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Midterm Study Guide

by: Aaron Fuller

Midterm Study Guide TRF 637

Aaron Fuller
GPA 3.7

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Study guide for midterm exam
Telecommunications Law & Policy
R. Gutterman
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Telecommunications Law & Policy

Popular in Communication

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aaron Fuller on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TRF 637 at Syracuse University taught by R. Gutterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Telecommunications Law & Policy in Communication at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 03/09/16
Telecommunications Law & Policy Midterm Study Guide    State Court Structure (Lowest to Highest)  1. Local, Intermediate appellate, state appellate  2. US District, US Circuit Court of Appeals  3. US Supreme Court    Federal Court System Structure  1. US District  2. US Circuit Court of Appeals  3. US Supreme Court     Writ of Certiorari  ­ Petition to have something reviewed by Supreme Court, indicates court is willing to  review a case     Constitutional Law  ­ Is based on judicial interpretation, supersedes all declarations of public policy    Statutory Law  ­ Laws passed by legislation      Administrative Law and Agencies:  1. FCC ­ Federal Communications Commision  2. FEC ­ Federal Election Commission  3. FTC ­ Federal Trade Commision  4. FDA ­ Food and Drug Administration  5. SEC ­ Securities and Exchange Commission     Civil Suit vs. Criminal Case  ­ Civil is about monetary damages and criminal is about crime     First Amendment Rights  1. Speech  2. Press  3. Religion  4. Assembly  5. Petition    Prior Restraint  ­ Cease and desist, cannot reveal trade secrets, prior censorship     Protected Speech vs. Unprotected Speech  ­ Protected speech is anything that is not defamatory or harmful  ­ Unprotected yelling fire in a theatre     Compelling Government Interest  ­ Allows government to regulate for public interest    Miller Test  1. Lacks serious artistic, literary, scientific value  2. Patently offensive under state law  3. Appeals to prurient interest (a normal reasonable person)    Obscenity  ­ Anything that fails the Miller test, is not protected under free speech    Content­neutral restrictions  ­ Regular speech without regard to the subject matter, not specific to a certain group ​ (Ex:  Concerts in the park)    Defamation  ­  Ruins/injures reputation   Elements of Defamation  1. False statement of fact  2. Published, heard by 3rd party  3. Concerning /about plaintiff  4. Harms reputation damages     Libel per se  ­ Written defamation  Elements of Libel per se ​ (if you can claim damages)  1. Loathsome of disease (STD)  2. Imputing on chastity  3. Imputation of a crime  4. Incompetence/dishonesty on business or trade     FCC Regulations:  Broadcast TV  ­ Public interest so it must be regulated  ­ Regulations on:  ­ Contest and lotteries  ­ cross ownerships (tv & Newspaper, T.V & Radio)  ­ National T.V ownership  ­ Dual T.V Network Ownership ← prohibits merger between 2 major tv networks     Radio  ­ Public interest so it must be regulated  ­ restrictions based on sliding scale that varies by the size of the market  ­ Payola (receiving monetary contributions or favors to influence radio play/advertising)  is illegal      Political Ads  ­ You have to be fair  ­ Everyone gets charged the same amount  ­ must allow candidate or political party free air time to dispute claims made by another  candidate or political party, if requested  ­ must explain cost/benefits of requested ad placements by candidates     Safe Harbor Hours  ­ 10pm to 6am  ­ broadcasters may transmit material deemed indecent for children        Standards of proof for plaintiff (how much evidence you must have):  Negligence  ­ The failure to comply with rules or to do something a normal person wouldn’t do, duty to  care and a breach of that duty, legal duty for safety    Private Figure  ­ burden of proof is lower for private figure, easier to sue     Public Official/Public Figure  ­ Burden of proof is higher, must meet actual malice     Defenses:  Truth  Courts require that a statement is substantially true for the defense to apply   Privileges  ­ immunity , right to do something  ­ Opinion  ­ Fair comment  ­ satire/parody  ­ Qualified (doctor, priest)  ­ absolute    Absolute  ­ protects a person from tort claims; immunizes a defendant from suit no matter how  wrongful the action might be    Conditional/Qualified   ­ an otherwise defamatory statement gets protection when the statement meets these  conditions:  ­ Made in good faith  ­ person making statement has interest in subject matter  ­ statement is made to a person also having interest in subject  ­ made without malice    Fair Comment  Opinion  Neutral Reportage  ­ A reporter can only report what was said    Statute of Limitations  Actual Malice  ­ Know falsity and reckless disregard for the truth     Invasion of Privacy  1. Commercial appropriation​  ­ use of image and likeness  2. False light​  ­ putting something in a different context  3. Intrusion ​ ­  4. Publication of private facts ­ ​     Publisher vs. Distributor – Communications Decency Act (CDA) Section 230  ­ ISP cannot be held liable for a 3rd party  ­ Zeran v. AOL     Cases:    Zeran v. AOL  ­ Zeran sues AOL and radio station, arguing that AOL was on notice liability, radio station  publishes story was in the wrong because it was distribution of false statement      New York Times v. Sullivan  ­ Plaintiff Sullivan Alabama police chief sues NY Times for libel about aditorial, all white  jury  ­ Actual malice not proved by Sullivan     Gertz v. Robert Welch  ­ established the standard of First Amendment protection against defamation claims  brought by private individuals. The Court held that, so long as they do not impose  liability without fault, states are free to establish their own standards of liability for  defamatory statements about private individuals.     Red Lion Broadcasting Co., Inc. v. FCC  ­ FCC “fairness doctrine  ­ Reply time was refused  ­ Personal attacks  ­ Government allocated frequencies     Freedman v. Maryland  ­ ended government­operated rating boards with a decision that a rating board could only  approve a film and had no power to ban a film. A rating board must either approve a film  within a reasonable time, or go to court to stop a film from being shown in theatres.    FCC v. Pacifica Foundation  ­ Safe harbor hours stemmed from this case  ­ Pacifica got away because safe harbor hours were not in place     Davis v. Constantin Costa­Gavras, Universal Studios  ­ Plaintiffs (the author Hauser, publishers HBJ and Hearst, and filmmakers Costa­Gavras,  Universal, and MCA) claim that defendants, through publication of the books and release  of the film, "falsely accused [them] of ordering or approving the order for the murder of  Charles Horman."  ­ libel    Cox Broadcasting Corporation vs. Cohn  ­ freedom of the press publishing public information. The Court held that both a Georgia  Statute prohibiting the release of a rape victim's name and its common­law privacy action  counterpart were unconstitutional.         


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