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Geology Unit 1

by: Marcelle Notetaker

Geology Unit 1 Geol 101

Marcelle Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 1
Planet Earth
Dr. Eric Perry
Study Guide
Geology 101, Geology, minerals, Plate Tectonics
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marcelle Notetaker on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geol 101 at West Virginia University taught by Dr. Eric Perry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth in Geology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Geology Unit 2 Volcanoes Types - Shield- Broad, gentle slope - How do Volcanoes affect earth? - Composite- layers of lava/debris - New soils - Scoria Cones – Steep slope - Earthquakes - Basalt Flows - Landslides/Lahars - Super volcanoes - Gas releases Flooded Caldera and Crete - August 79 AD Mount Vesuvius, - Minoans – traders/sailors Italy erupted - Caldera collapse/fell in - Ash/pyroclastic flows destroyed pompeii Yellowstone Caldera - Last erupted 640 AD, created a 100km Caldera Flood Basalts - 1,000x more powerful than Mt. St Helens - Repeated eruptions and - Heat groundwater lava flows over a large area and - Large heat flow extended time frame - - Low viscosity magma Alter Climate - Ash/aerosols high in the atmosphere block sunlight - 1815, Mt. Tambura Indonesia ejected estimated 35 cubic miles of pyroclastic debris into atmosphere - 1816- “year without a summer” in North American and Europe. o Migrations of people to find better land for crops Predicting Next Eruption - Metamorphism (occurs in solid state) - Ground Deformation - Transformation from protolith to o Swelling? Another rock - Temperatures - Change in temp. pressure, and - Seismicity chemical environment o Earthquake swarms - Results in different texture, Mineralogy, and/or composition -Protolith; can be igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic Metamorphism - Change in grain size (usually larger) - Contact Metamorphism o Recrystallization - Rocks/textures are changed due - Causes? To contact with magma o Heat (200-850 degrees celcius) o Pressure (increases with depth) Regional metamorphism - Subducted sediments undergo regional change - Large scale change/thousands of km of rock - Mountain building process Sedimentary Rocks - Lithification – Transformation from loose sediment to solid rock o Burial- more sediment is added onto previous layers o Compaction- Overburden weight reduces pore space - Categories o Clastic/Detrital o Biochemical - Coal = plant debris that got lithified o Organic o Chemical Precipitates Clastic/Detrital Sedimentary rocks - Classified based on texture and composition o Clast (grain) size (Fine grained = silt, clay, shale, mudstone) o Clast composition o Angularity and sphericity o Sorting (coarse chunks = not well sorted) o Character of cement Biochemical Sedimentary rocks - Limestone giving out can cause a sinkhole - Limestone CACO3 skeletal remains o Requires shallow water, light (photic zone), and construction - Warm, tropical, shallow, clear, Oxygen rich, marine water - Diverse organisms (plankton, corals, clams, snails) o Many textures  Reefs - White cliffs of Dover  Shell debris - Limestone  Lime mud (micrite) - Made almost Entirely of tiny hard parts Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Of microscopic marine organisms - Formed from silica (SiO2) skeletons o Diatoms - Silica added to bottom sediments dissolves. - Silica pore fluids solidify to form chert nodules Organic Sedimentary Rocks - Form from plant debris - Oxygen poor water logged environment (swamp) - Burial, pressure, some heat drives off water, some nitrogen, hydrogen, leaving carbon rich rock. - Coals classed by rank based on carbon % - Energy content increases with rank Chemical (evaporates) Sedimentary rocks - Comprised of minerals precipitated from water solution - Evaporates- created from evaporated seawater o Evaporations triggers deposition of chemical precipitates o Examples include halite (rock salt) and gypsum Sedimentary structures - Usually layered or “stratified” o Arranged in planar, close-to-horizontal “beds” o Bedding is often Sedimentary rocks are sources of Rocks are brittle or ductile - Ground water - Brittle- rocks break - Petroleum (oil and gas) - Ductile - Folding - Coal - Limestone (used in some common building products) - Agricultural lime o Adjusts Ph - Basic ingredient in cement Deformations - WV is in Appalachian basin - Anticline- Rocks folded up - Many fossil fuels come from sedimentary o Often where oil accumulates basins - Synclines- folded into a trough - Hinge- Axis of the fold - Plunge- Dip of the hinge - Limb- Halves created after axis splits rock


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