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World History Theatre i

by: Cassandra Notetaker

World History Theatre i THE3213-0001

Marketplace > Florida State University > Theatre > THE3213-0001 > World History Theatre i
Cassandra Notetaker
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These notes cover what will be on the Finals
World History Theatre I
Dr. Samer Al-Saber
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Notetaker on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to THE3213-0001 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Samer Al-Saber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see World History Theatre I in Theatre at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Study Tool: Period/Location Summary Period Name/Location The Spanish Golden Age/ The Spanish Empire came to include the Spanish Peninsula, Austria, parts of Germany and Italy, Belgium, Holland, The Americas, The Philippines, and parts of Northern Africa. Dates/Duration 1580-1680 Major Personalities Key playwrights, thinkers and leaders. 1) King Ferdinand II of Aragon 2) Queen Isabella I of Castile 3) Charles I 4) Miguel De Cervantes 5) Diego Velázquez 6) Francisco de Zurbaran 7) Bartolomé Esteban Murillo 8) El Greco 9) Maria de zayas (1590-1661) 10) Ana Caro Mallén (1600-1652) 11) Angela de Azevedo (c. 1600-1644) 12) Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 13) Lope de Rueda 14) Tirso de Molina 15) Lope de Vega 16) Caldéron de la Barca State their biography and their accomplishments, including dates. 1) Ferdinand is today best known for his role in inaugurating the discovery of the New World, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. (RULED 1479- 1516) 2) Queen Isabella encouraged the humanities in universities and literature and the arts began to flourish. (RULED 1479-1504) 3) Charles I renounced the throne in 1556, and handed the Spanish empire to his son, Philip II of Spain. Philip II, III, and IV were all interested in theatre and commissioned playwrights to write. 4) Miguel De Cervantes wrote Don Quixote, which is widely considered the first modern novel. (1605 and 1615) 5) Diego Velázquez was a Spanish painter and the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period, important as a portrait artist. In addition to numerous renditions of scenes of historical and cultural significance, he painted scores of portraits of the Spanish royal family, other notable European figures, and commoners, culminating in the production of his masterpiece Las Meninas (1656). 6) Francisco de Zurbaran style of painting consisted of religious imagery. Many of his theologically inspired paintings are simple, yet emotionally compelling, works that showcase his naturalistic style, as well as his skilled use of light and shadow. Zurbarán's few secular pieces include exquisite still life images, such as "Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose" (1633), and a "Labors of Hercules" series painted for the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid. 7) Bartolome Esteban Murillo was a Spanish Baroque painter best known for his religious works. Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times. (lived in Madrid 1642- 1645 and 1658-1660) 8) El Greco (whose real name was Doménikos Theotokópoulos), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. 9) Maria de Zayath(1590-1660) is one of the most popular woman writers of 17 century Spain. She has several collections of poetry and she is best known for her two collections of short novels, each comprised of 10 novels within a narrative frame, Novelas amorosas y ejemplares. Her writings revealed that she was without a doubt a feminist. 10) Ana Caro Mallén (1600-1652) became famous for her works as a poet as well as her religious plays written for Corpus Christi celebrations in 1641 and 1642. 11) Angela de Azevedo was a playwright during the Spanish Golden Age. She wrote comedias. During her lifetime, she was able to publish three comedias: El muerto disimulado, La Margarita del Tajo que dió nombre á Santarem, and Dicha y desdicha del juego y devoción a la Virgen. 12) Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (1651-1695) was a self taught scholar and poet and a nun. Her most notable work is A Dream. A long philosophical poem. She dicusses the underlying darkness of human beings. 13) Lope de Rueda: (c.1510–1565) was a Spanish dramatist author, regarded by some as the best of his era. A very versatile writer, he also wrote comedies, faces, and paso. He was the precursor to what is considered the golden age of Spanish Knowledge. Known for his plays, he was revolutionary in adapting the Italian. 14) Tirso de Molina (24 March 1579 – 12 March 1648 was a Spanish boroque dramatist a poet and a Roman Catholic monk. He had been writing plays for ten years when he was sent by his superiors on a mission to the west indies in 1615; returning to Europe in 1617, he resided at the Merdecearian monastery in Madrid. Published twelve representative pieces as the first part of his dramatic works. 15) Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio (1562-1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet, and novelist. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish golden century of baroque literature. Some 3,000 sonnets, 3 novels, 4 novellas, 9 epic poems, and about 500 plays are attributed to him. 16) Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681) was a dramatist, poet, and writer of the Spanish golden age during certain periods of his life. He was also a soldier and a Roman Catholic priest. Born when the Spanish golden age was being defined by Lope De Vega, he developed it further, his work being regarded as the culmination of the Spanish baroque theatre. Historical Evidence What is the historical evidence used to describe the period?  Catholic Spain was the most powerful European nation by the 16th century. The Spanish Armada was defeated by England in 1588, however, while Spain was trying to defend the northern coast of Africa from the expansion of the Turkish Ottoman Empire and the gold and silver that Spain took from its possessions in the New World were not adequate to sustain its subsequent decades of heavy military expenses. Spain's power was rapidly waning by the time Calderón wrote Life Is a Dream  The age of Calderón was also marked by deep religious conviction in Spain. The Catholic church had fostered Spanish pride and identity, to the extent that "speaking Christian" became, and remains, synonymous with speaking Spanish  Another current that permeated Spanish thinking was the radical departure from the medieval ideal that royal power resided in God's will, as noted in Machiavelli's The Prince (1532). Francisco Suarez’s treatise On the Defense of Faith (De defensio fidei, 1613) stated that political power resided in the people and rejected the divine rights of kings, and Juan Mariana's On Kings and Kingship (1599) went even further by stating that the people had the right to murder despotic kings.  Amidst these developments, and despite the repression of the Spanish Inquisition, during the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain experienced a cultural blossoming referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. It saw the birth of notable works of art: Don Quixote, by Miguel de Cervantes (1605), played with the vague line between reality and perception. Lope de Vega, in his play Fuente Ovejuna(1619), talks about a village that rebels against authority. In a time of proportion and perfection in the arts, the painter El Greco puzzled his contemporaries with exaggerated proportions and unsettling brushstrokes that embodied the terror and struggle of humanity. Historical Context Situate this period into a larger historical context. During this Renaissance in Spain, Theatre was thriving. While in other parts of the world, theater was being shunned and looked down on it was the Spaniards that saw theatre as a creative outlet and held it in high regards. The playwrights of this era all seemed to be men of religious points (most of them nuns) so while creative fun and innovative stages for the theatre. They were also putting on religious plays such as El Burador De Seville. Staging Characteristics Identify the stage elements on diagrams if we studied them. *Similar to those in Medieval England: -Movable staging, small professional troupes toured until permanent theatres were built in Madrid in the 1580s, Spanish theatres were public institutions, and the church opened theatres to fund charities like hospitals.  *CORRAL DEL PRÍNCIPE:  Patio (unroofed)-standing spectators  Taburetes- Benches near the stage  Grada- raked rows of seats that rose to the second floor  Alojeria- Tavern with refreshmends  Cazuela- Women’s Gallery (2 floor)  Tertulia- Galleries for intellectuals and officials  Desvames- 3 and 4 floor galleries How were plays staged in this period? Either in public institutions or on traveling two-story wagons in a parade style Plays Studied (For each, summarize plot and major characters) Life is a Dream Plot- Act I the play is set in Poland. It opens with a description of a craggy, inhospitable mountainside close to which can be seen a tower where Segismundo is imprisoned. Night is falling. Rosaura is the first to appear, accompanied by her servant, the gracioso (comical character), Clarín. Dressed as a man, Rosaura bewails her fate and reproaches her ungovernable horse for having carried her headlong "to the confusing labyrinth of these bare cliffs." From the tower she hears the groans of Segismundo, whose fate is even worse than hers. Scene 2: Dressed in animal skins, Segismundo is chained and imprisoned and has had no contact with any human being except one man, Clotaldo. Lamenting the loss of his freedom, Segismundo questions why the birds, animals and fish enjoy liberty while he suffers confinement. When he first sees Rosaura his immediate impulse is to kill her (line 181), but something about her voice stops him. Just when Rosaura is about to tell Segismundo who she is, voices are heard and Clotaldo arrives accompanied by soldiers; all are masked. Scenes 3-4: Clotaldo has Rosaura arrested for discovering the secret of the tower, but when he takes her sword he is shocked to recognise it as one he once possessed. She tells him that she has come to Poland to avenge an affront. Then, in an aside we learn that Clotaldo had previously had a relationship with a woman but then abandoned her. The sword suggests to him that Rosaura is his son. This places Clotaldo in a quandary because the king of Poland, Basilio, has ordered the death of anyone who found out about Segismundo. Clotaldo finally decides to let Basilio know about Rosaura and leave her fate in the king’s hands. Scene 5: Set in the court of Basilio. Astolfo and Estrella, rivals to inherit the throne of Poland, arrive to solve the inheritance problem. Astolfo suggests that they get married. Estrella, however, hesitates because she knows that Astolfo carries the picture of another woman in a medallion around his neck (we learn later that it is Rosaura’s portrait). Scene 6: Basilio appears with important announcement. In a long speech he explains that he has a son, Segismundo, but that before he was born the stars had warned him that Segismundo would bring chaos to the kingdom and would overthrow his father. In order to prevent this, Basilio had Segismundo locked up in a tower at birth. Now, thinking that he might have been hasty in his astrological reading, he has decided to bring Segismundo to the court to test him. If Segismundo behaves well he will become king; if he does not he will be drugged and returned to the cave and told that his experience in the court was a dream. This announcement releases Clotaldo from his dilemma over Rosaura, but only briefly. Scenes 7-8: In a conversation between Clotaldo and Rosaura, she reveals that her dishonour was brought about by Astolfo. Clotaldo is puzzled but suddenly understands what she means: she is not --as he had thought-- his son, but his daughter. “What a confusing labyrinth this is” (lines 975-6), he concludes. Act II. Scenes 1-2: Clotaldo explains to Basilio how Segismundo was drugged and brought to the palace. This is followed by a conversation between Clotaldo and Clarín in which we learn that he (Clotaldo) has introduced Rosaura to the court as his niece. Scenes 3-5: Segismundo is finally brought to the court, where he behaves abysmally. He insults everyone, including his father, Astolfo and Estrella, and tries to kill Clotaldo. He does manage to kill a servant who angers him by interfering (lines 1430, 1441-42). Scene 6: Segismundo accuses Basilio of tyranny and threatens to exact revenge for his loss of liberty and honour (lines 1514-16). Scenes 7-8: In the court Segismundo also notices Rosaura, now dressed as a woman named Astrea and serving as lady-in-waiting to Estrella. He feels he has seen her before (lines 1580-81) but isn’t sure. When she tries to leave he stops her, and when she begs him to let her go he threatens to dishonour her. Her cries bring Clotaldo whose death at the hands of Segismundo is prevented only by the arrival of Astolfo. Scenes 9-10: Astolfo and Segismundo draw swords, but the fight is interrupted by Basilio. In the presence of the king, no one has the authority to fight. Segismundo is overcome, drugged and returned to the tower. Scenes 11- 13: Estrella rebuffs Astolfo’s advances, reminding him that he wore the portrait of another lady (i.e. Rosaura) around his neck when he came to court. Scene12: Astolfo leaves to get the portrait for Estrella as proof that it no longer means anything to him. Alone with Rosaura, Estrella asks her to ask Astolfo to hand the portrait over to her (Rosaura) when he returns, because she (Estrella) is too upset to receive it directly from him. She leaves Rosaura alone to accept the portrait from Astolfo. Scene 13:Rosaura is in a quandary. She doesn’t want Estrella to know that it is her portrait that Astolfo was wearing. She also wants to avoid Astolfo because Clotaldo has told her that he will see that her honour is restored (lines 1860- 61). Scene 14: Astolfo, who doesn’t know that Rosaura has come to the palace, returns with the portrait. He recognizes Rosaura despite her insistence that she is Astrea, Estrella’s maid. Rosaura tries to grab the portrait from Astolfo and she and Astolfo are struggling for it when Estrella arrives. Scene 15: Quickly Rosaura concocts a story that she was looking at a portrait of herself that she carried in her bag and had inadvertently dropped it. Astolfo had then picked it up and refused to give it back to her. Estrella insists that Astolfo give Rosaura the portrait, leaving Astolfo with no portrait to give to her. Scene 16: Alone with Estrella, Astolfo stammers that he can’t give her the portrait, upon which Estrella storms out saying that she doesn’t want it now! Scenes 17-18: Segismundo is returned to the cave. When he wakes up chained and dressed in skins again, Clotaldo tells him that everything that happened in the palace was a dream. Segismundo accepts Clotaldo’s explanation, although the one thing that does not seem to have been a dream is falling in love with a woman, i.e. Rosaura. Scene 19: Famous soliloquy by Segismundo responding to Clotaldo’s advice on the importance of doing good works, even in dreams. Act III. Act III opens with Clarín, Rosaura’s servant, complaining about being locked up in the tower with Segismundo. Scenes 2-3: Soldiers arrive who, having heard that they have a prince who has been imprisoned, have rebelled. They do not want a foreign prince and object to the tyrannical conduct of Basilio. They free Segismundo from the tower. Scene 4: The first person Segismundo meets is Clotaldo whom he is about to kill but is prevented from doing so by the memory of the so-called dream. He fears suddenly waking up again in the tower. Preferring to “do good,” he allows Clotaldo to join Basilio, but the rebellion still goes on. Scenes 5-7: Basilio, Astolfo, Estrella and Clotaldo reflect on the discord created by the rebellion, and Basilio recognises that he was responsible: “I myself have destroyed my land” (line 2459). Scene 8: Rosaura reminds Clotaldo that he said he would restore her honour. Clotaldo replies that he would have done so but since Astolfo saved him from Segismundo (Act II, scene 8) he cannot now kill Astolfo. His solution is that she retire to a convent! She retorts that since he isn’t her father, he can’t tell her what to do (she still doesn’t know she is his daughter). She now plans to kill Astolfo herself (line 2632). The scene concludes with an angry exchange between Clotaldo and Rosaura over her intention to kill Astolfo. Scenes 9-10: Segismundo prepares for battle when Rosaura again appears before him, still dressed as a woman but now carrying a sword and dagger. For the first time she explains to Segismundo who she is and why she is seeking his help: Astolfo cannot be allowed to marry Estrella. This is a critical moment for Segismundo. He loves and desires Rosaura, and now has the opportunity to satisfy those desires. But by now he has learnt the importance of good works, and his victory over his baser instincts at this moment marks his transition from the violent person he was to a prince with responsibilities. This conquest over his baser instincts prepares us for his meeting with his father. Scenes 11-14: As the stars predicted, he does indeed overthrow his father, but the stars did not foretell that he would pardon his father, raise him up and himself kneel before Basilio (line 3243). Basilio kneeeling before Segismundo. This is proof that the stars cannot predict the lives of people, (i.e. there is no predestination); all people have free will, are responsible for their own actions and must answer for what they have done. Basilio confesses his error, Clotaldo finally admits that he is Rosaura’s father, and Segismundo obliges Astolfo to marry Rosaura while he himself takes Estrella as his wife. At the very end, the soldier who had instigated the rebellion that set Segismundo free asks for a reward: he is sent to the tower!  Characters-  Basil (King of Poland)  Segismund (Prince)  Astolfo (Duke of Muscovy)  Clotaldo (Old Man)  Clarion (A comical servant)  Rosaura (A Lady)  Stella (A Princess) Theme- Dreams vs. reality- Calderon de la Barca depicts this concept of life as a dream from the Catholic Church’s perspective: humans are on Earth just for a brief and fast test while the real and eternal existence is the one that begins with death as in the afterlife. In that sense 80, 90, or 100 years on this Earth cannot compare to the never-ending, infinite existence that begins in the afterlife; therefore, this world is just some kind of brief “dream”. Fate vs. free will- The idea of a Prince who is prophesized at birth to be doomed to cause a disaster, and his father the King attempting to avert that disaster. The concept of free will versus predestination is also widely discussed in religion. Catholic Spain's Counter-reformation defined human will as able to choose the good, while the Calvinist conception talked about the total depravity of the human will unless predestined by God. In Calderon's work, however, Catholicism is melded with "pagan" astrology, as Segismundo's horoscope, as interpreted by Basilio, becomes the cause of his incarceration. In the end, and favoring the Spanish, Catholic faith, Segismundo chooses pardon against the oracle. Father vs. son conflict- One of the major conflicts of the play is the opposition between king and prince, which parallels with the struggle of Uranus vs. Saturn or Saturn vs. Jupiter in classical mythology. This struggle is a typical representation of the opposition in baroque comedy between the values represented by a fatherly figure and those embodied by the son. Other information unique to this period Here, you can differentiate between the various historical periods by noting major differences with other periods we studied. Note here all the innovations of the period in that location. Time of extreme religious intolerance. Harsh treatment for anyone who was not Catholic. Arts were characterized by religion, realism, and humanism. Unlike the art of England, there were no restrictions of subject matter, which resulted in the highest output of plays in any era. The theatre of Renaissance Spain was the only in Europe to simultaneously include secular and religious dramas *Perform this exercise for each period: Greek, Roman, Medieval, Japanese, and Renaissance (consider differences between France, England, and Italy).


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