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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiana Molitor on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 207 at University of St. Thomas taught by Leah Domine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Genetics Ecology Evolution in Biology at University of St. Thomas.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Biology 207: Study Guide Exam 2 1. Important Concepts a. Rules of Probability i. Rule of Multiplication 1. What is the chance that two independent events happen at the same time? 2. Chance of two events happening at same time b. Pedigree i. Females = circles, males = squares ii. Line directly connecting individuals indicates they are married/had offspring iii. Be able to identify if trait on a pedigree is sex-linked or autosomal c. Hemizygous i. Refers to males with sex-linked genes. Because males cannot be heterozygous or homozygous with sex-linked genes d. Antiparallel Strands i. 3’ to 5’ & 5’ to 3’ ii. Hydrogen bonds hold antiparallel strands together. 1. Pull apart easily makes it possible for replication e. DNA (transcription) RNA (translation) Protein i. Transcription – synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA ii. Translation – synthesis of a polypeptide (strand of amino acids) using the information in the mRNA. iii. Protein- made up of amino acids (made up of one codon) iv. When looking at a strand and trying to figure out if it is DNA or mRNA, if it has a T it’s DNA but if it has a U it’s mRNA v. 3 nucleotides – 1 codon – 1 amino acid (look at fig. 5.13) f. Specificity- a specific codon may only code for one amino acid g. Redundancy – multiple specific codons may code for the same amino acid h. Reading Frame – where polypeptide starts & ends reading 2. Incomplete dominance – show both traits, there is no dominant or recessive 3. Pleiotropic effects- one allele affects multiple phenotypes 4. Epistasis – expression of a gene is controlled by another 5. Polygenic inheritance – multiple genes affect one phenotype (hair, skin, eye color) 6. Heritability – phenotype due to some proportion of genetic and environmental influence 7. Codominance – both traits can be seen in the phenotype Look at examples of pedigrees Dr. Domine has on her PP!
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