Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 ENTM 4020
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rabbit on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENTM 4020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Jacobson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Economic Entomology in Entomology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Study guide: Exam 2: ENTM 4020 Spring 2016 Terms to know: Hemolymph -insect blood Endosymbionts extraoral digestion - external digestion when saliva is secreted on food from an insect postsynaptic - in a synapse, of or pertaining to the neuron that bears receptors for the neurotransmitter to receive the signal presynaptic - in a synapse, of or pertaining to the neuron that sends the signal by releasing the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft neurotransmitter - any substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, responsible for sending nerve signals across a synapse between two neurons synapse - the junction between the terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve impulses pass (Postsynaptic, presynaptic, neurotransmitter, synapse definitions provided by: Source: Boundless. “Synaptic Transmission.” Boundless Biology. Boundless, 08 Jan. 2016. Retrieved 09 Mar. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless- biology-textbook/the-nervous-system-35/how-neurons-communicate-200/synaptic- transmission-763-11996/) Systems & Sections in study guide & their functions 1. Circulatory a. carries nutrients, salts, hormones and wastes i. DOES NOT CARRY OXYGEN (opposite of ours) b. aids in thermoregulation c. clotting to seal wounds d. has protective compounds that give a bad taste to enemies and might be toxic e. hydrostatic pressure assists in molting 2. Digestion a. digestion, absorption, elimination 3. Respiratory a. delivering oxygen to the body b. removes carbon dioxide c. for energy production d. tracheal system: no lungs, groups of trachea that open to the outside as spiracles; trachea contains chitin and must be shed during the molt 4. Nervous a. electrical impulses sent, information integrated, muscles are stimulated for movement 5. Reproductive a. make babies, genetics/DNA "live long and prosper" through multiple generations 6. Factors affecting development and Control methods Questions from study guide supplied from class: 1. Circulatory System: A. Hemolymph is found in the circulatory system and functions as a transporter of nutrients, wastes, defense compounds and aids in the disposal of microorganisms (immune system) ; it also helps in molting and for wings as a pressure source B. The role of this system is to carry nutrients, hormones, salts and wastes throughout the body C. Blood is circulated through the insect body cavity by peristaltic heart movements D. Parts of this system discussed in class & their roles: a. dorsal vessel - is the "aorta" that carries blood forward into the head b. heart - organ with chambers located in the abdomen c. ostia - these are the openings in each chamber of the heart 2. Digestive System: A. Primary functions of this system include: digestion, absorption, elimination B. 3 sections of this system (gut: alimentary canal: chitin lining shed when molted), functions and structures involved: a. Foregut - ingestion, storage, grinding (chitin which is shed during molts) Consists of: i. Mouth: where digestion starts (salivary enzymes 1. Example: blood feeding insects saliva: anticoagulants, etc., aphids secrete sheath during penetration of the plant tissue ii. Pharynx: ingestion occurs where this pumps the fluid into the mouth and it passed the food backwards iii. Esophagus: the food is transported through the thorax to the crop iv. Crop: food is stored here before regurgitation or digestion occurs v. Proventriculus: sometimes modified for grinding food and is the valve that moderates the passage of food to the gut b. Midgut - main site for absorption and digestion Consists of: i. NOT SHED DURING MOLT 1. gastric caecum: NOT IN ALL INSECTS a. tube series, +++ surface area for digestion and contain bacteria 2. ventriculus-most digestion is carried out and the food passed into the lumen 3. Peritrophic membrane: semipermeable: only moves nutrients NOT SOLIDS OR PATHOGENS a. not present in liquid-feeding b. made up of proteins c. only produced / secreted when there is food present, excreted in feces ii. microvilli and epithelium is what absorbs the nutrients iii. enzymes are produced in midgut (proteases, lipases, amylases, cellulases) c. Hindgut - excreting waste and absorbing some i. Consists of: 1. Pylorus: a. controls movement from midgut to hindgut, PREVENTS REFLUX 2. Malphigian tubules: a. absorb waste from blood, forms uric acid by using Hemolymph waste products b. urine generator c. APHIDS DO NOT HAVE THIS 3. Ileum: a. tube, directs food from the pylorus to the rectum, b. ENDOSYMBIOTIC bacteria is housed here in some insects, c. nutrient absorption (some) 4. Rectum: a. primary site for resoprtion of water in fecal pellets b. ABSORBS 90% of this water 5. Anus: a. not that important i guess ii. IS SHED during each molt iii. Functions: 1. waste elimination 2. maintaining and regulating salts and water balance C. These structures assist with digestion of food: Midgut: a. Gastric caecum: increases surface area for digestion b. Ventriculus: most digestion happens here c. Lumen: d. Peritrophic membrane: allows passage of liquids and solutes D. Peritrophic membrane role: a. Prevents damage to the epithelial cells, allows passage of liquids and solutes, blocks big stuff and pathogens from going through, divides midgut lumen, only produced and secreted when food is present and goes out in feces E. Endosymbiotic bacteria are housed in these structures: a. hindgut: Ileum b. gut (foregut, midgut, hindgut) F. Benefits from endosymbionts: AID IN DIGESTION a. They synthesize sugars, fats, phospholipids, complex carbohydrates BECAUSE insects cannot break down chitin and cellulose b. Upgrade nutrient poor diets in aphids (require it; have bacteriocytes to house the endosymbiont): Buchnera c. Termites (require it): secret enzymes to break down cellulose d. Protection from bad guys and things e. Disease vector efficiency f. Can distort sex ratios by manipulating the reproductive systems G. Sections of the gut shed when insects molt: (lining) a. foregut b. hindgut H. These assist with conserving water: a. rectum b. I. Affect structure and functions of the digestive system: a. life stage b. biology c. ecology J. Major dietary components: a. carbs, proteins, lipids, sugars, H2O, vitamins and minerals K. Endosymbionts are important because (look above in roles) L. Insects transfer endosymbionts by: a. trophallaxis- passing food around to members of the community b. emetophagy - regurgitant feeding c. coprophagy - anal secretion/feces eating d. Environment e. Horizontal transfer - M. Metabolizing natural toxins: enzymes (adapted), detoxification, digestive enzyme N. Metabolizing synthetic toxins: salivary enzymes, over a long time the insect can adapt (some Figure 1 are resistant) and the population http://www.scielo.br/img/fbpe/bjpp/v14n2/13036f1.gif increases with more resistant species. O. Parts involved in detoxification: a. Fat body b. Midgut c. Malphigian tubes P. Detoxification contributes to host range and IPM because when insects are exposed to toxins there may be an increase in enzymes increasing their adaptation rate making it harder to control them. Q. Food ingestion affects IPM because the midgut is an important site of absorption of insecticides so the rate and toxicity is important and arsenic is a stomach poison. R. Life stage of the insect affects IPM because at different life stages insects eat different amounts and molting may affect the effectiveness of IPM insecticide use. S. Generally, physiology affects pathogen spread because at 3. Respiratory System: A. The function of this system: a. delivering oxygen to the body b. removes carbon dioxide c. for energy production d. tracheal system: no lungs, groups of trachea that open to the outside as spiracles; trachea contains chitin and must be shed during the molt B. Respiratory and Circulatory interact by: C. Basic structures of this system: a. aka tracheal system b. spiracles - diffusion and pressure O2 in and CO2 out (closed most of time to reduce water loss) c. trachea - network of tubes that deliver O2 and removes CO2 d. tracheoles - thin interface for gas exchange between air and the cell D. This system minimizes water loss by: a. spiracles - close when not needed E. Structures/features that serve as sites of entry for insecticide exposure: a. cellular respiration processes b. trachea 4. Nervous System: A. Function of this system is: a. electrical impulses sent, information integrated, muscles are stimulated for movement B. Basic organization of this system: a. runs along bottom of body of insect (inside): brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia C. Structure of the brain: a. 3 pairs of ganglia: i. Vision ii. Antennae iii. Labrum, links brain to ventral nerve cord D. Brain controls: a. Vision, antennae movement and sensing, labrum movement, links to ventral nerve cord E. Nerve signals needed for locomotion: a. CNS (axons sending impulses away from CNS) F. Nerve signals for reproduction: abdominal ganglia area is where it would be located and the signal is transmitted to the brain but is not controlled by the brain. G. # of ganglion in the head: 3 fused pairs (6) H. Nerve cell function: a. controls all of the body's communication and activities; from stimuli and muscles, hormones, immune system responses, etc. I. Structures: a. (brain, ventral nerve cord), ganglia, axons, synapses, dendrites, neurons, J. Neuron types: a. Sensory: - cell body and receptor fibrils connected to sense organs; axon carries impulse to the CNS b. Motor: - cell body and receptor fibrils located within the CNS; axon carries impulse away from the CNS c. Interneurons - connects sensory and motor neurons K. Nerve impulse types: a. synaptic: where there is a junction between two neurons or neuron + cell and is chemically transmitted (neurotransmitters); i. presynaptic: nerve impulse, ii. postsynaptic: receptors, acetylcholines esterases (gobble up the acetylcholines) b. axonic: i. one directional, electrical impulses, axon --> neuron --> muslce, based on opening/closing of Na K+ pump gates L. Electrical signals propagated along an axon and across a synapse: in an electrical synapse gap junctions allow the current to go to one neuron to the next; neurotransmitters facilitate this signal across the chemical synapses; M. Nerve cell parts responsible for propagating electrical signals along and between neurons that are targets of insecticides: happens within a neuron, neurotransmitters are responsible for propagating the electrical signals. This also happens at the synaptic gap where the neurotransmitter crosses the synapse and then the signal is propagated. N. Which parts of nerve cells are very toxic to humans and why: Sodium channel when blocked or kept open, acetylcholine esterase enzymes is VERY toxic to humans when messed with with synaptic posion. Figure 2 http://hyperphysics.phy- O. Nerve cell parts that are astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/nervecell.html targets for IPM: acetylcholine esterase, sodium channels, synapses, axons 5. Reproduction A. Vocabulary and structures with this system: below a. Copulation: male deposits sperm inside the lady's body B. General route of sperm and eggs: a. starts with testes in males that eventually become sperm, then go through ejaculatory duct, stored in spermatophore b. the eggs are produced in the ovarioles then when the male donates the sperm it is stored in the spermatheca inside the female and the eggs may be fertilized in the future c. ovulation, fertilization, oviposition C. The structure that allows a female to mate more than once: spermatheca D. The different types of reproduction: external and internal; a. dioecious - mating between male and female b. oviparious - ovipoisition = laying eggs (most insects) c. viviparious - live birth where larvae develop inside female and are "born" alive d. pathenogenesis - where egg fertilization is not necessary - cyclic : rotates between fertilized and unfertilized - common in aphids e. haplo-diploidy - unfertilized eggs = males and the fertilized - females f. polyembryony - one egg - two embryos or more E. R strategists: +++ reproductive rate and --- survival; aphids; asexual reproduction for part or all of the year: TELESCOPING generations is when the females give birth to females ALREADY pregnant.... F. K strategists: low reproductive rate BUT +++ survival; G. From: a. https://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/tutorials/internal_anatomy/r eproductive.html i. ‘external versus internal fertilization’ : 1. Spermatophores: packages of sperm left for the ladies 2. Adaptation for terrestrial life: external fertilization had to be protected form desiccation. Solution: capsule covering of water- tight lipoprotein secreted by male's accessory glands; 3. ADVANCED insects: internal fertilization: sperm is deposited inside a female during copulation ii. ‘male reproductive system’: 1. testes: sperm is produced in the follicles (functional units in subdivisions) 2. vasa efferentia: (mature sperm pass through this) 3. seminal vesicles : storage vesicles 4. copulatory organ : aedaegus 5. accessory glands: attached near testes that have two big functions: a. produce seminal fluid to nourish mature sperm b. spermatophores are produced (pouch structured proteins) that protect the sperm during copulation iii. ‘female reproductive system’: 1. pair of ovaries: swell while reproducing with developing eggs a. has ovarioles (functional units subdivided) where eggs are produced b. accessory glands: give off lubricants and secrete protein-rich egg shell surrounding the egg c. spermatheca: pouch chamber the reserves sperm and stores them (sperm may live in there for a long time) iv. ‘parthenogenesis’: females are able to produce viable offspring WITHOUT sperm 6. Factors affecting development and Control methods A. Characterization of seasonal life cycles to aid in frequency and duration of pest problem IPM characterization: a. univoltine - one generation per year b. bivoltine - two gens per year c. multivoltine - multiple generations in one year d. delayed voltine - 1 year for each generation B. Environmental factors that influence development: a. temperature b. moisture c. daylength d. microclimates C. The most important environmental factor: a. temperature - because insects are poikilothermic ( ++ temp the faster the development) (some exceptions when it comes to heat island effect, pollution, etc.) D. Insects deal with extreme temperatures by: a. dormancy (hibernation, aestivation in summer ) until favorable temps E. Different thresholds for insects: a. extremes of temps b. lower - no development below this temp c. upper - development still occurs, but nothing above this temp d. lower and upper lethal - insect dies at this temperature F. Insects deal with extreme environmental conditions by: a. dispersal - just move to another area b. short term "hibernation" (quiescence) until conditions become favorable again G. Degree day models used in IPM: a. use for thermal constants where a set number of DD are required for an event of an insect (like population explosion, pupation, etc.) will occur b. developmental thresholds - lowerst temp for development c. developmental optimums - development at it's highest point (temperature) H. Degree day models are useful when: a. when predicting a population increase, a developmental change from egg to larva, etc. b. helps predict for losses and prevention of large population of pests c. BEFORE damage occurs I. Degree day models are not useful when: a. too much variations in field conditions J. Weather-based monitoring applications and their limitations: a. when temperature IS NOT what you're looking at b. doesn't work when microclimates are stable c. this doesn't work for many insects
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