Test 1 Study Guide!
Test 1 Study Guide! DEP3103
Popular in Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP3103 at Florida State University taught by Ryan Peters in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Test 1 Study Guide CH 13 CH1 1 Child development is the understanding of the constancy and changes from conception to adolescence 2 There are three domains of development They combine in a holistic integrated fashion They all in uence each other a b Physical Changes in body size proportions appearance functioning of the body perceptual and motor capacities and physical health Cognitive Changes in intellectual abilities including attention memory academic and everyday knowledge problem solving imagination creativity and language Emotional Social Changes in emotional communication selfunderstanding knowledge about other people interpersonal skills friendships intimate relationships and moral reasoningbehavior 3 Periods of Development Each brings new capacities and social expectations a b Prenatal Conception to Birth The most rapid time of change the baby develops from a single cell organism Infancy and toddlerhood Birth to 2 yrs Dramatic changes occur in the body and brain that support the emergence of a wide variety of motor perceptual and intellectual capacities Language emerges first intimate ties to others appear i Infancy is the first year ii Toddlerhood is the second year Child takes first steps and becomes more autonomous Early Childhood 26 years The body becomes longer and leaner motor skills are refines The child becomes more selfcontrolled and selfsufficient Imagination develops thought and language rapidly eXpand Mortality develops and the child establishes ties with peers Middle Childhood 611 years Learn about a wider world and develop more responsibility Improved athletic ability participates in organized sports with rules more logical thought process mastery of academic skills Also develops understanding of self mortality and friendship Adolescents 1118 years Transition to adulthood child goes through puberty and develops an adult body and sexual maturity Thoughts become more abstract Schooling is geared towards preparation for the real world Establish autonomy from the family and their own values and goals 4 Basic Issues in Development a Continuous vs Discontinuous i Continuous is gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with Change is gradual and ongoing ii Discontinuous is when new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at speci c times Uses stages Change occurs in sudden periods of rapid transformation b One Course or Many i Stage theorists believe that everyone follows the same sequence of development ii Contemporary theorists believe in contexts the unique combination of personal and enviormental circumstances that can result in different paths of change They are many layered and complex c Nature or Nurture i Nature Inbom biological givens heredity information from genes ii Nurture Complex forces of physical and social world that in uence who we are d Stability vs Plasticity i Stability If you are good or bad at a certain task you will remain so in later years because of heredity or early experiences They believe that powerful negative events early on can not be overcome later in life ii Plasticity How good you are at something is able to change based on experiences e A Balanced View i Acknowledging that there is both continuous and discontinuous development universal and unique features and that heredity and environment are interwoven Heredity Environment and circumstances are all contexts of development 5 Three Grand Theories of Development a Psychoanalytic Theory Emotions Children move through a series of stages in which they confront con icts between biological drives and social expectations How these con icts are resolved determines the person39s ability to learn get along with others and cope with anxiety Irrational underlying desires affect behavior they often develop during childhood i Psychosexual Theory Freud Emphasizes how parents manage their children39s sexual and aggressive drives in the rst few years is crucial for personality development ii Psychosocial Theory Erikson Id Impulses Superego Demands Ego makes a positive contribution to development by making the individual an active member of society b Behaviorism Actions Directly observable events stimuli and responses are the focus of study 1 ii iii iv Classical Conditioning Pairing stimulus with a neutral stimulus to create a conditioned stimulus Learned fears Operant conditioning Reinforcers and Punishment Social Learning Modeling behaviors causes imitations and is a powerful source of development Behavior modi cation procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors or increase desirable one39s c Cognitive Theory Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world 1 ii iii iv Sensorimotor stage 02 years Cognitive development begins and senses and movements are used to eXplore the world Preoperational stage 27 years Actions develop into symbolic but illogical thinking Development of language and make believe play emerge Concrete Operational 711 years More organized and logical reasoning More organized Formal Operational 11 years Thoughts become abstract systematic reasoning system emerges Problem solving inferences can be made and tested 6 Other Psychological Theories Studies a Evolutionary Developmental Psychology Seeks to understand the adaptive value of specieswide cognitive emotional and social competencies as they change with age Clarifying the origins and development of such behaviors to spark effective interventions What values are and aren39t adaptive b Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory How culture beliefs and skills are transmitted to the next generations Cooperative dialogues between children and adults is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving appropriate for their culture c Ecological Systems Theory Children develop in a compleX system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment 1 ii iii iv Microsystem Activities and interaction patterns in the child39s immediate surroundings Mesosystem Connections between microsystems ie home school child care Exosystem Do not contain children but affect the child39s eXperience in immediate settings ie Parents workplace Macrosystem Cultural values laws customs and resources V Chronosystem Life changes can be imposed on a child they can arise from within the child As children get older they select modify and create many of their own experiences d Ethology The adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history i Imprinting recognizing and trusting parent ii Critical Period A limited time Where a child can acquire certain adaptive behaviors with appropriate stimulation iii Sensitive period An optimal time for certain capacities to emerge Can emerge later but they are harder to induce CH2 1 Research in Developmental Psychology a Research Cycle i Start with empirical evidence than look for more to build a theory ii Theory gt Research Question gt Research Strategie gt Hypothesis gt Data gt Theory b Quantitative vs Qualitative i Quantitative deploys mathematical methods Usually with a large sample Statistical analysis is common Systematic Naturalistic and Structured ii Qualitative understanding the underlying meaning and motives Samples are small and deliberately chosen Subjectively c Observational Research i Naturalistic observation Going into the natural environment to record the behavior of interest ii Structured Observation The researcher sets up a laboratory interview that evokes the behavior of interest equally in all participants iii Event sampling records all instances of a particular behavior during a time period iv Time Sampling Records certain behaviors during a sample of short intervals v Limitations 1 Observer In uence the effects ofthe observer on the behavior studied 2 Observer bias Observers may record What they eXpect to see rather than What they do d Ethnography i Qualitative technique to understand a culture or social group ii Researcher lives in community for an extended period of time 2 Interviews 9 i Clinical Conversational style to probe for the participants point of view However the participant may not accurately present themselves or remember an event correctly The exible styles make the responses vary ii Structured Every participant is asked the same question in the same way to eliminate interviewer bias Not as in depth and some may answer in socially desirable ways Questionnaire Similar to structured interviews g Neurobiological Methods i Measures the relationship between the nervous system processes and behavior Allows us to infer perception cognitive abilities and emotions ii Measures the autonomic nervous system activities that are sensitive to the psychological state blood pressure heart rate etc h Case Study When a person has an unusual condition they are studied personally in great detail Interviews observations test scores and neurobiological measures are included i Reliability vs validity i Reliability is the consistency or repeatability of measures of a behavior 1 TestRetest Can the test be repeated with the same outcome 2 Interrater Will different judges nd the same results ii Validity is how accurately the test measures what it is supposed to test 1 Internal Validity Does the study s design accurately test the hypothesis 2 External Validity How well do the ndings relate to the outside world j Correlations i l to l the closer to O the weaker ii Correlation does not equal causation iii Correlational design researchers gather information about a participant and relate it to their behaviors No manipulation iv Correlation Coefficient r describes how two variables are associated Experimental Design Permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions a Variables i Independent Is expected to cause change to another variable ii Dependent Is expected to be in uenced by the independent variable iii Confounding Closely related variables that have effects on the outcome which can not be distinguished from the independent variable b Longitudinal Same participants are studied at different ages and changes are noted as they get older i Advantages Allows for the study of common patterns and individual differences of development It also lets them examine relationships between early and later life events ii Disadvantages Biased sampling could cause distortion selective attrition practice and cohort effects The study may become outdated c Cross Sectional Studies groups of participants ranging in ages at the same time i Advantages More efficient less attrition and practice effects ii Disadvantages Does Not permit studying of individual patterns Age differences may be destroyed due to cohort effects d Sequential Combines longitudinal and cross sectional by either studying the same ages in different years or different ages in the same years i Advantages Permits comparisons from both studies reveals cohort effects enables tracking of agerelated changes ii Disadvantages May suffer from disadvantages of both types of studies but should point out the difficulties in design of each e Microgenetics Similar to longitudinal Presents child with a novel task and follows their master over a series of closely spaced sessions i Advantages Offers insight into how changes occur ii Disadvantages Requires intensive studying of the moment to moment behavior of subjects The time is required for change is difficult to anticipate Practice effects f Ethics The benefits must outweigh the risks of the experiment i Protection from harm ii Informed Consent iii Privacy iv Knowledge of results v Beneficial treatments CH3 1 Genetic Foundations a Genes i Segments of DNA that codes for and in uences phenotypes ii Chromosome store and transmits genetic information iii Genome is a person full set of genes and noncoding DNA iv Replicates via mitosis V DNA gt RNA gt Protein Central Dogma b Sex Cells i Gamete has 23 chromosomes ii When a gamete is fertilized it becomes a zygote with 46 chromosomes iii Crossing over is the sharing of information between chromosomes c Patterns of Inheritance i Alleles are different forms of the same trait 1 One is inherited from each parent 2 If they are both the same they are homozygous 3 If they are different they are heterozygous ii Dominantrecessive inheritance Only the dominant allele is expressed iii Incomplete dominance Both alleles are expressed leading to an intermediate expression or a combined trait iv Genomic imprinting one pair of alleles are chemically marked so they are active no matter what the make up is It may be temporary and disappear in the next generation V The sicklecell allele recessive codes for sickle cell the dominant codes for malaria resistance 2 Gene Regulation a Switches i Stretches of DNA that determine when where and to what extent a gene is expressed ii Genes are controlled by multiple switches b Regulatory Molecules i Transcription factors ii Activate and deactivate genes by adding switches iii They recruit or block RNA polymerase iv All cells have the same genes but different regulatory molecules c Mutations i Sudden but permanent changes to genome ii Germline mutation Takes place in cells that lead to gametes and can be passed onto offspring It either modifies the gene or modifies the switch iii Somatic Mutations Normal body cells mutate causes cancer but is not passed onto offspring iv A single base change can add a switch 3 Genomic Imprinting a Inheritance i Alleles are marked and silenced so that only one is expressed and only one pair is working ii Chemical tags stay in place during the whole organism39s life but are reset during meiosis b Polygenic Inheritance i One characteristic is controlled by more than one gene ii ie Height skin color iii Quantitative vary along a continuum c Chromosomal Abnormalities i Usually from mistakes during meiosis ii The risk increases with increased age of the mother iii Xlinked inheritance is when the disorder is carried on the X chromosome This affects men more iv Down syndrome trisomy of 21st chromosome d Genetic Counseling i Bene cial for those having difficulty conceiving older mothers those with inherited diseases ii Many avoid because it may harm their marriage and it won t change the outcome 4 Zygote From fertilization to implantation 12 weeks a Fertilization i Either occurs on day of ovulation or 2 days before ovulation ii Occurs in fallopian tubes iii Cell division and cell differentiation begins iv Sperm can last for 34 days v Egg can last for 1224 hrs b Blastocyte develops after four days and burrows into uterine lining c Implantation i Occurs after week one d Protective membranes i Placenta Brings mother and baby39s blood close together brings food and water takes away waste ii Amnion encloses amniotic uid helps keep the temperature constant and cushions against jolts iii Chorion surrounds amnion and yolk sac iv Umbilical cord connects baby to placenta 5 Embryo Implantation to 8 weeks a Embryonic disk 24 weeks i Heart begins beating ii iii Nervous system develops Ectoderm nervous system and skin iv Mesoderm muscles skeleton circulatory system and internal organs V Endoderm digestive system lungs urinary tract and glands vi These three layers give rise to all parts of the body b 2nd Month i Eyes ears nose jaw and neck form ii Fingers legs toes form iii Internal organs become more distinct iv Production of neurons begins v Can sense it39s world and move 6 Fetus Week 9 to Birth Rapid increase in size a 3rd Month 1 ii iii iv v Organs muscles and nervous systems start to become organized and connect Lungs begin to expand Kicking occurs Heartbeat can be heard Sex is evident b 2nd Trimester i ii iii iv Mother can feel movements Vemix covers the fetus to prevent chapping Lanugo white hairs that cover the body to help the vemix stick to the skin Develops hearing and sight c 3rd Trimester i ii iii iv v vi vii viii Age of viability between 2226 weeks the baby could survive on it39s own Spends time awake Cerebral cortex is formed Respondsto outside environment Neural networks form in the brain Gains more than 5 pounds and grows 7 inches Learning begins Excessive sound can damage the fetuses inner ears and hearing ability 7 Teratogens Enviormental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period a Includes i ii iii iv Alcohol Tobacco Radiation Pollution b C 8 Labor a C V Drugs vi Maternal diseases Factors i Dose Larger doses over longer time have a worse effect ii Heredity Genetic makeup could be more or less resistant to harmful environments iii Other negative factors exposure to more than one factor at once has an additive effect iv Age The effects vary based on the age of the fetus Negative effect will harm whatever is in the sensitive period at the time of exposure Epidemics i Rubella causes blindness 1940 s ii Thalidomide causes limb deformities 1950 s Stage 1 i Baby produces stress hormones to be born awake ii Mother has contractions and cervix dilates iii 1214 hrs for 1st birth 46 hours for second birth Stage 2 i Delivery of the baby ii Mother feels natural urge to squeeze and push which forces the baby out of her iii 1hr for first birth 20 minutes for second birth Birth of the placenta i Placenta separates and is delivered in 510 minutes Complications i Anoxia Oxygen deprivation can lead to brain damage ii Could result from 1 Breech position 2 Failure to begin breathing 3 rh incompatibility 4 Placenta abruption iii Preterm Born weeks before due date may be appropriate weight iv Smalltodate below their expected birth weight for length of pregnancy Have more serious problems Interventions i Cesarean sections ii Special Stimulation including massages soft music and kangaroo care iii Training parents appropriately f Approaches to Childbirth i NaturalPrepared childbirth techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical interventions to make childbirth as rewarding as possible Classes breathing techniques and labor coaches are involved ii Positions for delivery can reduce pain iii Analgesics and anesthetics can be used to reduce pain iv Home delivery 1 of Americans but most common in world g Apgar Scale i Given at 15 minutes ii Assesses the baby39s color heart rate re exes muscle tone and respiratory effort iii 710 is good 46 the baby needs help establishing vitals 03 is very dangerous and the baby needs help urgently 9 Heredity and Environmental Effects on Behavior a Heredity Estimates How much does heredity contribute to behavior i Genetic factors are important to personality ii Genetic make up explains about half of intelligence iii Measured on a scale of 01 iv b GeneEnvironment Interaction Not everyone responds to the same environment in the same ways i Correlations Our genes in uence the environments we are exposed to 1 Passive Correlations Parents provide environment based on heredity 2 Evocative Correlations Children evoke responses from others based on heredity and it strengthens the child39s original style 3 Active correlations Actively seeking environments that t their genetic tendencies 4 Niche Picking We pick environments that complement our heredity ii Epigenetics Environment in uences gene expression Development occurs with exchanges between environment and heredity
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