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Cell 1010 Chapter 1 Outline

by: Annabelle Earhart

Cell 1010 Chapter 1 Outline CELL1010

Annabelle Earhart


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These notes cover everything from in-class lectures, powerpoints, and the textbook.
Intro to Cellular Biology
Dr. V
Study Guide
Cell Bio, tulane, Dr. V
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Earhart on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CELL1010 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. V in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Cell Bio Chapter One Outline Characteristics of life: there are seven core characteristics (1-7) 1. Cells and organization (cell theory) 2. Energy Use and metabolism a. Cells carry out a variety of chemical reactions that are responsible for the breakdown of nutrients. These reactions release energy in a process called respiration. 3. Response to environmental changes: a. Organisms must respond to environmental changes and interact with their environment 4. Regulation and homeostasis 5. Growth and Development a. Growth: more and more cells b. Development: series of changes in the states of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism that eventually results in organisms with a defined set of characteristics 6. Reproduction a. Ability to generate viable offspring i. Offspring has parent DNA because it is heritable (inherited) 7. Biological Evolution a. Heritable change in a population of organisms from generation to generation. 8. All species are related by an evolutionary history a. The study of genomes and proteomes help scientists understand how the changes that occurred during evolution affect the characteristics of certain species 9. Structure defines function 10. New properties of life emerge from complex interactions a. Emergent properties: when individual components in an organism interact with each other (or with their external environment) to create novel structures and functions, the resulting characteristics are emergent properties 11. Biology is an experimental science 12. Biology affects our society Cell Theory: 1. All organisms are composed of cells 2. Cells are the smallest unit of life 3. New cells come as a result of the cell divisions of pre-existing cells Living things interact with their environments (which include other organisms) and all organisms must respond to environmental changes Cells maintain homeostasis All living things contain DNA • Provides the blueprint for growth and development as well as the function of the cell • Genes are fragments of DNA that code for a trait All living things use energy • Maintenance of organization requires energy • All living organisms acquire energy from the environment and use that energy to maintain their internal order Evolution refers to a heritable change in populations of organisms from generation to generation • All life shares a common ancestry Structure determines function • Interactions between these functions and or types of cells result in emergent properties o Ex: Eye sight Hierarchy: 1. Atoms 2. Macromolecules/molecules 3. Cells 4. Tissues 5. Organs 6. Organ Systems 7. Organisms 8. Populations: group of organisms in an area 9. Communities: many populations 10. Ecosystems: communities interacting with their environment 11. Biome/Biosphere: all places on earth where life exists Life began 3.5 to 4 billion years ago • Primitive cells went through evolutionary change which brought about the species we see today • Understanding evolutionary history helps us understand the structure and function of an organism’s body Evolution is driven by vertical descent with mutation and horizontal gene transfer Vertical Descent (Lineage): (tree of life) • New species evolve through an accumulation of mutations over generations • Natural selection further cleaves helpful mutations from harmful ones Hoizontal Gene Transfer: (web of life) • Genetic exchange between different species • Relatively rare • Genes that confer antibiotic resistance are sometimes transferred between different bacteria species o Sperm o Eggs o Bacteria Hypothesis: a proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon • educated guess based on previous observations or experimental studies • never really proven • must make predictions that can be shown to be correct or incorrect • Experiments set up in order to prove a hypothesis Theory: Based on a large body of evidence • validates hypotheses • broad explanation • can never by the ultimate truth • Allows us to make predictions • Key attributes: o Consistency with a vast amount of known data o Ability to make many correct predictions Law: Very hard to disprove Scientists use reasoning Deductive: General to specific (applying what you already know Inductive: Specific to General (constructing new information) Scientific Method: 1. Observe 2. Hypothesis formation 3. Experimentation 4. Analysis 5. Hypothesis accepted (if there is a significant difference) or rejected (if there is NO significant difference) Data analysis: collected in parallel manners • Control and experimental sample o Differ by only one factor Cystic Fibrosis: transmembrane conductance regulator gene (regulates the transport of chloride ions across cellular membranes) • Water outside of the membrane because chloride ions prevent osmosis Pleiotropic: one gene having several phenotypic effects Osmosis: water Pathenogenesis: a process where reproduction is asexual because of the absence of mates • Drones are created in this way (male bees and ants) Viruses are only alive once they get into a host • Viruses do not have the mechanisms to utilize energy while they are outside of a host Autotrophs: Produce their own energy • Chemo: use chemicals to create energy • Photo: converts radiant energy (light energy) into chemical energy via photosynthesis Heterotrophs: Ingest their energy • Use cellular respiration to get energy (metabolism) o Anabolism: uses energy for synthesis of large molecules o Catabolism: release energy from the breakdown of large molecules Growth: Becoming more massive to an already existing architecture Development: Changes in the properties of cells • Introduction of new gene function: some are up regulated and some are down regulated DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid • Stores genetic information for protein synthesis via the sequence of nucleotides • Can unwind and replicate • Genetic recombinations in parent DNA create new sequences • Can be mutated in order to create diversity (drives evolution) Biology follows a hierarchy of order and organization • The level above is a modification upon the level below Atoms are the smallest units of matter relevant to biology because the represent elements Atoms form molecules (all compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds) • Water is a compound (2 different elements) • Oxygen is a molecule (retains the chemical and physical properties of the element that makes it Molecules combined together form macromolecules Prokaryotic refers to before the formation of a true nucleus Eukaryotic has a true nucleus Organelles are unique to eukaryotes Cells are the units of life, when there are multiple cells combined (doing the same function) they make tissues When the tissues come together in order to do a function, an organ is formed Biospheres are made up of organisms Population: organisms of the same species that live in a particular place at a particular time Communities: populations of different species interacting Ecosystem: includes abiotic factors Everything starts with organization Continuity of DNA: shown via protein expression (heredity) Unity: traits that are found in complex organisms are also found in single celled organisms. Natural selections preserves the best traits that allows an organism to survive. Variation: Recombination and mutation, but mostly recombination gives unique traits. Leads to better survival because of the diversity. Diversity: Many types of environments with diverse organisms The hallmark of life is speciation Analogous Structures: • Similar function • Similar Structure • Don’t share a common ancestor Homologous Structures: • Different function • Different structure • Shares a common ancestor Beneficial mutations are the driving force behind vertical evolution Horizontal evolution: web of life, speciation can be caused by organisms around the species in question. Classification: grouping of organisms based on common ancestry Taxonomy is the grouping of species based on common ancestry 3 domains: • Bacteria o Unicellular prokaryote • Archaea o Unicellular prokaryote (have introns) • Eukarya (4 kingdoms) o Unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes § Protista • Single celled § Fungi • External digestion • Have chitin § Plantea • Photosynthesis • Have a cellulose cell wall § Animalia • Internal digestion • Cellular respiration • No cellulose of cell wall Introns: non coding regions (in between exons) Exons: coding regions Humans have 3 billion base pair long DNA • Only have 25,000 functional genes • Eukaryotes have many more introns than archaea Archaea can be extremophiles and have genes to reflect this Classification hierarchy: 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Subphylum 5. Class 6. Order 7. Family 8. Genus 9. Species Genome: the complete genetic makeup of an organism, includes all of the genes Gene: a segment of DNA that codes for a specific function Genomics are techniques used to analyze DNA sequences in genomes Proteomes: the complete complement of proteins that a cell or organism can make (total protein makeup) The genome carries the information to make its proteome Proteomics: techniques used to analyze the proteome of a single species


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