H D 406
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mrs. Carlie Sipes on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to H D 406 at Washington State University taught by Matthew Bumpus in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/205968/h-d-406-washington-state-university in Human Development at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
HD 406 Exam 2 Study Guide Spring 2010 Note This study guide is not intended to be 100 comprehensive 1 Describe some of the most important research on work pressure in dualearner families eg Bolger Larson Crouter What conclusions can be drawn from these studies about the relative in uence of men s vs women s work experiences in dualeamer families a Bolger 7 wives did more work at home in response to the husband s difficult day at work but husband s didn t reciprocate Larson 7 Pointed out that to really understand what is going on in families we need to think carefully about how we study them we shouldn t just use surveys Set out to study families in an extreme microscopic way using the ESM 7 Experience Sampling Method i Gave members of the family notebooks and pagers when they get paged they had to stop what they were doing and write in the notebook what are you currently doing how do you feel etc Several times a day every day for several weeks Crouter Each of them found that men s work carried more weight at home than women s work Fquot so 2 Describe Bowlby s theory of attachment What is its relevance in the area of work and family a First reason that pointed to maternal employment being bad showed a link between nonmatemal care and insecure attachment Drove research on negative effects of maternal work 3 What is the strange situation a Lab procedure to measure attachment What are some results from in uential early studies on the association between childcare and attachment What are some of the shortcomings of these studies a Weren t meaningful results 5 Describe the NICHD Early Child Care Study What have been some of its most important findings a Studied inhome care home care at someone else s home child care center and maternal care age of entry into care amount of nonmatemal care per week stability of care and quality of care b Results i Quality of care matters 7 high quality leads to higher standardized test scores prosocial skills and fewer behavioral problems Amount of care per week matters 7 more time in nonmatemal care is related to poorer work habits more negative peer interaction and more problem behaviors iii Type of care matters 7 more time in child care center is related to more con ictual relationship with teachermother fewer prosocial skills and stronger cognitive and language skills 4 0 gt1 9 0 Why is afterschool care an especially interesting and potentially difficult issue for families with middleschool aged children 1014 years old a There aren t any norms around care for children of that age are they old enough to stay by themselves Are they too old for childcare There is no consensus on what constitutes an appropriate age for selfcare after school Funding for after school programs for these kids is scarce Describe the most important effects when children spend large quantities of time alone after school a 3 hours or more at a time home alone tended to have lower test scores got in trouble more more depressed What are some factors of successful afterschool programs for preadolescents a Program feature a positive emotional climate adapts to meet the needsinterests of students and includes a wide range of activities According to Uttal what are some common ways in which employed mothers reconcile their sense of motherhood with placement of their children in childcare a Custodial care 7 don t see child care provider as an important in uence on the child just ful ll a need Surrogate care 7 see child care provider as the primary socialize and childcare provider replace the mother Coordinated care 7 see both roles of child care provider and mother as important and equal in socialization Fquot O According to Galinsky what are the differences between children of employed mothers and children of nonemployed mothers with regard to parenting a There is no impact Why are focused time and hang out time important according to children a Parents overemphasized focused or quality time kids like hangout or quantity time because that meets the unpredictable needs of kids You can t plan to have a really good conversation on Monday from 34pm In general how concerned are children about their parents work Do they wish their parents worked less a Think their parents don t like their job b Wished their parents made more money According to Hochschild what is a time scarcity cycle Why is the time scarcity cycle potentially a problem for children a Long hours at work lst shift cause more stress at home 2quotd shift and make the time at home less enjoyable 3rd shift causing parent to take more hours at work to avoid being home b Bad for children because a depressed parent isn t a very good parent What is a coercive cycle How do principles of negative reinforcement help in our understanding of the development of the coercive cycle a Child refuses the parents demand the parent withdraws the child continues to refuse demands b Negative reinforcement 7 parent asks child to clean room child says no parents give up because they don t want to fight child doesn t have to clean their room this reinforces the child s refusal 15 How have demographic shift in uenced the ways in which Americans typically experience midlife a Delayed childbirth and longer life expectancy these make it more likely that adults reach middle age and are dual caregivers children and parents b Smaller families 7 fewer siblings to share the burden of elder care 16 What are some effects of dual caregiving a Scarcity hypothesis 7 causes less time b Impacts marital satisfaction a better relationship on one end makes for a better relationship on the other end c Related to stress and absenteeism at work d Related to depression e Mediated by role satisfaction 7 more satisfaction less depression and better maritalcarereceiver relationship 17 Describe the most important aspects of the 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act a Guarantees that employers must treat pregnancychildbirth like any other disability b It is illegal for employers to i Refuse to hirepromote a pregnant woman ii Demotef1re a woman due to pregnancy iii Force a pregnant woman to take a leave iv Refuse to allow a pregnant woman to return to work V Offer pregnancy related benefits to only married women V Refuse to offer benefits to women who have abortions 18 According to Hochschild what is the third shift a First shift is duties at work second shift is duties at home b Third shift is what happens when parents have to put in additional work to smooth out the stresses of the transitions between the two shifts 19 According to our discussions of family leave what are some ways in which family leave matters for employees and their families For the workplace a Mother s leave 7 maternal leave of less than 12 weeks leads to greater depression b Father s leave 7 leave is usually informal are more involved in childcare when they take leave Infant health 7 maternal leave shorter than 12 weeks leads to lower infant cognitive ability decreases likelihood of breastfeeding through 6 months which helps cognitive development Employee leave 7 generous leave policies increase the likelihood that the employee will return to work less likely to be promoted lower performance rating Employers 7 higher retention rate and employee morale when leave policies are in place many Americans think leave puts an unfair burden on their coworkers 0 3 1 D N HD 406 Spring 2010 Study Guide for Exam 1 According to our class discussions what are the more important trends with regard to families circumstances Focus on the two transformations that we discussed in class a Farm families to industrialization Industrialization to partial specialization Maternal employment rates Family structure changes Rates of employment among parents with children f Ages at which life changes are made Describe the distinction between private solutions and public solutions regarding worldfamily issues a Public 7 family leave regulated work hours affordablehigh quality childcare options b Private 7 reduced hours for one parent split shifts nonparental care c Public refers to statefederal aid and private refers to family by family decisions What are some factors that explain the increase in women s employment rates a WWII 7 out ofnecessity Shift in norms 7 education and work following childbirth became popular new occupational fields 7 sales clerical higher demand for women Birth control 7 plan you family around your careerlife plans Men s decline in earning power f Increase in divorce rates How is poverty typically defined What are some problems with this definition a Orshansky index 7 low income people spend 13 of income on food b Problem it is more like 17 living expenses have increased since then doesn t include regional adjustment healthcare costs have skyrocketed Define middle class from a statistical and cultural perspective How is middle class experienced differently for many AfricanAmerican families a 60140 of median income b Think of suburban 2 kids and a dog EuropeanAmerican hardworking school quality normal families c AfricanAmerican middle class more likely to live close to poor families 7 in uences crime rates educational funding overall environment etc middle class is experienced differently in different racial groups According to Kohn how is social class related to parenting behaviors a If you want to understand parenting behaviors you must understand their values for their children i Working classblue collar 7 value obedience and doing what dad says because that is important at their job ii Middle classwhite collar 7 value independence and creativity and standing up for yourself because that is important at their job iii What we do at work affects the values we instill upon our children What are some ways in which housework is strongly gendered activity 0305 0305 9 0 O L a Men do less routine housework more occasional housework b Strong gender patterns in terms of what people actually do What is a trend with regard to housework participation in the US a Men are doing more women are doing less What are the most important predictors of how spousespartners will share or not share responsibilities for housework As earnings are more equivalent housework is more equivalent Younger partners share more than older partners Raceethnicity 7 AfricanAmericans share more Latinos share less Parental status 7 becoming parent makes you more onesidedtraditionalless shared Attitudes 993 e What are the challenges for single parents especially single fathers with regard to housework a Mothers 7 feel like it all falls on them end up doing less housework b Fathers 7 may not have ever really done housework before have to learn how usually use the help of children do more housework than they would have Why are gender role attitudes important in explaining why housework may be related to marital satisfaction a Housework only really matters in relationship quality if you are doing more housework than you think you should do if you perceive split as unfair What are some explanations for the increase in weekly work hours over the past several years a Payoff of promotion job security and it signals your commitment to your career b Lowered earning potential 7 have to work more to earn as much as in the past c 247 economy What are the most common effects of overwork on marital and parentchild relationships a Marital relationship 7 no difference in time spent w spouse con ict or affection b Parentchild relationship 7 less time with kids more con ict less affection Maternal employment seems to have few negative effects for children How does Bianchi explain this a Overestimated how much time mothers spend w children in direct care b Overestimated how much mothers time at work impacts their time with their children c Overestimated how much time children are available to spend with their parents d Underestimated how much time fathers spend with children What are the effects of nonstandard shift work night or rotating shifts for families according to the research by Presser and Strazdins What are some explanations for this pattern a Presser 7 spousal relationship i Women usually work odd hours for personalfamily reason men for job reasons Strongest predictor of divorce is when females work night shifts 7 don t get enough sleep 7 physical and psychological problems 7 couple rarely see eachother b Strazdins 7 parentchild relationship i Nightevening work leads to parental depression less effective parenting behaviors 7 cranky parents might take it out on their kids ii Children don t do well 7 depression getting in trouble poor grades 16 Why is parttime work increasingly common in the US a Long work hours have become the norm so bigger need to accommodate those who cannot work as many hours 247 economy 95 work day is in the past need to be exible Family and medical leave act Changing demographics more women working Recruitment and retention 7 attracting employees by offering parttime options 17 According to Drago what are three gaps and three norms that make worklife balance difficult How does the new gender gap describe the difficulties many women face in finding worklife balance a Gender Gap 7 2 ways to define traditional and new i Traditional 1 Males earn more money 100 079 2 Females more housework unpaid care ii New 7 focus on females women struggle more 1 Women who invest in career vs women who don t a Investment types education at least BA and work hours at least 40 hrsweek i Almost 5050 men and women invested b Invest primarily in care giving 39 Parenting 1 When primary custody 85 mom Paid childcare l 98 female Early educationkindergarten l 85 female iv Unpaid elder care 1 75 female Paid elder care 1 90 female Care for disabled 1 Predominantly female 18 According to Shipler one of the major themes of life for the working poor is that different aspects of poverty are interrelated What does he mean by this be prepared to give examples a Poverty doesn t typically stay isolated in one dimension 39 When you are on the edge of poverty things are pretty fragile When you don t have health insurance or no paid sick leave what are the implications for what happens when a child gets sick iii Eg life events have a domino effect 7 when child gets sick parents forced to make decisions about what to do miss work no health insurance 1 Creates a spiral of other challenges in different aspects of life 999 D ii39 lt v39 i39 What are the challenges of getting out of poverty The rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer Won t be multiple choice questions need to pull out major themes in short answer questions don t need to remember speci c names 2 HD 406 Final Exam Study Guide Describe the Family and Medical Leave Act Who is eligible What are the bene ts for employees What are the primary problems with the FMLA 0 Description 0 Who is Eligible o All public employees local federal etc 0 ND 0 All private employees working for companies with at least 50 employees 0 WHO HAVE 0 Worked for the employer for at least 12 months at least 12 time 0 Bene ts 0 Up to 12 weeks of UNPAID leave in each 12month period for the following reasons I Serious health condition I Care for a seriously ill child spouse or parent I Childbirth or to care for a newborn child I Placement of child with you for adoption or foster care 0 Issues 0 Employer violations 0 What constitutes a serious health condition 0 De nition of family member is limited I De nition spouse child or parent I No grandparents no siblings no cohabiting samesex or oppositesex partner 0 Doesn t apply to employees of small businesses I 60 of employees in America are covered 0 It is unpaid What are the components of familyfriendly workplaces o PoliciesPrograms o Dependent care support 0 Flexible work options 0 Familypersonal leave 0 Time nancial management resources 0 Educationtraining 0 Conventional bene ts compensation o CultureClimate 0 Organizational time demands 0 Perceived career consequences 0 Managerial support 0 Climate for sharingnot sharing concerns 0 Climate for sacri ces 0 Climate for boundary separation o Workplace Relations 0 Coworkers that you get along well with 0 Offer support encouragement entertainment 0 Could be a source of con ict Why is workplace culture an important consideration in determining whether workplaces are familyfriendly o It doesn t matter if you have the workplace bene ts if the culture doesn t allow you to utilize them 0 It s not enough to just have a policy Describe the Fair Labor Standards Act What were its primary effects 0 Description 0 Minimum wage setting 0 Safetyrestrictions for teenage workers 0 Time and a half for overtime work 0 Effects 0 Changes in safety 0 Creates tensionhostility between workers and employers as they try to get around the time and a half issue What are the controversies surrounding overtime pay as described in the FLSA 0 Time and a half pay policy which you must qualify for 0 People are being exempt from this 7 given a job title solely to make them exempt 0 When you are eligible you have to work overtime at the discretion of your employer mandatory overtime Describe the issues raised in the Mommy Track Backlash article Can a workplace be too familyfriendly for its own good What are some problems for supervisors in implementing familyfriendly policies 0 Issues of Fairness vs Equality 0 Our goal cannot be equality in settings when they go against each other 0 Supervisors have to balance the needs of employees who have family responsibilities to those who are not raising young children 0 Sometimes employees without young children feel discriminated against 0 Resentment occurs when leave policies are implemented Describe the debate regarding Social Security What are some strengths and weaknesses of the Social Security system What are some possible solutions to address the weaknesses o Strengths 0 Efficient 0 It s effective I 1959 24 of older Americans were in poverty I Today 7 are in poverty 0 Benefits are progressive o The surplus will last until 2010 o Weaknesses 0 Tax is regressive I Earning cap 106800 0 Many don t need it 0 Demographics I Baby Boomers 7 born between 19461964 I Workers to Retirees 0 Today 41 0 2025 251 o Surplus will be gone in 2037 0 Solutions 0 Continue to shrink the bene ts and expand the taxes I Retirement age going up I Tax rate going up I Decreasing monthly bene ts I Less spouse bene ts In what ways are US work and family issues problems unique to this country compared to Canada and Europe 0 More likely to work nonstandard hours 0 Less likely to have paid matemityfamilyparenting leave How does the availability of familymedical leave in the US compare to EuropeCanada 0 Less in the US Describe changes in adolescent employment in the United States over the past century o Moved from 0 High rates of adolescent employment 0 Little regulation of their employment 0 Worked most dangerousleast desirable jobs 0 Child labor laws 0 Mandatory school attendance laws 0 Norm becomes staying in school and sometimes working parttime as well What kinds of j obs do American teenagers typically perform Describe the results of research examining the effects of work on adolescent development psychological functioning problem behavior academic achievement 0 Working over 20 hours a week puts teenagers at high risk for depression and has a negative effect upon grades 0 Working 1020 hours a week puts teenagers at moderate risk for depression and has a positive effect upon grades Long hours correlated w substance use Lots of occupational deviance 0 See work as something you want to avoid scheme to get as much out of it as possible by adding hours to your timecard stealing merch etc 0 Peers are adults 15 20 What is occupational deviance o Behaviors we do at work that are either illegal or against the rules 0 Stealing o Lying on time card 0 Giving friends discounts 0 Calling in sick when you aren t o Teenagers do these more than anyone else 0 Does this lead them to think that work is a place where you rip off your employer if you can 7 cynical outlook What seem to be the most important factors in explaining whether an adolescent s job will be a positive or negative experience 0 Positive 0 Having a mentor 0 Related to career goals 0 Flexible schedule 0 Negative 0 Boring o Stressful 0 Long hours 0 Having to choose between work and doing other things you like From Becoming Adult describe teenagers expectations about their future employment 0 Teens were very optimistic regarding the prestige of their future job 0 AthleteAttomeyPhysician etc 0 However they did not know a lot about the educational requirements of such careers To what extent are teens preparing for their anticipated career What types of activities are most common How do age raceethnicity and SES matter 0 Most teenagers are not preparing for their career 0 Activities 7 start as family related then school related then community related 0 The activities become more realistic as teenagers get older 0 European Americans High SES people had more connections What types of activities do teens generally view as work vs play 0 Work 0 School job homework chores 0 Play 0 Hanging out with friends playing games leisure time 0 Important because they don t conceptualize work as anything other than something to be avoided because it isn t enjoyable Describe the importance of activities described by adolescents as like both work and play 0 Goes along with ow 0 Usually found in theatre music or sports 0 Important because it s a missed opportunity for learning and education 21 22 What is ow How is it important for adolescents daily experiences 0 Flow Experiences that are challenging and require high levels of skill 0 Makes work really enjoyable o This is not always happening at work 0 For young people this doesn t happen at work or school Why might adolescent work be important for identity development 0 Identity development occurs during adolescence o Ideology belief system 0 Love sexuality 0 Work I Who am I going to be I Work ethic I Career paths o C quot quot of poituuit and time to explore options and making quot Exploration Yes No E 8 3 Achievement Foreclosure a gt4 3 E E o O z Moratorium Diffusion Exploration and Commitment 0 Achievement Exploration without Commitment 0 Moratorium 0 Commitment without Exploration 0 Foreclosure o No Exploration or Commitment 0 Diffusion 0 Healthy Development 0 Moratorium gt Commitment 0 Adolescent employment can be a good step in this process if it provides moratorium I Ruling out alternatives and identifying possible pathways KNOW POLICIES AND TRENDS
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