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Abnormal Psycholoy Study Guide Exam 2

by: AJ Ponte

Abnormal Psycholoy Study Guide Exam 2 psych 2510

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > psych 2510 > Abnormal Psycholoy Study Guide Exam 2
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This study guide covers chapters 5 through 8 and important concepts talked about in class. Happy studying!
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 2510 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Anxiety  Anxiety- an unpleasant emotion characterized by a general sense of danger, dread, and physiological arousal  Anxiety and fear are normal responses to threatening or dangerous situations  Anxiety disorder- experiencing anxiety and fear in contexts that do not warrant such feelings  Anxiety is comorbid with many other psychological disorders  29-30% overall lifetime prevalence for adults  Most common group of disorders, among all ages  Average onset: 11  More common in women (3 to 1)  Significant economic burden ($42.3 billion per year) Panic Attack  A panic attack is a discrete episode of acute terror in the absence of real danger  This is not a disorder on its own  Panic attacks can be unexpected or expected Panic Disorder  Discrete episodes of intense terror (panic attacks) in the absence of real danger, causing ongoing distress or impairment  Panic attacks are unexpected  Often comorbid with agoraphobia Agoraphobia  Intense fear or anxiety that occurs upon exposure to, or in anticipation of, a range of possible situations and leads to avoidance of those situations  Fear that escape might be difficult or help might not be available for panic sympotms Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)  Chronic, debilitating, pervasive worry, anxiety, or nervousness for at least 6 months  Anxiety is not limited to a specific situation  Causes distress and interferes with functioning Specific Phobia  An intense, persistent, and irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation  Most affective treatment is exposure to fear under therapeutic supervision Social Anxiety Disorder Exam 2 Study Guide  Marked fear or anxiety of social situations in which a person fears they will be scrutinized and evaluated negatively by others rd  3 most common disorder in the U.S.  May be narrow like public speaking phobia, or broad  More than 50% of people with social anxiety disorder have additional anxiety disorders Psychodynamic Factors  High levels of anxiety arise from disrupted or inadequate early parent-child relationships Cognitive Factors  Maladaptive assumptions, which are irrational beliefs  Meta-cognitions (metacognitive theory) o Worry about the fact that they always worry  Intolerance of uncertainty o Certain individuals cannot tolerate the knowledge that negative events may occur, even if the possibility of occurrence is very small  Misinterpretations o People misinterpret their bodily sensations and believe it is, for example, a panic attack when it is really nothing  Anxiety sensitivity refers to the fear of behaviors or sensations associated with the experience of anxiety. Bodily sensations related to anxiety are misattributed as a harmful experience causing more intense anxiety or fear Behavioral Factors  Classical and operant conditioning o Classical (associating a neutral stimulus to a potent one through repeated pairing  Classical example: Little Albert o Operant (being reinforced to increase or decrease a behavior)  Operant example: avoidance is negatively reinforced and therefore maintains phobias o Stimulus generalization: applying fear or anxiety of one thing to things similar to it  Ex. GAD  Modeling o Learning from observation Biological Factors  Genetics may account for 30-40% of an individual’s vulnerability to developing an anxiety disorder, but difficult to rule out environment  GABA inactivity Exam 2 Study Guide o Low activity of GABA has been linked to GAD o Benzodiazepines (Xanax, Ativan, Valium) provide relief form anxiety o GABA is a neurotransmitter that tells neurons to stop firing to subside the feeling of fear and anxiety  Impaired function in brain circuits/networks: o Anxiety: prefrontal, anterior cingulate and amygdala o Panic: amygdala, ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus, central gray matter, locus ceruleus Psychodynamic Treatments  Uncover roots of anxieties using basic psychodynamic techniques  Exploring how underlying emotional conflicts emerge in the form of resistance and transference  Specific goals with anxiety: o Foster greater self-acceptance o Decrease need for problematic defenses  Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) Biological Treatments  Benzodiazepines (valium, Xanax, Ativan) o Enhances functioning of GABA which in turn lowers levels of anxiety o Physically addictive and undesirable side effects o No long-term relief o Lethal with other depressants (alcohol) Cognitive Treatments  Changing maladaptive assumptions (negative thinking) and misinterpretations (misreading a normal body function as anxiety) o Beck and Ellis: Rational-emotive therapy  Helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder  Examining role of worrying Behavioral Treatments  Exposure treatments o Live (in vivo) or imaginal (covert) exposure  Systematic desensitization o Flooding or modeling  Relaxation training Exam 2 Study Guide o A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations  Social skills training Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments (CBT)  Exposure combined with cognitive treatments is most common  Goal-oriented, highly structured with emphasis on changing negative cognitions OCD Related disorders  Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (lifetime prevalence: 3%)  Body Dysmorphic Disorder  Hoarding Disorder  Trichotillomania  Excoriation Disorder (skin picking disorder) OCD  An anxiety disorder in which distressing and unwanted thoughts lead to compulsive rituals that significantly interfere with daily functioning  Obsessions: recurrent, persistent, intrusive thoughts or impulses  Compulsions: irrational rituals that are repeated in an effort to control or neutralize the anxiety brought on by obsessional thoughts Body Dysmorphic Disorder  An overwhelming concern that some part of the body is ugly or misshapen  Flaw in appearance either imagined or very minor  Most commonly worry about skin, hair, nose, face  Doctor shopping  High risk for suicide Excoriation Disorder  To pick at one’s own skin Hoarding  Person stores and collects large amounts of useless items Trichotillomania  Repetitive hair pulling that results in noticeable hair loss, individuals feel powerless to stop pulling  Shares common features and possibly genetic influences with OCD Exam 2 Study Guide Psychodynamic Factors  Defense mechanisms of “Isolation of Affect” (thoughts occur without feelings) and “undoing” (one action used to cancel out another)  Underlying emotion may involve anger Behavioral Factors  Classical and operant condition Cognitive Factors  Attempts to neutralized intrusive thoughts  High standards and strong feelings of responsibility Biological Factors  Abnormal serotonin activity  Abnormal brain structures/functioning o Orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei: circuit or network that converts sensation into thoughts and actions. Structures/communication between parts may be overactive Treatment  Exposure and Response prevention o Behavioral treatment that interrupts compulsions and negative reinforcement o Cognitive techniques often added to replace inaccurate beliefs (CBT) o Antidepressants Stress  Biological stress systems are active by the hypothalamus  Arousal and fear are activated by the hypothalamus  “Fight or Flight”  Long term exposure to corticosteroids is harmful Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic nervous system pathway  Nerve fibers  Connect brain and spinal cord to all other organs in body Endocrine System  Hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal pathway  Glands that release cortisol/ corticosteroids Exam 2 Study Guide  HPA pathway Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Acute stress disorder: symptoms from three to one month  PTSD: symptoms last longer than one month  Trauma- exposure to actual or threatening death, serious injury, or sexual violence  90% of Americans have been exposed to trauma, but only 5 to 11% develop PTSD as a result o Major types of trauma: combat and sexual assault Symptoms  Re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal, anxiety and guilt Treatment  About half of all PTSD cases improve within 6 months  General goals; end stress reactions, gain perspective, return to constructive living  Drug therapy (antianxiety and antidepressants)  Exposure  Insight therapy  Couples, family, group therapy  Potentially HARMFUL treatment: critical incident stress debriefing o Form of crisis intervention o Patients talk in great detail about trauma just days or moments after the event o Debriefing increases symptoms and duration Dissociative Disorders  Transient dissociative experiences are very common  A disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, and perception  Hierarchical organization (least to most severe): o Depersonalization/ derealization disorder o Dissociative Amnesia o Dissociative Identity Disorder  Only diagnosed when there is too much dissociation Depersonalization- Derealization disorder  Experiences of unreality or detachment from one’s body or surroundings; a state of feeling as if one is an external observer of one’s own behavior  Very rare Exam 2 Study Guide Dissociative Amnesia  Inability to recall important autobiographical information, usually of a traumatic/stressful nature  4 types: o Localized- most common, person loses all memory of events that took place within a limited period of time, almost always beginning with some very disturbing event o Selective- remember some but not all events that took place in a set period of time o Generalized- unable to remember things before the event o Continuous- unable to remember things after the event Dissociative Identity Disorder  Disruption of identity characterized by two or more distinct personality states. Marked discontinuity in sense of self and agency, and alterations that can affect any aspect of function  “Alters” or alternative personalities  We know very little information about this disorder and it is highly controversial  Suggestibility of patients is an important (confounding) issue Etiology for DID  State-dependent learning o Learning that becomes associated with the conditions under which it occurred, so that it is best remembered under the same conditions  Self- hypnosis o The process of hypnotizing oneself, sometimes for the purpose of forgetting unpleasant events Treatment for Dissociative Disorders  Dissociative amnesia cases often resolve on their own  Psychodynamic therapy  CBT  Phased treatments (3-phase model): o Safety- establishing safe relationship and therapeutic alliance o Remembrance and Mourning- reviewing and exploring traumatic memories and grieving their impacts, implications and losses o Reconnection- developing foundation for an integrated self and a life relatively free from posttraumatic symptoms and concerns Controversies Exam 2 Study Guide  Not much is known about DID, many people think it is a made up disorder due to the media and suggestive psychologists  Only case studies for research Disorders of Mood  Moods range from elevated to depressed, and include emotional, cognitive, motivational, and physical components  Depend on duration and intensity  Depressive disorders: Major Depressive Disorder and Persistent Depressive Disorder  Bipolar disorders: Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, and Cyclothymic Disorder Mood Episodes  Major Depressive Episode o At least 2 weeks of depressed mood accompanied by 3 other characteristics of depressive symptoms  Manic Episode o At least 1 week of elevated, euphoric, or irritable mood accompanied by a characteristic pattern of manic symptoms  Hypomanic Episodes o At least 4 days of elevated, euphoric, or irritable mood that is less severe than a manic episode o Not really any functional issues, usually pleasurable Depressive Disorders  Major Depressive Disorder o Occurrence of 1 or more major depressive episodes o Lifetime prevalence 17-19%  Persistent Depressive Disorder o Chronic depression, lasting at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children and adolescents o With dysthymic syndrome or with major depressive episodes (aka “double depression”) Bipolar Disorders  Bipolar I Disorder o Combination of manic and major depressive episodes (lifetime prev. 1%)  Bipolar II Disorder o Combination of hypomanic and major depressive episodes (lifetime prev. 0.5- 1%)  Cyclothymic Disorder Exam 2 Study Guide o Combination of hypomanic and dysthymic mood swings; less severe that Bipolar I and II but occurs chronically for at least 2 years (lifetime prev. 0.4%) Symptoms of Manic Episodes  Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity  Decreased need for sleep  More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking  Subjective experience that one’s thoughts are racing or flight of ideas  Distractibility  In Bipolar disorders, manic episodes tend to be shorter than depressive episodes  Hypomanic is less intense Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  Diagnosis for extreme PMS symptoms o Use antidepressants to treat  Controversies o More females will now be on antidepressants o Feminists were unhappy with this new disorder Epidemiology  Major Depression is one of the most common single psychiatric disorders worldwide o 19% lifetime pre. for U.S. adults o Higher rates in women and in low-income or oppressed populations  Bipolar Disorders are less common o 4% lifetime pre. for U.S. adults o Equally common in men and women o Higher rates in low-income populations Gender and Depression  Females are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression as males  “Role/Life Stress” theory: demanding but undervalued roles; expected to fulfill several roles simultaneously (career, housekeeping, childcare); lower pay and harsher evaluations for same job as men  Rumination theory: socialized to internalize distress while males externalize it  “Lack of Control” theory: far more likely to experience forms of victimization associated with depression (rape, spousal abuse, childhood sexual abuse) and socioeconomic disadvantage Etiology  Genetic Factors Exam 2 Study Guide o Depressive Disorders: genetics play a predisposing role in some forms  Heritability: 30-40%  Twins: MZ: 46% DZ: 20% o Bipolar Disorders: strong genetic basis  Heritability: 60-80%  Twins: MZ: 40% DZ: 5%  Biochemical Factors o Depressive Disorders have abnormal NT function of monoamines (a class of NTs that deal with mood)  Permissive theory: low levels of serotonin disrupts function of other NTs that affect mood  Low serotonin + low NE = Depression  Low serotonin + high NE = Mania  Endocrine system (hormone release): people with depression have high levels of cortisol and abnormal levels of melatonin  Protein deficiencies within neurons (BDNF=Brain-derived neurotrophic factor)  Exposure to stress = a decrease in BDNF which = a decrease in hippocampus size  Exercise increase BDNF o Bipolar Disorders have low NT function and abnormal ion activity of neuronal membranes  Ions are needed to send messages down the axon of a neuron, sometimes they fire too easily or not enough  Brian Anatomy, Circuits, and Structures o Depressive Disorders  Prefrontal cortex  hippocampus  amygdala  Brodmann area 25  This circuit is filled with serotonin transporters  The Brodmann area 25 is much more active in depressed people  The hippocampus stops making new cells when you’re depressed and decreases in size  Cognitive Factors o Depressive Disorders  Negative thinking  Maladaptive attitudes, cognitive distortions or errors in thinking  Beck’s negative cognitive triangle: self, world and future  Negative thoughts are automatic  Learned Helplessness  Lack of control over rewards/punishments lead to depression o Giving up because you feel you have no control Exam 2 Study Guide  Seligman study with the dogs in the shocking box to prove learned helplessness  Attribution-Helplessness Theory: internal, global, stable attributions for negative events leads to depression Psychological Treatments  Psychodynamic Therapy o Focus on loss, anger, problematic childhood experiences/relationships, repetitive life patterns  Behavioral therapy o Not used by itself anymore, usually combined with cognitive therapy  CBT: Reintroduce clients to pleasurable activities; reinforce non- depressive behaviors; improve social skills  Behavioral activations  Very simple structure, activities you have to do that you enjoy  Cognitive therapy o Depressive Disorders  Often combined with behavioral therapy (CBT)  Acceptance and commitment therapy  Accepting negative thoughts and recognizing that, and living with them to move on o Bipolar Disorders  Altering belief of self as helpless  Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) o Depressive Disorders  Focuses on problematic relationships or coping with loss of relationships  Structure of CBT but content of psychodynamic theory; recognizes key role of social stressors o Bipolar Disorders  Interpersonal social rhythm therapy: routines (daily activities and mood watching) Biological Treatments  First-generation antidepressants: MAOIs and Tricyclics o Side effects include blurred vision and death if taken in a high does and or mixed with certain foods and alcohol  Second-generation: SSRIs o Less side effects, not as serious o Increase suicide rate in adolescents Exam 2 Study Guide o Controversy: for all but the MOST SEVERE cases, medication may be no more effective than a placebo  All medication attempt to increase available monoamine levels (NTs that affect mood)  Lithium o Used to treat Bipolar o Very hard to get correct dose o Side effects include Weight gain, Impaired memory, confusion, and lethargy  ECT o In the past it was very barbaric, today it is safe, however still controversial o The shock today is was less than it was in the past Recent findings with mood disorders  Mood disorders are linked with creativity  Evolutionary hypothesis: depressed mood makes you attend, think and learn better


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