NS 4500 Cheat Sheet Notes
NS 4500 Cheat Sheet Notes NS 4500
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NS 4500 at Cornell University taught by Dr. Rosenkranz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Public Health Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Food Labeling (NLEA) Stakeholders: [Food Labeling] Food companies (redesign packaging/do more nutrient research), Consumers (more informed) Definition: Keyhole systemNordic system of labeling healthy foods with a green sticker (good system b/c easy to understand, accepted by food industry, does not require language mastery) FDA Compliance and Enforcement: Assurance (Monitor, Report) Programs (Inspection [field exams, sample collection, statecollected labels, food labeling educational materials, data reporting], analysis [analyzing units, analysis, reporting results]} Food Fortification 4 Ethical Principles in PH: Autonomy, Justice, Beneficence, Nonmaleficence Neural Tube Defects: rate has been declining since the 1950s, but is still problem in UK. Folic Acid Supplementation/nutrition education/fortification are solutions to increasing folic acid levels in women. Women need ~0.4mg folic acid/day. BUT overconsumption could potentially have neg effects. Supplementation=”The magic bullet approach”increase folate intake, decrease NTD 70%, Consume more folic acid , take vitamin supplement before conception, through the first trimester of pregnancy. Why “magic bullet” is not effective: women don’t consume sufficient dietary folate, or take folate supplements, or plan their pregnancies. Nutrition Education: restricted to those who need extra folate, restricted to individual level, may not actually result in people increasing folate levels (or if they do, not by enough) Fortification: affects whole population, not a voluntary approach (therefore, a last result solution) US fortification history: Originally (1940) done to prevent deficiency disease. Now, to prevent a birth defect. Things currently fortified: salt, milk and infant formula, water, cereal grains. Consequences of fortification: (infants) inc spontaneous abortion, dec birth in other birth defects, inc survival of NTD babies, reduc in pediatric cancer (neuroblastoma). (adults) dec CVD/stroke [mixed consensus], inc rate of cog decline, inc progression of cancer, thus inc mortality. The folate policy dilemma: -Original dilemma: Small but certain benefits for NTDs, Large but uncertain risks for elderly fetuses children drug interactions -Current dilemma: Lower then anticipated benefits in prevention of NTDs (some NTDs have other causes); Risk benefit trade off for chronic diseases among adults is complex but favorable -Current Policy debate: Should the amount of folate be decreased because intakes exceed the UL for children, Should the amount be increased so as to reduce NTDs further and reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease, Should folate be prescribed individually instead? Should Vit B12 be added, Or do we even have the right target? Breastfeeding Related Policies ● To support BF20 Action Steps ● mothers and their families ● communities ● health care ● maternity leave ● employment ● research ● Public Health Infrastructure ● Monitoring Rates of Breastfeeding ○ Companies of baby formulas want to know more about breastfeeding then the government ○ NHANES ● CDC Bresatfeeding Report Card ● Infant feeding Pratices Study 2: Follow Up Study ● Launched March 2012 ● IFPS followed monthy from pregnancy to 12 moths ● Detailed informationa on feding and determinants ● Effects of Federal legislation ● Mandates ● Authorizing language ● Approrizing language ● Appropiations ● The major missing link is maternity leave ● Afforable Care Act ● Reasonable breaks for Nursing Mothers ● All empolyers must provide hourly workers with reasonable accomdations to epress milk ● ADEQUATE TIME ● ADEQUATE SPACE ( NOT ABATHROOM ● reasonable accomodations to express milk ● 10 weeks unpaird leave → poverty people cannot afford to stop working without being paid ● some empolyes provide pump ● Who defines adequate? The act did not say what adequate is and did not say what yhe min characteristic are → did not define because thought could have more imaginative solutins ● Coverage of womens Preventatione helath services (without copay) ● National Media c ampaign ● Loving Support makes breastfeeding Work ● Hardest of 10 step to meet ● Removing formula Poverty We have wage, housing, and health insurance crises. Real val of min wage=$9/hr ⅓ houses unaffordable/unlivable Income: The amount of money you receive annually from work for pay, pensions, govt programs, income from investments,etc. (Net) Wealth: The total value of savings, investments, housing, cars, minus debt (mortgage, loans, etc) Minimum wage is always higher than poverty wage Health care insurance changes: Pros [32 M more will have insurance, small employers offer coverage, young adults covered by ‘rents, fill “donut hole” in medicare coverage] Cons [13 mil still uncovered, penalty for not buying required plan, highpremium, employerpaid plans will be taxed, doesn’t address probs of illegal aliens] Assurance Assurance FEderal Contribution Food ASsistance Programs Ways by which Food assistance programs work (Federal nutrition “safety net”) SNAP
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