ORGANIZTNL BEHAVIOR MAN 3240
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Date Created: 09/17/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR MAN 3240 EXAMINATION 2 Note This is to be used as a support material during your studying process Chapter 4 l Equot E P 539quot Characteristics of learning Learning a process through which individuals change their behavior based on positive or negative experiences in a situation Relatively permanent change in capabilities Process of behavior change based on positive or negative experiences Occurs only when changes in behavior happen EIEIEIEI Driven by experience with a particular situation Operant Conditioning Theory an explanation for consequencebased learning that assumes learning results from simple conditioning and that higher mental functioning is irrelevant I Reinforcement based I Behavior is learned as a function of its consequence I Roots in the late 1800s with animals I Learning results from simple conditioning not from higher mental functioning I BF Skinner Social Learning Theory an explanation for consequencebased learning that acknowledges the higher mental functioning of human beings and the role such functioning can play in learning El Humans can observe others in a situation and learn from what they see El No direct experience to a specific situation is needed to understand the behavior and its consequences El Learning can result from higher mental functioning El Albert Bandura Symbolization and Forethought people have the ability to symbolize events and to anticipate consequences a person can try out various scenarios in his or her mind and imagine the consequences ofthe behavior Observation associates can observe the behavior of others and the results of that behavior to enable them to learn SelfEfficacy an individual s belief that he or she will be able to perform a specific task in a given situation Positive Reinforcement vs Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement always refers to a contingent event that increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations Positive reinforcement occurs when the behavior is followed by a positive consequences Negative reinforcement occurs when the behavior is followed by the absence or withdrawal of a previous negative consequences The various ways of using punishments I Use only if necessary I Deliver as quickly as possible after the undesired event I Focus on specific behaviors that have been made clear to the recipient I Deliver in an objective impersonal fashion I Listen to the person before taking action Nonreinforcing contingencies always refer to contingent events that decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations Punishment a reinforcement contingency in which a behavior is followed by a negative consequence thereby reducing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations memuaW mseweers 5 SchedmeswfremfarcemEmhe xemmerva vanmeram1 h wavmrarsmmhehawars afahehavmr ar 99 afhehamrs Vil39nhl quotnewer Pressmgzhe rema huuanwherwau keED zemnge my me Mme between remreemmsne amesma yeazhemhe schedme ases ewemveness men mum Ear E eiverian gem muu hanusfar eeemu eessam h wavmr and makes emmn WESSMKEN than mher ihedu es 7 ma MUD Dracess awed D wavmrs and emmn a unaesm hehavmrs 2233323 I gaggi a w new f ml 5 ME Dramemsm Dersmv Dertemmn u e muemeanes gerem mmg DWEan ham effem Perception A process that involves sensing various aspects of a person task or event and forming impressions based on selected inputs Sensing various characteristics of a person task or event this stage consists of using the senses touch sight smell etc to obtain data Selecting facts from the data those facts will be used to form perception An individual does not necessarily use all the data that he or she senses Be careful of information overload Organizing into useful concepts put the selected data into useful concepts pertaining to the objectperson An individual must order amp sort data in a way that s useful in establishing approaches to deal with the world Implicit person theories personal theories about what personality traits and abilities occur together and how these attributes are manifested in behavior Halo effect a perception problem in which an individual assesses a person positively or negatively sometimes called the horns effect in all situations based on an existing general assessment ofthe person Projecting a perception problem in which a person assumes that others share his or her values and beliefs Stereotyping a perception problem in which an individual has preconceived ideas about a group and assumes that all members ofthat group share the same characteristics SelfPerception Individuals who see themselves as highly competent are likely to try new approaches to tasks and perhaps be more productive than their peers Selfconfidence is a powerful force Consistency extent to which the same person behaves in the same manner in the same situation over time Consensus the degree to which other people in the same situation behave in the same manner Distinctiveness the degree to which the same person tends to behave differently in other situations Fundamental attribution error Perception problem in which an individual is too likely to attribute the behavior of others to internal rather than external causes Selfserving bias Perception problem in which an individual is too likely to attribute the failure of others to internal causes and the successes of others to external causes Chapter 5 1 Characteristics of personality Personality a stable set of characteristics representing internal properties ofan individual which are reflected in behavioral tendencies across a variety of situations Personality traits are individual psychological characteristics that are relatively enduring introversion for example will probably remain for a long time Personality traits are major determinants of one s behavior introverted person will likely be withdrawn and exhibit nonassertive behavior Personality traits influence one s behavior across a wide variety of situations an introverted person will be withdrawn and nonassertive at a party in class in sports activities and at work Not all in agreement Some believe personalities can experience changes and we may behave differently from situation to situation Determinants Heredity9 Identical twins newborns amp genetic effects Environment9 Social exposures Physiological forces amp socioeconomic factors 2 The dimensions ofthe Big 5 Personality theory ie extraversion conscientiousness etc Extraversion The degree to which an individual is outgoing and derives energy from being around people enjoys being around other people is warm to others speaks up in group settings maintains a vigorous pace likes excitement and is cheerful Conscientiousness The degree to which an individual focuses on goals and works toward them in a disciplined way feels capable is organized is reliable possesses a drive for success focuses on completing tasks and thinks before acting Agreeableness The degree to which an individual is easygoing and tolerant believes in the honesty of others is straightforward is willing to help others tends to yield under conflict exhibits humility and is sensitive to the feelings of others w P 5quot 7The degree 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 7is relaxed is slow to feelanger rarer rarer urges associated with addictions and handles criseswell Openness to experience 7 The degree to which an individual seeks new experiences and thinks creatively about the future 7 has a vivid imagination has an appreciation for art amp beauty values and respects self amp others prefers variety to routine has broad intellectual curiosity ampisopento rerexaminingclosely held values Delegating quot 39 39 39 39 L 39 but also the ability to confront individuals when there is a problem Developing Others Interest in sharing information ability to coach and train and interest in helping others plan careers Motivating Others 7 Ability to bring out the best in other people desire to recognize contributions of others and in general an interest in others support As a selection tool Can be a useful part ofa portfolio oftools Provide useful predictions of future job performance Also need to do an inrdepth job analysis Analysis ofwhich traits support specific job performance Cognitive Concepts ie locus of control authoritarianism selfrmonitoring o Perceptual and thought processes 0 Affect how one typically processes information I I A s events to self or to external factors 39 39 g obedience to authorityand legitimacy of power differences in societ SelfMonitoring 7 degree to which an individual attempts to present the image he or she thinks others want to see in a given situation Motivational Concepts ie achievement motivation approval motivation 0 Stable differences 0 Energize and maintain overt behaviors Approwl Mot39 39on 7 degree to which an individual is concerned about presenting self in a socially desirable way in evaluative situations A 6 of excellence orto succeed in competitive situations Characteristics of attitude Attitude A persistent tendency to feel and behave in a favorable or unfavorable way toward a specific person object or idea Reasonably stable Directed toward some person object or idea Relates to one s behavior toward that object or person People tend to behave in waysthat are consistent with theirfeelings Behaviors are also influenced by motivationalforces and situational factors Cog ve 7 Facts we have gathered and considered about the object person or idea Affective 7 Feelingsone has about the object or person 57 9 59 Behavioral r Intention to act in certain ways toward the object ofthe attitude 39 39 5 39 J39 39 39 me object of L 39 results in rewardsor punishments Selfperceptions r observations of one s own behavior The role of consistency in attitude formation Need for consistency preference for one s attitudesto be consistent with one another Dan Dan s new colleague T ation of a consistent work attitude Dan39 39 a L39 J In pen on no di ikesaccounting Dan mayforma 39 39 J L 39 5 J It like accounting omaju 39 L 394 U39gh39 39 satisfaction 39 J toward one sjob Low level of satisfaction is a negative attitude toward one sjob Outcomes Highly positive effect on intentions to stay in the job Modest effect on actually staying inthe job Modestly positive effect on regular attendance at work Positive effect on performance may also be positively affected by performance Moderately strong relationshipwith motivation 39 39 D d 39t quot toward L 39 39 g identifies with and values being associated with the organization Role ambiguity Supervisionleadership Pay and benefits 39 Organization climate Stress Perceptions offairtreatment Outcomes Positive effects on intentions to stay in the job Modest 39 g39 thejoband Significantly related to motivation Positive effects on job performance Three types of commitments ie affective normative continuance 39 39 39 39 39 due me organization Normative commitment 7 organizational commitment due to feelings of obligation Continuance commitment 7 organizational commitment due to lack of better opportunities Three types of emotion concepts ie emotional labor emotional intelligence emotional contagion Emotional Labor The process whereby associates must display emotions that are contran to what they are feeling Can result in stress emotional exhaustion and burnout The marine 39 39 quotdisplayquot the L 39 emotional labor Strong selfridentity associate is less likely to experience negative effects Supportive r mitigatethe g39 femoti dUiliy W 39 J effectively regulate one s own and others emotions and use emotion to motivate plan and achieve Linked to Career success Leadership effectiveness Characteristics of High E Se lfraware ness Selfrregulation Motivation or Drive Empathy Social Skills I a by one orafew members ofaworkgroup spread to other members 10 Cognitive DissonanceAn unea y 39 uena person 39 incun i ell im an existing attitude Three key conditions for change The behavior must be substantially inconsistent with the attitude The inconsistent behavior must cause harm or have a neptive consequence for others The inconsistent behavior must be voluntaly and not forced Chapter 6 1 The motivation equation Performancefability motivation A person s level of performance is a function f of both ability and motivation 2 Maslow s Need Hierarchy People motivated by desire to satisfy specific needs arranged in a hierarchical order of prepotency Lower level needs must be satisfied before a person can be motivated by higher level needs Physiological needs 7 basic survival needs 7food water air and shelter Safety needs 7 need to be safe and secure in the environment 7 both physical and psychological Social and helongingness needs 7 interaction with and acceptance by other people desire for affection affiliation friendship and love Esteem needs 7 relate to feelings of selfrrespect and selfrworth alongwith the respect and esteem from peers Selfactualization 7 a desire to fulfill one s potential maximizing the use of one s skills and abilities Self A ctual izatio Esteem Needs Safety Needs Physiological Need w Alde rfer s ERG Theoly People are motivated by three hierarchically ordered types of needs existence needs E relatedness needs R and growth needs 6 Usually people must satisfy needs at the lower levels before beingstrongly motivated by higherrlevel needs However frustration at higher levels can lead people to be motivated by lowerrlevel needs P 5quot 57 G rowth Needs Exlstence Reletedness Needs Needs Satisfaction and Progression Frustration and Regression McClelland s Need Theory People with a high need for achievement Prefer to set their own goals Set goals of moderate difficulty that are achievable Like to solve problems ratherthan leave the resultsto chance Are more interested in achieving the goal than in the associated reward s Prefer situations in which they receive regular concrete feedback on their performance Are positive thinkers who find workable solutions to life s hurdles and challenges Take a strong personal responsibility fortheirwork 39 39 Iul quot 39 J to be liked and to stay on good termswith most other people Tend not to make good managers because they often treat different people in different ways for example may apply inconsistent rules Are more concerned with initiating and maintaining personal relationships than with focusing on the task at hand Iul39 quot about the functioning ofthe organization and have a desire to serve others Are controlled in their exercise of power 39 39 la 7 Desire 39 quot their 39 more impulsive in exercising power Show little concern for other people Are focused on obtaining symbols of prestige and statussuch as big offices Ana People with a high needfor institutional power are particularly good at Increasing morale Creating clear expectations Getting others to work for the good ofthe orpnization Effective managers have both a high need for achievement and a high need for institutional power Herzberg s ZrFactor Theory 39 rewards or t related to 39 those related to job dissatisfaction The two sets are not opposite ends ofthe same continuum but are independent states Job factors leading to satisfaction are different from those leading to dissatisfaction and vice versa Mo vators Hygiene Factors n increased le Whe a When def39c ent d to to greater satisfaction lea greater dissatisfaction Technical supervision Working conditions y 0 Opportunity for Company poli ies and advancement or procedures PromOtlon Interpersonal Challenging work relationships with others Potential for personal 39 Status growth Security Expectancytheoly Expectancy theory eVroom s theory that suggests motivation is a function of an individ ual s expectancy that a given amount of effort will lead to a particular level ofperformance instrumentalityjudgmentsperceived connections that indicate performance will lead to certain outcomes and the valence value ofoutcomes 9 Expectancy subjective probability that effort will lead to performance lnstrumentality 7 subjective probability that a given level of performance will lead to certain outcomes ValencerAn MF E x z I x V Motivational Force I Instrumentality V Valence MF E Expectancy To increase motivation 39 39J r b l 39 performance Increase instrumentalities by clearly linking high performance to outcomes Increase valence by providing outcomesthat are highly valued Equity Theory Motivation is based on a person s assessment ofthe ratio ofthe outcomes received pay status for inputs on the job effort ability compared to the same ratio for a comparison other Perceived inequity employees may39 Increase or decrease inputs Distort perceptions of inputs andor outcomes Distort perceptions of other s inputs andor outcomes beliefsthat 39 0 iv higher levels of Change their outcomes Leave the organization Change the referent others Reactions to Ineq urty Sensitives pay a great deal of attention to outcomerinput ratios motivated to resolve any inequity 7 favorable or unfavorab e Benevolents tolerant of inequity that is unfavorable but not comfortable with inequity that favorsthem Entitleds do not tolerate unfavorable inequity but are comfortable with inequity that favorsthe m Reactions to eq uity Feelings of equity frequently lead 39 39 39 39 and orpnizational citizenship behaviors Organizational Citizenship Behaviors n a ucia 39 39 g irrrpuuam behaviorsthat go beyond prescribed job duties 7 examples helping corworkers expending extra effort etc Goal Setting Theory Challenging and specific goals increase human performance because they affect attention effort and persistence To be effective managers should address Goal difficulty7 how difficult should the performance goal be Should the goal be easy moderately difficult or very difficult to achieve Goal speci city 7 how specific should the expected outcome be eg number of parts assembled or can goals be more loosely defined do your best Goal commitment 7what will make associates commit to goals Participation in setting goals 7 how im ortant is it for associates to have input in selecting the goals and levels of performance to be achieved If important how should they be involve Feedback7towhat extent 39 informed ur meir p rformance goa s Desirahility Factors 1 The goal is set by or in conjunction with an appropriate authority figure 2 The goal fosters a sense of selfrachievement and potential for development me 3 The goal is set by or in conjunction with someone who is trustworthy 4 The goal is set by or in conjunction with someone who is supportive and promotes selfefficacy 5 Peers are committed to the goal 6 The goal assigner if there is one provides a rationale for the goal 7 The goal provides a challenge to prove oneself and meets ego needs 8 The goal is public Perceived Ability Factors 1 There is high selfefficacy on the task 2 There are successful role models 3 The task is not impossibly difficult 4 Expectancy for success is high 5 There is competition with others 9 Two types ofjustice ie distributive procedural Distributive Justice A form ofjustice that relates to perceptions of fairness in outcomes Often tied to perceptions of inequity Procedural Justice The degree to which people think the procedures used to determine outcomes are fair 10 Theory ofJob Enrichment Skill variety refers to the degree to which associates utilize a broad array of skills in doing their jobs feeling of meaningfulness Task identity is the extent to which job performance results in an identifiable piece of work feeling of meaningfulness Task significance is the extent to which a job has an impact on the organization feeling of meaningfulness Autonomy means that the associate has the independence to schedule his or her own work and influence the procedures with which it is carried out feeling of responsibility Feedback involves obtaining accurate information about performance knowledge of results Chapter 7 1 Types of stress ie acute chronic eustress dystress job strain Stress a feeling of tension that occurs when a person assesses that a given situation is about to exceed his or her ability to cope and consequently will endanger his or her wellbeing Job stress the feeling that one s capabilities resources or needs do not match the demands of thejob Acute stress a shortterm stress reaction to an immediate threat Stressor environmental conditions that ca use individuals to experience stress Eustress positive stress that results from meeting challenges and difficulties with the expectation of achievement Dystress negative stress often referred to simply as stress Often results in overload Job strain function of workplace demands and the control an individual has in meeting those demands Chronic stress a longterm stress reaction resulting from ongoing situations 2 DemandControl Model Demandcontrol model a model that suggests experienced stress is a function of both job demands and job control Stress is highest when demands are high but individuals have little control over the situation cu 5quot Active EUSTRESS 3 High 5 S O U r o 3 Low High Job Demands Amodelthat 39 39 L L39 H J Jjobrnntrnl high but39 39 39 quot 39 39 the situation EffortrReward Imbalance Model Effortreward imbalance model a a model that suggests experienced stress is a function of both required effort and rewards obtained Stress is highest when required effort is high but rewards are low Overcomm tment Pay Esteem Demands Obligations Two types of role conceptsie role conflict role ambiguity Rnln rnnflirt 39 39 39 39 J39 roles lead 39 Role Ambiguity a situation in which goals expectations andor basic job requirements are unclear Individual influences on experiencing stress ie hardiness type A personality gender etc Type A vs Type B Personality 7 Type A7 Competitiveness Aggressiveness Impatience Increase their own volume ofwork overload More susceptible to stressrrelated illnesses Type B personalities are q uite different They tend to be less competitive less aggressive more patient and more reasonable Selfesteem 7 People with high se lfresteem 7 Experience greater wellrbeing More resistant to the effects of stressors More likely to engage in active coping behaviorswhen stressed Hardiness Persons high in hardiness tend to have strong internal commitment to their activities have an internal locus of control seek challenge in everyday life experience less severe negative stress reactions Gender men are generally lowerrpaid more likely to experience discrimination stereotyping and work family conflict more likely to work in stressful service industries experience more workrrelated stress than 39 39d ual and Organizational consequences of stress ual Psychological Anxiety Depression Low selfresteem Frustration Burnoutia condition of physical or emotional exhaustion generally brought about by stress associatesand 39 39 nu 39 ialimie orlackofenthusiasmfor work and increasing isolation from others Behavioral Excessive smoking Appetite disorders Accident proneness Violence N Alcoholics and drug users less productive more sick days more safety hazards more workers compensation claims and miss more workdays due to hangovers Physiological High blood pressure Muscle tension Headaches Ulcers skin diseases Impaired immune systems Musculoskeletal disorders Heart disease Cancer Organizational Estimated cost to American industry ofjob stress 200 billion per year Absenteeism Diminished productivity Compensation claims Health insurance Direct medical expenses Toxin handlers Read your own and others emotional cues and understand their impact Keep people connected Empathize with those who are in pain Act to alleviate the suffering of others Mobilize people to deal with their pain and get their lives back on track Create an environment where compassionate behavior toward others is encouraged and rewarded
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