforce on the homefront.) 4. The vast majority of Nazi Germany's war casualties occurred on the Eastern Front. 5. Which of the following does NOT describe an aspect of the impact of World War II on American society?It brought recovery from the stagnation and unemployment of the Great Depression.Military life served as a melting pot, as well as taking Americans far from home.Women found new economic opportunities despite little change in gender attitudes.Women and minorities felt resentment at being barred from military service. Women and minorities felt resentment at being barred from military service. 6. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:" I worked in building number 11. I pulled a lot of gadgets on a machine. The shell slid under and powder went into it. Another lever you pulled tamped it down. Then it moved on a conveyor belt to another building where the detonator was dropped in. You did this over and over." Peggy Terry 7. Collectively the Allies, despite early defeats, enjoyed significant strengths that would bring victory in the long haul, including all EXCEPT: a professed public commitment to Wilsonian ideals that managed to sustain morale. 8. Which of the following nations was not present at the first organizational meeting of the United Nations in San Francisco in April 1945? Germany (The United Nations organization had emerged out of the community of World War II allies, including its most powerful members: the United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.) 9. The neutrality legislation of the 1930s was based on the assumption that the United States could keep out of war by banning arms sales to countries at war. 10. To assist Great Britain after the fall of France in 1940, President Roosevelt devised ways to provide aid without going to war. 11. FDR's "Four Freedoms" included all of the following except the Freedom of Choice. 12. Japan's military leaders called their own imperial vision of Asia the Great East Asia CoProsperity Sphere (After the League of Nations protested Japan's invasion of Manchuria, it simply left the international body and declared itself as the center of a Great East Asia CoProsperity Sphere, which they went on to control with military force.) 13. What did President Franklin D. Roosevelt promise American voters in his reelection campaign of 1940? The United States would become "the great arsenal for democracy." (The president promised voters that rather than fight, the United States would become the "great arsenal of democracy.") 14. The most decorated unit in U.S. military history was the: 442nd Regimental Combat Team 15. Key blunder of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor: declaration of war was not submitted prior to attack 16. Which of the following nations provided support to the leftleaning Spanish Republic defending itself against the military coup of fascist Generalissimo Francisco Franco from 1936 to 1939? the Soviet Union (Only t)he Soviet Union and Mexico aided Spain's fledgling democracy, which was not sufficient and could not prevent the rise of Franco's fascist dictatorship. 17. June 6, 1944, was the date of Operation Overlord, the Allied attack across the English Channel. 18. Which of the following series of events is listed in proper sequence? Executive Order 8802; Attack on Pearl Harbor; Battle of Midway; Bombing of Hiroshima 19. Which of the following best describes African American participation in the armed forces during World War II? African Americans joined despite racial discrimination and prejudice. (Despite racial discrimination and prejudice, more than a million black men and women served in the armed forces during World War II.) 20. By the end of the war, Americans' average income jumped to nearly twice what it had been in 1939. 21. The battle that turned the tide against the Nazis on the eastern front in early 1943: Battle of Stalingrad 22. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:"Men, I would have never asked for you if you weren't good. I have nothing but the best in my army. I don't care what color you are, so long as you go up there and kill those Kraut sonsabitches." Gen. Patton to the 761st Tank Battalion 23. Why did the German Luftwaffe begin to strike targets in England in the summer of 1940? German bombers were supposed to prepare a ground invasion. (In the summer of 1940, German fighters and bombers struck targets in England. In what came to be known as the Battle of Britain, Hitler sought to soften up England for a German invasion.) 24. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:"The Japanese Race is an enemy race and while many second and third generation Japanese born on American soil, possessed of US citizenship, have become Americanized, the racial strains are undiluted." Gen. John Dewitt 25. Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers' Party embraced all of the following except: Communism. (Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers' Party embraced a totalitarian government, racism and antiSemitism, and territorial expansion, but it was not a Communist government, despite the party's title.) 26. America's basic cold war strategy emerged when the Truman administration adopted the recommendations of U.S. diplomat and Soviet specialist George Kennan. This strategy is known as the containment doctrine. 27. In 1959, vice president Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev engaged in _______ at the American National Exhibition in Moscow. the kitchen debate 28. Several factors explain the rise of the cold war. Which of the following does NOT describe these factors? economic: both the U.S. and USSR were economically devastated after World War II 29. The Korean War was an example of all the following except: appeasement 30. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:"Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was 'civis Romanus sum.' Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is 'Ich bin ein Berliner.' Some say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin [...] Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put up a wall to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us [...] All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner." John F. Kennedy, 1963 31. Identify the author or document of the following primary source quote:"It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures [...] Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be farreaching to the West as well as to the East." President Truman, March 1947 32. Which of the following was a practical benefit of humanitarian aid to Western Europeans? As Europeans recovered, so would their interest in buying American goods. (Secretary of State George Marshall did not emphasize the antiCommunist strategy in his plan, but he believed that humanitarian aid would also recover European demand for American goods.) 33. To end the Cuban Missile Crisis the superpowers pledged to all the following except: USSR not intervene in Vietnam 34. Which of the following events stunned Americans in 1957? the Soviet launch of the Sputnik satellite (In 1957, Soviets stunned America by orbiting the first space satellite, dubbed Sputnik.) 35. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution, as passed by Congress, authorized President Johnson to take all necessary measures to repel attacks on U.S. forces. 36. General MacArthur was relieved of his command in Korea because he publicly opposed Truman's policy of limited war in Korea. 37. Which of the following best assesses the outcome of the Korean War? Korea remained divided, almost as it had been in 1950. (On July 27, 1953, Communist and United Nations forces signed the armistice ending its "police action." But Korea remained divided, more or less along the same lines as when the war had begun in 1950.) 38. Identify the document or author of the following primary source quote:"All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. This immortal statement was made in the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America in 1776. In a broader sense, this means: All the peoples on the earth are equal from birth, all the peoples have a right to live, to be happy and free. . . . For these reasons, we, members of the Provisional Government, declare that from now on we break off all relations of a colonial character with France." Ho Chi Minh, 1945 39. Among the "shocks of 1949" was the fall of China to Mao Zedong's Communists. 40. The Berlin Wall remained standing19611989 41. Why did the United States discourage Ngo Dinh Diem from abiding by the Geneva Accords and hold nationwide elections in 1956? They feared Ho Chi Minh's broad popularity. 42. What did the secretary of state offer in his Marshall Plan? to provide financial aid to rebuild Europe's wartorn economies 43. How have most historians assessed the real threat the Soviet Union posed to the United States after World War II? Historians have argued that American policymakers exaggerated Stalin's ambitions. (Despite Russian actions, many historians have argued that American policymakers consistently exaggerated Stalin's ambitions. Given the situation in Europe, Stalin's actions could be understood as being primarily defensive.) 44. American diplomat whose 1946 "long telegram" from Moscow warned US policy leaders of Stalin's intent to hold on to Eastern Europe: George Kennan 45. The first man successfully launched into orbit in 1961 was: Yuri Gagarin 46. What was the official status of the American force fighting in Korea? an authorized agent of a United Nations police action 47. Militarily, the U.S. Armed Forces in Vietnam won all major conventional battles against VC and NVA forces 48. What happened to Chinese nationalist leader Chiang Kaishek after his defeat on mainland China in 1949? He fled to the island of Formosa, which later became Taiwan. (After his defeat on mainland China in 1949, Chinese nationalist leader Chiang Kaishek fled to the island of Formosa, which later became Taiwan.) 49. Which country was NOT a member of NATO? Czechoslovakia 50. Who first described the separation between Eastern and Western Europe as an Iron Curtain? Winston Churchill(In March 1946, Winston Churchill warned that the Soviets had dropped an "Iron Curtain" between their satellite nations and the free world.) 51. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "the only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everything at the same time, the ones who never yawn or say a commonplace thing, but burn, burn, burn like fabulous yellow roman candles exploding like spiders across the stars and in the middle you see the blue centerlight pop and everybody goes 'Awww!'" Jack Kerouac 52. Why, prior to 1963, did President John F. Kennedy try to avoid an active federal role in support of the civil rights movement? He did not want to drive white Southerners from the Democratic Party. (Kennedy understood that civil rights were the most divisive issues the administration faced. The president needed the votes of African Americans and liberals to win reelection. Yet an active federal role threatened to drive white Southerners from the Democratic Party.) 53. Which of the following was not a common conservative critique of Elvis Presley? The lyrics of his songs were either sexist or trite. (Conservatives objected to Presley's long hair, sideburns, and tight jeans—all of which reminded them of juvenile delinquents. They also resented that Elvis was distinctly lower class, sounded black, and had enormous sex appeal.) 54. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "We, the Black Panther Party, see ourselves as a nation within a nation. . . We do not fight racism with racism. We fight racism with solidarity. . . We don't use our guns, we have never used our guns to go into the white community to shoot up white people. We only defend ourselves against anybody." Bobby Seale 55. Who of the following was considered a friendly witness by HUAC's inquiry into Hollywood? Ronald Reagan (Witnesses such as Gary Cooper and Ronald Reagan were considered "friendly" because they answered committee questions or supplied names of suspected leftists.) 56. Which of the following best summarizes Martin Luther King Jr.'s background? He came from a middleclass community in Atlanta and was the son of a prominent black minister. (King had grown up in the relatively affluent middleclass black community of Atlanta, Georgia, and was the son of one of the city's most prominent black ministers.) 57. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" one day, there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. . . I have a dream today!" Martin Luther King, Jr. 58. All of the following became prevalent in 1950s America EXCEPT: sexual revolution 59. Why did prominent clergy object to the traditional Pledge of Allegiance? They claimed that the pledge was so secular that any Soviet child could recite it (Many leaders saw religion as a weapon in the Cold War, given that Communists were considered atheists. Clergy pushed for desecularization of the Pledge of Allegiance, prompting Congress to add the phrase "under God" after "one nation indivisible.") 60. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn't true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired that I usually was at the end of a working day. . .No the only tired I was, was tired of giving in." Rosa Parks 61. What finally pushed the Kennedy administration to commit to federal legislation to end segregation and protect voting rights? the violent repression of nonviolent demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama 62. The Black Panther party believed in Armed protection and protest. 63. Just before leaving office in 1961, President Eisenhower warned Americans of the dangers of the militaryindustrial complex. 64. All of the following help explain the rise of suburbia EXCEPT: "rural white flight," which lured American farmers to the glamour and high living standards of metropolitan areas. 65. In the early 1960s, Malcolm X was a leading minister in the Nation of Islam 66. MLK's philosophy of civil disobedience incorporated all the following EXCEPT armed revolt 67. As Henry Ford had been to the mass production of automobiles, so William Levitt was to the mass production of houses. 68. In 1964, black and white college students engaged in a voterregistration drive in MS known as Freedom Summer 69. For what offense did the Hollywood Ten serve their prison terms? contempt of Congress (The Hollywood 10 refused on First Amendment grounds to say whether they were or ever had been Communists. As a result, they served prison terms for contempt of Congress.) 70. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the militaryindustrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist." President Eisenhower, 1961 71. Which stereotype of women was most common in the 1950s? domestic and motherly 72. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, according to your text, "marked one of the great moments in the history of American reform." It barred discrimination in all of the following EXCEPT churches. 73. Which of the following was not a factor that kept minorities out of the suburban developments? Minorities considered suburbs boring and uninviting. (The suburbs remained beyond the reach of most minorities. Those minority members who could afford the suburbs discovered that real estate agents often refused to show them houses, bankers would not provide mortgages, and communities often signed restrictive covenants that kept out "undesirable" homebuyers.) 74. The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka concerned racial segregation in public schools. 75. Martin Luther King, Jr. rose to leadership in the civil rights movement during the 1950s. His strategies, different from those of the recent past, would become the primary techniques of the civil rights movement into the 1960s. What is the most accurate summary of this transition in the movement? King proposed nonviolent confrontation rather than the NAACP's strategy of legal challenges to segregation in the courts. 76. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "WE BELIEVE THAT women will do most to create a new image of women by acting now, and by speaking out in behalf of their own equality, freedom, and human dignity not in pleas for special privilege, nor in enmity toward men, who are also victims of the current, half equality between the sexes but in an active, selfrespecting partnership with men. By so doing, women will develop confidence in their own ability to determine actively, in partnership with men, the conditions of their life, their choices, their future and their society. " NOW Statement of Purpose, 1966 77. Which of the following musicians transformed himself from the quintessential folk protest artist in the early 1960s into a major force in American rock music by 1965? Bob Dylan 78. In which place, in 1969, did all the positive forces of the counterculture come together to celebrate peace, love, and freedom? Woodstock 79. National leaders divided into two opposing camps concerning involvement in the Vietnam War. They were the ________, who supported continuation of the war, and the ________, who advocated ending the war. doves; hawks 80. How did students respond at UC Berkeley when the university president Clark Kerr threatened to expel Mario Savio, the leader of the Free Speech Movement, in 1964? Six thousand of them went on strike. (When the university president Clark Kerr threatened to expel Savio, six thousand students took control of the administration building, stopped classes with a strike, and convinced many faculty members to join them.) 81. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "Come mothers and fathers / Throughout the landAnd don't criticize / What you can't understandYour sons and your daughters / Are beyond your commandYour old road isRapidly agin'.Please get out of the new oneIf you can't lend your handFor the times they are achangin'" Bob Dylan 82. All of the following "traumas" occurred in 1968 EXCEPT the Soviet Union's launch of Yuri Gargarin into space. 83. Which of the following was not a goal of minority organizations focused on identity politics? assimilation into mainstream American culture (Unlike the American G.I. forum, LULAC, or the NAACP after the war, the new minority groups forged identities in opposition to the prevailing culture.) 84. Rachel Carson's approach to the environment would best be described as biocentric (Rachel Carson advocated a biocentric approach in which humans sought harmony with the natural world rather than assume that nature exists for the convenience of man.) 85. President Truman desegregated the U.S. Armed Forces in 1948 86. In 1970, Nixon established the ________, whose first major act recognized Rachel Carson's campaign by banning most domestic uses of DDT. Environmental Protection Agency 87. What had radicalized many students in 1964? the Mississippi Freedom Summer (Many students returned from the Mississippi Freedom Summer to their campuses in the fall of 1964 radicalized, ready to convince others to join them in finding alternatives to "the system.") 88. Which of the following bands pioneered "acid rock?" the Grateful Dead (In San Francisco, bands such as the Grateful Dead pioneered "acid rock" with long pieces aimed at echoing druginduced states of mind.) 89. Baseball player who integrated the major leagues in 1947 Jackie Robinson 90. The Beatles had a powerful influence on American popular culture in all the following ways EXCEPT introducing Americans to jazz music 91. Example of how CA's "counterculture" of the late 1960s turned violent Manson Family 92. Which of the following Supreme Court decisions struck down 46 state laws that restricted a woman's access to abortion? Roe v. Wade 93. Why did Robert McNamara, Secretary of Defense since 1961, resign from his post in 1968? He began to have moral qualms about the Vietnam War. (McNamara came to have deep moral qualms about continuing the war indefinitely.) 94. Identify the author of the following primary source quote: "All you need is Love" Beatles 95. The main purpose of the UFW was to unionize farm workers 96. In Griswold v. Connecticut (1964), the United States Supreme Court ruled that a ban on the sale of contraceptives was unconstitutional. 97. How did the United Farm Workers under Cesar Chavez accomplish additional leverage in their protest against working conditions for migrant laborers? They organized a consumer boycott of grapes in supermarkets while Chavez undertook several hunger strikes. (Seeking additional leverage against California's grape growers, the United Farm Workers used consumers as an economic weapon by organizing a boycott of grapes in supermarkets across the nation.) 98. In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States Supreme Court offended the sensibilities of the "silent majority" on all of the following issues EXCEPTthe rights of corporate America.obscenity laws.abortion.contraception. the rights of corporate America (Affirmative Action, school prayer, contraception, criminal rights, obscenity, and school busing were all issues on which Supreme Court decisions offended the silent majority.) 99. In the case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the court declared that individuals detained for crime must be informed of their constitutional rights.(In the case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966), the court declared that individuals detained for crime must be informed of their constitutional rights, such as the right to remain silent, the right to an attorney, and the right to be informed of the charges brought against them.) 100. What major symbolic victory did the gay rights movement win in 1974? The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. (In 1974, gays achieved a major symbolic victory when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders.) Essay Questions: 1) Examine American politics and society during the 1950s. How did the Cold War affect American society domestically? What were the principal causes and consequences of postwar suburbanization? How were women’s roles idealized by 1950s popular culture? What were some cultural movements that clashed with mainstream 1950s culture? Cold War led to an increased fear of communism, (Red Scare, Hollywood Ten) causes: larger families (Baby Boom), increased economy and prosperity, created: need for houses, (help from GI bill and rising incomes made this possible “American Dream” detached home with a lawn Levitt house “Cape Coder” mass produced houses needed more land, so moved outside of crowded cities, producing suburbs women’ roles became conflicted women needed to stay home to take care of larger house women became chauffer for family, doing errands yet more women went to work, percent of wives working outside the home doubled from 15 to 30% between 1940 and 1960 Rebellion, Juvenile delinquency Rock and Roll Elvis Presley gyrating hips electrified teen audiences beat generation collection of artists, intellectuals nonconformists selfconsciously rejected what they viewed as the exxcessive spirtual bankruptcy of America’s middleclass culture Many Americans were afraid of being accused as a communist. This fear of being accused of a communist and the rise of communism was known as the “Red Scare”. Pros: GI Bill helped veterans get education, loans for businesses, and low mortgage rates for housing. Growth of suburbs = highways and other forms of transportation. Consequences: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and increase of crime in cities Stay at home moms, media showed typical American families Television entertained many homes. Musicians and artists rebelled as well. For example, Elvis and Jackson Pollock. Literary work such as Jack Kerouac. 2) Examine TWO of the following social movements of the 1950s1970s: the Black Civil Rights Movement, the Chicano Movement, the Feminist Movement, the AntiWar Movement, the Gay Liberation Movement. When and where did the movement begin? Who were the leaders of the movement? What were the goals of the movement? What kind of tactics did the leaders and activists utilize? In the final analysis, to what extent was the movement successful in achieving its goals? Black Civil Rights Movement: 1947 Jackie Robinson desegregated MLB 1948 Truman desegregated army 1954 Brown vs. Board Education/ Thurgood Marshall successfully argues that segregated schools were not equal 195556 Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1957 Little Rock Nine: 9 Black girls that wanted to go to Central High School Martin Luther King Jr (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) and Henry David Thoreau (Civil Disobedience refusing to pay taxes and fines as peaceful way of protesting) Used sitins, no use of public transportations, and nonviolent ways of protesting. Results were pretty good...Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964 and Voting Rights Act was passed in 1965 but the Voting Rights Act only passes because of the Selma to Montgomery Marches in 1965. Leaders: MLK Jr. NAACP (Thurgood Marshall), Malcolm X, goals: to bring equality to Blacks to desegregate the community to allow blacks to vote MLK promoted a nonviolent protest, marches, freedom riders, Malcom X promoted militancy had to claim them, used fear and trepidation Black Power Chicano Movement: Cesar Chavez (United Farm Workers) Bracero Program (19421964) Feminist Movement: 1962 Feminine Mystique → Betty Friedan 1962 “The Pill” contraceptive birth control pill 1964 Griswold vs Connecticut → birth control pills/contraceptives can be sold 1973 Roe vs Wade National Organization of Women → was created by Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem...advocate for equal rights Antiwar Movement: Gay Liberation Movement: 1950 Mattachine Society 1955 Daughters of Bilitis 1969 Stonewall Riots Leaders: Mattachine Society 1951, Daughters of Bilitis 1955 goals equal rights and press for wider public acceptance marches (pride parades), coming out events, retaliation if need be (stonewall June 27, 1969) called on homosexuals to come out of the closet Greenwich village bar 1974 American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its lists of mental disorders June 26, 2015 Obergefell v Hodges Samesex marriage legal in all states
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