Abnormal Psychology ch 1-5 study guide
Abnormal Psychology ch 1-5 study guide PSYC 2011
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rylie McMillan on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Sherry Molock in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
An Overview of Psychopathology what is psychopathology 5 aspects common to all definitions 1 Behaviorsprocesses are maladaptive you can identify change maladaptive behaviors not all maladaptivity is visible ie hearing voices maladaptive is a subjective term 2 Causes personal distress the person can identify when they are stressed in distress gt may be prompted to seek treatment people around the distressed people can39t see the distress the afflicted may not be distressed by their disorder 3 Deviance from the culturalstatistical norm cultural norms are constantly changing hard to assess what is normal vs abnormal provides a general start for comparison 4 Difficulty connecting with the self and the environment 5 inability to consider alternative ways to think feel and act Mental disorder a group of emotional cognitive or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or mental disorder over the course of a year NIMH estimates 26 of americans experience a diagnosable mental disorder every year to 15 Culture bound syndromes DSMV disorders more specific to cultures that are not western or american DALY disability adjusted life years public health term how does having a particular affiliation affect life expectancy 1 DALY one lost year of healthy life burden of disease total sum of DALYS somatization the idea of expressing your emotional stress in a physical manner stigma and mental manner illness a mark of disgrace or negative attitudes and beliefs that lead to avoidance of a particular person Psychopathology Perspectives behavioralexperiential neuroscience evolutionary Levels of analysis culturalsocial culture cultural universality cultural relativism individualpsychologicalcognitive physiological geneticepigenetic discrete levels vs integrative perspective integrative gt culturalsocial individual psychologicalcognitive gene c Chapter 2 Changing conceptualizations of mental illness Historical Perspectives Prehistoric beliefs supernatural causes demonology exorcism prayers drugs starvation stone age trephining GrecoRoman naturalorganic causes world view based on elements and humors Hippocrates brain pathology psychopathology caused by environmental and physical genetic causes Middle ages supernatural causes era of witchcraft focus on the church gt the devil causes abnormality Renaissance 1700s beginning of modern science Da Vinci s anatomical drawings structure Descartes gt consider function gt soul mind body mindbody distinction moving away from the church gt focus on scientific method 1600s Galileo gt experimental approach thomas Willis explores structure and function of the brain gt first person to coin the term psychology Evolution of psychological function gt pathology may reflect something from our evolutionary past Reform Movement gt movement away from immoral medical treatment for the insane 18th19th century humanism emphasis on individuals and human welfare shift to more humane treatment of psychopathology 20th century medical modelreturn to natural perspective 1952 Thorazine first antipsychotic prescribed movement of deinstitutionalization large number of mentally ill homeless people Clifford Beers helped promote the idea of mental hygiene focus on prevention along with treatment identifying preventing risk factors mental health as a public health issue Types of prevention primary focus on all people gt reduce cases of problem behavior secondary focus on some people gt reduce current cases of problem behavior by identifying those at risk tertiary focus on diagnosed people gt reduce complications intensity and severity of current cases 20th century psychological models psychodynamic sigmund freud gt abnormal behavior unresolved childhood traumaanxiety repressed unconscious relieved by making the unconscious more conscious Iatrogenic people recover false memories after being prompted by a therapist conflict between idegosuperego intrapsychic conflict gt anxiety gt reliance on defense mechanisms Behavioral abnormal behavior is learned learned behavior is based on pairedconnected things automaticinvoluntary response modeling Watson s experiment Little Albert US the clanging noise UR Fear CS white rat fluffy things CR Fear crying you eat a new food and get the flu gt you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it US the flu UR getting sick CS new food CR getting sick 0 know how to apply this for the exam Operant conditioning abnormal behavior is learned learning is a result of reward and punishment based on voluntary behaviors not automatic ones reinforcer increases behavior punishment decreases behavior positive to add negative to remove positive reinforcement reward negative reinforcement relief positive punishment pain negative punishment loss IIB Cognitive model abnormal behavior is due to having irrational and maladaptive thoughts regarding the events in one s life not the actual events themselves it s not the situation itself gt rather how you interpret the situation Albert Ellis ABC theory of personality lrrational thoughts A activating event fail an exam B belief l39m worthless C behavioralemotional consequence depressionwithdrawal Rational Intervention gt D Dispute intervention I m still a good person even if I fail the exam gt E New Effective Philosophy I m ok I won39t give up gt F new feelings it39s ok to feel frustrated I won39t give up Thought gt Emotion gt Behavior gt cognitive behavioral therapy one of the most effective ways to treat mood and anxiety disorders Humanisticexistential model Carl Rogers father of humanism gt empathy gt idea of being very genuine with the client people who are depressed haven t been validated for who they are every individual has a unique perspective and reality individual freedom and responsibility ability to achieve one s potential focus on positive psychology Existential less optimistic individual and others responsibility Hierarchy of needs 1 Physiological 2 safetysecurity 3 social belonging 4 ego esteem 5 self actualization Family Systems Model abnormal behavior is symptomatic of the family system roles statuses values norms Family Dynamics communication structure Sociocultural Model culturally different does not equal deviancy pathology or inferiority recognize culture s unique strengths and limitations all theories of development take place within a specific cultural context Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Psychopathology Chapter 3 History of neuroscience 1800s no noninvasive way to observe the structures of the brain impossible to look at structurefunction relationship in the living 2nd half of 20th century saw development of neuroimaging techniques generally non invasive external observation of brain structures Synaptic transmission 50200 trillion connections Neurotransmitters serotonin processing of information regulation of mood behavior and thought processes norepinephrine regulation of mood arousal behavior and sleep dopamine influences novelty seeking sociability pleasure motivation coordination and motor movement GABA gamma aminobutyric acid regulation of mood especially anxiety arousal and behavior Acetylcholine important in motor behavior arousal reward attention learning and behavior Glutamate influences learning memory Epigenetics genes can be modified by experienceenvironment epigenetic markers tags promote writers genetic activity or inhibit genetic activity erasers weaver et al 2004 impact of nurturing in rat mothers passive vs active nurturing mothers grooming style influenced the development of offspring and subsequently to the next generation diathesis stress model genetic and environmental stress factors correlate to determine whether or not someone has a disorder more genetic vulnerability less stress needed to activate the disorder evolutionary perspective both physical and cultural environment influence genetic change also possible that metacognitive factors influence gene expression complex set of physical cultural and emotional influence the development of psychopathology evolutionary psychopathology questions is the experience of mental illness universal does the pathology have any potential adaptive value is there evidence for pathology across human history is pathology qualitatively different from normal functioning is there a possible protective function is the particular pathology a recent process models of abnormal behavior evolutionary biological gene c psychological psychodynamic behavioral cognitive family systems sociocultural diathesis stress integrativeeclectic Chapter 4 Research Methods Experimental process 1 develop a hypothesis 2 design an experiment 3 performing the experiment 4 interpreting the results looking for prevalence gt providing treatment looking for incidence gt preventing the disorder psychotherapy research effect size the difference between treatment and control groups expressed in units of standard deviation 10 the average treated client is one sd healthier than the average untreated client 8 large effect size 5 moderate effect size 2 small effect size source Cohen 1988 Chapter 4 remainder operational definition defining the variables in terms of an experiment independent variable thing being manipulated dependent variable thing being measured Chapter 5 Assessing abnormal Behavior classification the grouping together of objects or organisms that share certain properties in common syndrome symptoms pertaining to a condition purposes communication diagnostic assessment Treatment planning service reimbursement classification systems American psychiatric association diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders WHO international classification of diseases Diagnosis process of identifying a problem and its underlying causes and formulating a solution Criteria for evaluating adequacy of tests and psychiatric classification reliability degree to which measure yields same results repeatedly under the same circumstances internal consistency is whatever you39re measuring gonna be the same over time testretest reliability interrater reliability if two similar people take the test will they come up with the same diagnoses validity does testsystem measure what it39s supposed to measure comorbidity the presence of multiple disorders 5060 DSM 14 have a numerical title gt DSM 5 has a numerical title intent to review as new research becomes available psychodynamic diagnostic manual considers the whole person and functioning mental health is more than the absence of symptoms Assessment of abnormal behavior assessment process of gathering information about a person so that you can make a clinical decision about the person39s symptoms assessment gt diagnosis gt treatment Factors biological general medical physical disabilityillness perceived overall health status psychological mental functioning cognitive functioning assessment of lethality socialenvironmental socialsocietal help seeking occupational participation socialfamily support ethnic or religious affirmation Cultural cultural identity of the client cultural conceptualization of distress cultural features of the relationship between the client and the mental health professional overall cultural assessment for diagnosis and care clinicians can use the cultural formulation interview to get a sense of a patient39s cultural issues four categories 1 cultural definition of the problem cultural perception of causes context and support cultural factors influencing help seeking a self help current help seeking Assessment tools observations interviews psychological tests symptom questionnaires and personality testing neuropsychological testing mental status exam appearance and behavior mood and affect speech quality thought processes perception and awareness insight and intellectual functioning psychological tests and inventories self report symptom questionnaires KABC system of testing for general intelligence that doesn39t rely on the culturally specific aspects of things
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