Introduction to Communication Disorders
Introduction to Communication Disorders CDIS 1150
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunice Bartoletti on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CDIS 1150 at University of Connecticut taught by Jason Simon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/205871/cdis-1150-university-of-connecticut in Communication Disorders & Sciences at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Communication Disorders Exam 1 Study Guide Professions of Speech and Audiology What is Audiology o Audiologists are specialists in indentifying assessing and managing disorders of the auditory balance and other neural systems Clinician therapist educator researcher administrator researcher consultant Primary roles involve prevention identi cation and management of hearing and balance system dysfunction Work in same settings as speech language pathologist including schools hospitals rehabilitation facilities community and university clinics and private practices 0 Bachelors degree in communication sciences and disorders degree in SLP or Audiology clinical fellowship national board examination certi cation by American Speech Association 0 Promote hearing wellness Identi cation of hearing problems Assessment of auditory performance Rehabilitation of auditory performance Speech Language Pathology 0 Speech language pathologists are providers for people with speech and language disorders also key members of treatment team for people with hearing swallowing and feeding disorders 0 Work in settings including public and private schools hospitals rehabilitation facilities home health agencies community and university clinics private practices group homes state agencies and corporations Practice of SLP includes prevention diagnosis habilitation and rehabilitation of communication swallowing or other upper aerodigestive disorders elective modi cation of communication behaviors and enhancement of communication 0 Masters degree for speech language pathologist Clinical eld work national examination and fellowship OO 0 Normal Communication Communication Disorder present when a person has signi cant dif culty in one or more of these aspects of communication when compared with other people sharing the same language Communication disorder must be severe enough to adversely affect work Process of communication 0 Formulation 0 Transmission 0 Reception o Comprehension Culture highly in uences the communication of a person Culture describes a system of knowledge comprising beliefs behavior and values shared by a community Can be de ned by many parameters Language religion geography ethnicity race health status sexual identity marital status etc Culture in uences communication communication in uences culture Communication disorder is not the same as a communication difference Types of communication disorders Language speech and hearing feeding swallowing too 0 Disorders of Language I Child Language disorders Dif culties in communication because of dif culty with development of semantics syntax morphology phonology or pragmatics I Adult Language disorders Aphasia from brain damage 0 Disorders of Speech I Articulation and phonology disorders distortions and substitutions I Fluency Disorders stoppages in ow of speech I Voice Disorders Dif culties with voice I Motor speech disorders Dysfunction of nervous system that controls motor output 0 Hearing Disorders I Sensorineural hearing impairment Inner earauditory canal damage Conductive hearing impairment Outder middle ear damage Auditory processing Breakdown in auditory center in brain 0 Feeding and Swallowing Disorders I Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders Adult dysphagia Nervous system dysfunction Anatomy of Speech 0 Respiration oxygen stops power supply of speech Inhalation and exhalation o Phonation Hyoid Bone Epiglottis Thyrohyoid Membrane Thyruid Cartilage Cricathyroid Cricothyroid Muscles Cricoid Canlilage Tmchea O o Larynx sits at the front of the neck on top of trachea 0 Vocal Folds o Larynx pharynx and trachea phonatory system 0 Articulators o Mandible Jaw Vocal Folds Hyoid Bone Epiglottis Hard palate trachea esophagus nasal cavity oral cavity epiglottis eustachean tube pharyngeal tonsil velum o Fixed Hard palate alveolar ridge upper incisors o Mobile Tongue velum mandible lips Neurosystem 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 Spinal Nerves Central Nervous System 0 Brain and spinal cord Brain Stem connects spinal cord and brain Cerebellum Motor and muscular activity Cerebrum Thinking problem solving planning Corpu c llosumrBand of berthatconnectshenrspheres 4 lobes frontal parretal tenporal occrprta O n l a Y L L problen solvlng reasonlng etc D r r o T Dart tall b language o Two temporal lobes Contalns audltory cortex also known as heschl s gyms emlcke s Area Le temporal lobe crltlcal slte for audltory comprehenslon o Occlpltal lobe perceptlon ofslght Organlzatlono Brains o Interconnectednessr Connected through vers etc u o hlgher level functlons managed by the braln o Speclallzatlon Somalosensory Motor SMp Shlp L1 3 0 new rm mm rm 39Homunc ulus39 e mm ran a s new rm o Perlpheral Nervous System ln communlcatlon functlons Anztumx uf Hearing Human ear contalns 3 dlstlnct sectlons Outer ear mlddle ear and lnner ear Outer ear o uncle o External Audltory Canal Conduct sound waves toward the bmln Mlddle ear EAC ends at the tympanlc membrane o cave membrane that stretches across the bony portlon ofEAC o EarDrum O a p k o Osslcles InnerEar Fluld fllled cavrty deep lnslde o v bl o m erlrmlm Cana o Cochlearsnallshape AudltoryNerve o Fibers bundled to the cochlea that connects to the brain 0 Auditory Brain Center 0 Heschl s gyrus receives information carried along the auditory pathway and analyzes for frequency loudness timing location and so forth Nature of Sound 0 Acoustics The study of sound 0 Sound Vibratory energy transmitted by pressure waves in the air or through another medium 0 Hearing The PERCEPTION of sound 0 A result of Energy source 9 vibrating object 9medium 9 receptor 0 Defined by physical properties and physical properties 0 Sound Propagation 0 Longitudinal 0 Transverse 0 Compression and Rarefaction o Waves occur from a compression of the medium followed by an expansion of the medium or rarefaction o 0 Simple Harmonic Motion 0 Sinusoids or Sine Waves I Frequency I Amplitude I Time 39tquotlt t w y my I 43 0 6 SWquot l I Q 39 n I Tuningfark A39 l Condensation Rarefactian Figure 24 1hr relation between condensatton and yoretuctlon waves and the sinusoidal tune 1lon Flam The Speech Sciences by R Kent W97 9 30 San Diego singular Publishing Group Rapltnted with permlssion I 0 Frequency Amplitude Properties of Sound The number of cycles per second cps or hertz Hz Pitch is the PERCEPTION of frequency Time low frequency medlum frequency hlgh frequency 0 Period Amount of time it takes to complete 1 cycle l gthIuqunve E Time kmai anFquencyWave E Time r w i 0 Range ofhearing HERTZ lOO DDU whim 1pm IUD IE 0 Ba ca Dog Dolphin Grasshopper Human o Amplitude AMPLITUDE TVPE OF ANIMAL h KRlW A 39 a pm MK W rum I l A w quotv o Intensity The magnitudestrength ofa sound I Loudness is the PERCEPTION ofintensity ange ofintensity is enormous DecibeldB Scale is1ogantnmie known reference value I OdBdoe NOT 39 Iquot u u e ua1t the reference value We exp ess intensity it tenns ofsound piessuie level on dB SPL 0 Physical Vs Perceptual Measurements Physical Frequeney measurement ofpitch Intensity measurement ofloudness Piten the psychological peieeption assoeiated with frequency Loudness Psychological peieeption assoeiated with intensity Auditor Assessmen Audibility Curve u aumomsv AN immDuClloN ex 15x vx 2 4K anue i39y in Hz rlqun 22 Minnow Isspanse med From the navesham or uudlbmw In ma Whom at mung across me momma mnge mo encam posus mam human haurlng O Threshold The level ofa sound at which it can be heard by an individual 50 ofihe time Audwgram A visual representation of a person39s threshold at a grver frequency AUDIOGRAM leflEar x RighlEar o lcvtl m nunmels an w m mm Mm mm mm cm WNWH mummy Luvwvwwgh me rm m m o Behavioral Tests An eondueuon bone eondueuon speech audwmetxy rmddle and mner ears rmddle ars 0 Bone vs Air Conduction l x V EldB L BudzHL ANSIIL i A ukih J7 znruzm ZHdEHL in n ta Speech Audiometry How an auditory disordermight impact the communicative problems ofdaily livin g 0 Speech audiom n 39 39 t quot quanitify 39 39 abilit39 quot 39 0 Speech Recognition Thresholds SRTH Baseball hotdog airplane 0 Speech Awareness Thresholds SAT 9 point to baseball Word Recognition Scores WRS 9 Say the word eyes Say the word ear o Objective tests Typanometry Acoustic Re exes 0toacoustic Emissions Electrophysiology o Tympanometry A test used to detect disorders ofthe middle ear 0 ir quot canali 39 39 o TypesofHearingLoss o Conductive problems with outermiddle ear 0 Sensorineural problems with the cochlea 0 Re ncnchlezr39 L dB HL 0 Moderately Severe 5670 dB HL 0 Severe 7190 dB HL o Whatisnormalheanng 0 Adults 25 C o hildren015 0 Adults over 65 40 dB HL Anjculau39on and Phonolog39 al Disorders 0 Phnnnln icalDi nrder39 39 individual nhnnnln ical pmblemwith r u i n t i Articulation Disorder Implies impairment ofmotor aticulators ex Tongue lips etc 3 39 39 39 asigni cant Consonants place of articulation manner of articulation and voicin place Manner and Voicing Features ofConsonarits 0 place ofAnicu ation Labial Lips are site of constriction bmw tr39 tion f Dental teeth are site ofcons ic Alveol Alveo ar ride is site ofconstriction swn palatal Hard palate is site ofconstriction j Velar Soft palate is site of constriction kg Glottal Glottis in the vocal fold areais constricting nu o Manner of Articulation 0 Stop plosive Air ow is completely stopped somewhere in the vocal tract air pressure builds up to be released p b t o Fricative Air ow is continually forced through the tiny ssure in the vocal tract f z s o Nasal Air ow is channeled into the nasal cavity by lowering the velum m n o Affricate Air ow is completely stopped in the vocal track air pressure is build up and then released in a continuous stream through a tiny ssure in the vocal track 0 Glide Articulators are held more open than for other consonants in their production articulators glide from a constricted to a more open position w j 0 Liquid Tongue is held tight midline with openings laterally air ow moves around the side of the tongue 1 r o Continuants o Nasals Glides Fricatives o Voicing o Voiced The vocal folds vibrate during when air ow is pushed over the vocal folds during speech z b v r o Unvoiced The vocal folds do not vibrate and are held open when air ow is pushed over the vocal folds during speech s p f t 0 Speech Disorder 0 Breakdown in one or more of the systems involved with speech production Phonology rules for combining and using sounds in order for the sounds to convey meaning Etiology and subtypes of Phonological Disorders 0 Unknown origin no known cause I Small phonemic inventory I Phoneme collapse I Persistent errors I Unintelligibility o Otitis Media with Effusion Chronic infections of the middle ear cavity especially those with thick serous uid can delay phonological development OME is cause by microorganisms which infect and in ame middle ear through the Eustachian tube typically resulting in respiratory infections No direct connection yet between OME and difficulty with phonological disorders I Same characteristics of unknown I Auditory deprivation 0 Structural defects I Teeth poor positioning missing I Tongue too small too big cancer patients I Lips and palate Cleft I Cleft Palate Malformation of the roof or mouth that affects l in 700 newborns Fissure or gap in roof of mouth May be unilateral or bilateral Surgery is typically done to correct clefts and can cause phonological delay 0 Accent vs Dialect o Dialect regional speech 0 Accent cultural language 0 Assessment of disorder 0 Oral Mechanism Test screening Examines structures and functions of system Spontaneous speech sample Formal Test of articulation Informal test 000 0 Domain of Language 0 Form I Phonology sounds I Morphology past present I Syntax 0 Content I Semantics Meaning 0 Pragmatics I How you use it 39 I ammaoe Disorders 0 Language disorder impaired comprehension and or use of a spoken written or other symbolic system 0 Developmental Acquired from birth 0 Acquired acquired after birth eX injury 0 Etiologies of Language Impairments 0 Speci c Language Impairments I Signi cant impairment of expressive or receptive language that cannot be attributed to any other reason I Usually diagnosed after 3rd birthday I Inconsistent skills across domains I Slow vocabulary development I Dif culty nding right words to use I Dif culty with grammatical production and comprehension I Problems in social skills behavior and attention I Language dif culties persisting over time I CausesFactors No known cause 0 Intellectual Disability I Condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period 0 Limitations in intelligence 0 Limitations in adaptive behavior 0 IQ 0 5069 mild o 3549moderate 0 2034 severe o lt20 profound 0 Cause by many reasons 40 cannot be identi ed 0 Prenatal damage 0 Environmental eX Neglect 0 Pregnancy and prenatal problems such as anoxia malnutrition o Autism Spectrum Disorders I Variety of developmental conditions that are characterized by signi cant dif culties in social relationships communication repetitive behaviors and overly restricted interests I Includes Autism childhood disintegrative disorder asperger s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder I Delays in language development I 50 never develop functional language I Language show prevalence of o Echolalia 7 repetition of phrases heard elsewhere 0 Pronominal confusion referring to self using third person 0 Selfstimulatory speech use of sounds repeatedly without intent o Dysprosody unusual pitch rhythm pace 0 Paralinguistic difficulty with eye gaze proximity gestures 0 Word meaning problems Context inability to use language to refer to events away from the here and now I Results from organic brain abnormality o Anoxia lack of oxygen prenatal increases risk of autism 0 Severe sensory deprivation o Iceberg Theory 0 Pronunciation grammar vocabulary top9 manifestation of interpersonal language communicative text 0 Cognitive academic proficiency bottom 9 Manipulation of text in decontextualized academic situations Developmental Trends in Infancy 0 Hearing Loss in Infants 0 Approximately 2 per 1000 births 0 Prevalence of infants who are at risk is much higher than that of the general population 0 Early detection and intervention 0 Goal to identify and provide intervention for babies with hearing loss as early as possible in order to maximize the likelihood of the normal development of speech and language 0 Detection I Newborn Hearing Screenings o Otoacoustic Emissions o Auditory Brainstem Response I Currently 42 states have EHDI that screen more that 85 of newborns 0 Cause of hearing loss in infants 0 Congenital Hearing loss I Genetic or hereditary HL thought to be the cause of more than 50 of all incidents of congenital hearing loss I Other congenital HL present at birth that are not hereditary 0 Acquired after birth I Ear infections otitis media I Ototoxic drugs I Infections I Perforation of TM I Disease I Head Injury I Noise exposure 0 Other Causes of Congenital HL Not genetic I Prenatal infections I Complications associated with the Rh factor in blood I Prematurity I Maternal Diabetes I Toxemia during pregnancy I Anoxia o Milestones in baby hearing 0 Birth 3 months I Startles or jumps at sudden noise I Stirs wakes up when someone makes noise I Recognizes voice 0 36 months I Turns eyes towards noise I Appears to listen I Awakes easily to sounds 0 612 months I Turns head towards sounds I Understands no and bye bye I Begins to initiate speech sounds o 12 months I Says rst words such as mama or bye bye Tests 0 Behavioral Observation audiometry I Infants 06 months I Not recommended because of ambiguity I Present a sound and look to see if the infant responds in any way I Limitations 0 Requires absolute sensitivity 0 Several examiners 0 Responses need to be monitored 0 Visual Reinforcement Audiometry I 6 months to 2 years I Soundfield or under headphones I Better ear information only if done in SF I Present a sound when a child looks toward where the sound came from light yp a toy as reinforcement o Conditioned play audiometry I Older than 2 years I Give the child a task to do when they hear a beep I Child should be tolerable of headphones for ear specific info I Usually able to get a SAT or SRT with cooperative child 0 Difficulties while testing I Attention I Fussiness I Sleepy Treatment Rehab 0 Hearing aids ear huggies parental training important 0 Cochlear implants I Audiologic and medical candidacy criteria 0 Bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss 0 Pure tone thresholds should be not better than 95 dB HL 0 Candidates should receive minimal benefit from amplification 0 Must consider presence of other disabilities 0 Parents I Facilitators I Management I Counseling 0 Communication I Baby sign language I May lack fine motor skills until 1 year of age CDIS Midterm Diagram of Larynx Dipthons Monothons Lobes and Hemispheres Number wise Amplitude Psychological Perception of Sound Speech pathologist role Normal Range Hearing in adults Characteristics of cleft palate EI Early intervention Indentify who is in need and who is not in need of help with language de ciency Fixed articulator teeth etc Language learning ends when What is a language disorder What is a language difference Accent and dialect Responsibility of hemispheres left and right hemisphere Rami cations of otitis media Auditory cortex identify De nitions phonology morphology pragmatics syntax semantics Diagram of ear Healthy ear substances and unhealthy substances Echolalia repetition of word Preserveration scripting can be words or gesture Mimicking words gesture etc Components of the outer ear middle ear Function of tympanic membrane Is staring a problem in autism Language is arbitrary there is no reason for why things are labeled and called what they are Modalities of language Expressive is talking Receptive language is listening Syntax Morphology past present Phonology sounds Semantics Meaning Pragmatics how you use it Critical period hypothesis
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