Geology 105 Study Guide
Geology 105 Study Guide Geol 105-010
Popular in Geological Hazards and Their Human Impact
Popular in Geology
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tonisha Hurd on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geol 105-010 at University of Delaware taught by Kohut,Edward John in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 244 views. For similar materials see Geological Hazards and Their Human Impact in Geology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Geology 105 Study Guide The Water Cycle Part of the weather process, influenced by climate. It is the transfer of water between oceans, atmosphere, surface water on land and ground water. Stream Types Bedrock Streams: - Steep in terrain - Little sediment or alluvial lining channel bed Alluvial Streams: - Gently sloping terrain - Carry fine silt and sand - Wide Valleys with flat flood plains Floods Downstream Floods: - Excess water spills into flood plains - May take hours or days to develop - Caused by high amounts of precipitation over an extended period in a large drainage basin Flood Recurrence Interval: - Flood magnitude or size can be measured by discharge or stage - The larger the flood magnitude, the greater the recurrence interval - Calculated by R = N+1/M Mitigation Methods: - Flood Control - Levees - Flood walls - Dams Flooding Examples: - Mississippi and Missouri River floods in 1993 - 30,000 Square miles flooded - 50 lives lost and $20 billion in damage - Precipitation between 400% - 750% above average Big Thompson Canyon Flood of 1976 - Stationary thunderstorm dumps 300 millimeters of rain over upper Canyon in less than four hours - 143 people killed Mass Wasting: -Driven by gravity - Also called mass movements - Most commonly called landslides - Costs about $1-3 billion dollars or damage a year Types of mass movement: - Falls: Involve a drop through air and is the fastest type of mass movement - Slides/ Slumps: Cohesive movement along slide plane - Flows: Material moves chaotically like a fluid Debris Flows: - Also called debris avalanche - Very rapid - Chaotic flow of unconsolidated rock, soil, vegetation and water Earthflows: - Fairly on dry soil - Usually not as rapid as debris flows Mudflows: - Saturated soil produces mudflows - Volcanic lahars are a special case of mud flows Creep: - Slowest type of flow - Driven by thawing and freezing - Long term weakening of foundations Mass Movement Dynamics: - Mass on a slope is kept in place by balance of forces - Any change in force may destabilize the mass and allow movement. Flow Dynamics: - Stable slope of loose particles is the angle of repose - Resisting force is friction between particles - Amount of water may increase or decrease slope
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