Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM-10055-003-201580
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM-10055-003-201580 at Kent State University taught by Bansidhar Datta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 267 views. For similar materials see MOLECULES OF LIFE in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Study Guide Part 1 Molecules of life What 2 things define life 0 movementamp replication What are parts of a living cell 0 small molecules 0 h20 02 NH3 glycerol glyceraldehyde s large molecules bio macromolecules O monosaccharides amino acids nucleotides fatty acids ster o macromolecules O polysaccharides proteins enzymes lipids nucleic acid DNA What is the molecule of life Why 0 DNA it s found in every human cell 0 what is DNA composed of Nucleotides 0 what are are subunits of nucleic acids nucleotides 0 what are large molecules necessary for forms of life nucleic acids what are the nucleotides the monomers or subunits of nucleic acids DNA and RNA What are the building blocks of nucleic acids nucleotides What makes up a nucleotide nitrogenous base a fivecarbon sugar ribose or deoxyribose 1 or more phosphate groups What are the nucleotides that make DNA o dATP deoxy adenosine triphosphate o dCTP deoxy cytidine triphosphate o dGTP deoxy guanosine triphosphate o dTTP deoxy thymidine triphosphate 0 DNA is composed of what building blocks Adenine Guanine Cytosine and Thymine 0 what is the basic structure of a nucleotide base sugar phosphate nucleotide 0 what are elements simple building blocks that cannot be broken down 0 what is the periodic table 0 Organizes chemical elements into rows groups and columns 0 Arranged by atomic number PT amp Elements What info does the periodic table give us Element name Atomic number Number of outer energy levels Mass Protons Type Metal Nonmetal Noble Gases what are Elements substances made from only one kind of atom arranged by groups in the periodic table the group of an element tells us what 39 of electrons on the outer shell how many electrons do group 1 elements have on the outer shell 1 electron how many electrons do group 7 elements have on outer shell 7 electrons what does the atomic tell you of protons in element an element has the same of electrons as of protons what is atomic weight of an element mass of atom about of protons neutrons what is the Magnesium s atomic number 12 How many protons does Magnesium have 12 What is the atomic weight of beryllium 90 The mass of Boron is 11 the atomic is 5how many protons neutrons and electrons does it have 5 Protons 5 electrons 6 neutrons How many protons neutrons and electrons does beryllium have 4 protons 4 electrons 5 neutrons How many p n and e does Cu have 29 protons 29 electrons 35 neutrons what group is helium He in group 18 characteristics of helium very light and abundant colorless gas what group is lithium Li in group 1 alkali metal characteristics of Li light metal highly reactive highly flammable soft what group is beryllium Be in group 2alkaline earth metal characteristics of Be whitegrey divalent rare what group is boron B in group 13 metalloid characteristics of B uncombined not found on earth naturally what group is nitrogen N in group 15 characteristics of N transparent odorless what group is carbon C in group 14 characteristics of C chemical base of life what group is oxygen 0 in group 16 characteristics of 0 highly reactive non metallic what group is fluorineF in group 17 characteristics of F pale yellow gas extremely reactive what are the NOBLE GASES 0 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn where are the noble gases located Group 18 Why do the noble gases not react no reaction because they have maximum electrons in outer shell and are stable characteristics of neon Ne colorless odorless inert characteristics of Argon Ar Very common most comes from earths crust rarely undergoes reactions Characteristics of Krypton Used in lighting and photography colorless gas Characteristic of xenon dense trace amounts in atmosphere of the earth characteristics of radon Associated with decay easily inhaled colorless ododess What are the 4 major elements in the body 0 hydrogen H 63 0 oxygen 0 255 0 carbon C 95 o nitrogen N 14 what makes up 75 of the body Water What are some minor elements in the human body Ca K S Na Cl Mg P Co Fe Mn Mo I F Se Cu Zn what is smallest particle inside of an element An atom What is an isotope atoms that contain the same of protons and different of electrons isotopes are different forms of an element 3 isotopes 6120 613C 6140 1 what element has the isotopes Carbon 2 What does the 6 mean 6 is the atomic of carbon 3 What are the mass s in these isotopes 12 13 and 14 4 How many p n0 equot are in 612C 6 p 6 n 5 How many p n0 equot are in 613C 6 p 7 n 6 How many p n0 equot are in 614C 6 p 8 n Bonds How are ionic bonds held together by positive and negative charges cations amp anions what type of bond is formed when an electron is gained or lost ionic what type of bond is formed by a shared pair of electrons Molecular Which is stronger covalent or ionic interactions covalent interactions what is spin pairing magnetic field created by the opposite spinning of electrons creates attraction created when one atom spins clockwise and the other one spins counterclockwise what is the octet rule Elements gain or lose electrons on outer shell in order to have 8 electrons which creates stability and no reactions elements form 9 small molecules small molecules form 9 large molecules large molecules form 9 bio macromolecules bio macromolecules form 9 weak forces weak forces form 9 3D structures of bio macromolecules 3D structures of bio macromolecules form 9 a cell what are some small molecules COZ H20 NaCl What are some large molecules fructose amino acids citric acid glycerol what are some bio macromolecules lipids enzymes polysaccharides nucleic acids what are some weak forces bonds and interactions metals nonmetals and metalloids are examples of what elements what is the smallest particle of element An atom Protons neutrons and electrons are all what subatomic particles what charge do protons have what charge do neutrons have no charge what charge do electrons have 39 Electron distribution how electrons fill orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d and 7p l0 U what does Hund s rule say about energy levels LX mm 6 3 x 6 a mack PWK That term W1th max mult1p11c1ty lowest energy Z Q 39 moi how many electrons does 5 hold g 7 we NM 2 electrons 90W why do these electrons in the orbitals stay together A I spinning pairs how many electrons does p hold 6 how many electrons does d hold 10 how many electrons does f hold 14 what are the subshells of 2p XYZ 2px 2py 2pz What are the subshells of 3p XYZ 3px 3py 3pz H 1 has how many electrons in its outer shell Location 1 electron in 1s orbital 10 How many electrons does 2 He have in outer shell Location 2 electrons in 18 orbital Denoted as Is2 How many electrons does 5 B have in outer shell Location 5 electrons which are spread among orbitals 2 electrons in 13 orbital I 8 hold max 2 electronsthis is filled so start filling on next orbitals 2 electrons fill Zs orbital 8 hold max 2 electronsthis is filled so start filling on next orbitals 1 electron in 2p orbital p holds 6 only have 1 electron left to place so write a 1 to show its only holding 1 electron so 5 B written as if 0 has 8 electrons how are they distributed and how will it be written 80 1s2 2s22p4 How are the electrons distributed in the subshells of 80 80 1s2 2s2 2 fill x 1 in y 1 in z 2pX22py12pz1 write the electron configuration distribution of 1oNe 1 2232p6 11 Metals amp NonMetals 1 What charge does a Lithium have why Li plus one because it s in group 1 so it has 1 valence electron it s a cation which is positive 2 What charge does Aluminum have why Al 3 because it s in group 3A 3 valence electrons cation Why does sodium have a negative charge Na39 Na has 11 electrons so its easier to lose or take away 1 electron than becoming positive 4 Charge of magnesium Mg 2 5 Why does Calcium have a 2 charge Its in group 2A has 2 valence electrons 2 electrons on outer shell 6 Are metals or non metals normally reducing agents metals 7 Do metals or non metals normally have low electro negativities Metals 8 TRUE or FALSE Non metals are oxidizing agents True 9 which metal is NOT solid room temp mercury 12 10 Do metals or non metals easily lose electrons cations Metals 11 who usually gains electrons non metals 12 Characteristics of metals malleable ductile good conductors shiny solid 13 Do nonmetals usually have high or low electronegativity s high 14 What elements are transition elements metals 15 Characteristic of non metals poor good conductors non ductile can be solids liquids or gases at room temp Nonmetals of electrons gained 8 group example 7 N its in group 5 therefore 8 5 3 Polyatomic Anions 1 what is a polyatomic ion 0 Ion made of 2 atoms covalently bonded 2 Is the polyatomic ion NH4 ammonium ion a cation or anion o Cation bc its positive charge 13 Polyatomic Anions carbonate ion C03239 nitrate N03 nitrate NOZ39 Sulfate Ion 504239 phosphate ion PO43 dihydrogen phosphate ion H2PO439 Monohydrogen phosphate H2P02 4 Chlorate Ion CIO439 Agetate CH3COO39 1 Name PbSo42 Lead IV Sulfate 2 Write formulas for Lead 11 Nitrite Pb3N2 3 Na and P043quot make What Name and write compound N213PO4 Sodium Phosphate 14 Ionic Compounds How do you name an ionic compound name of metal root word of nonmetal suffix ide example CaF 2 calcium flourine ide CALCIUM FLOURIDE 1 Name NH4C1 ammonium Chloride Why NH4 ammonium CI39 Chlorine 2 Write Aluminum Phosphide A13 P3quot AlP W POW w M Unurgzs M2 15 3 what does it mean to say a compound is soluble It s able to be dissolved in water 4 How does water break an ionic bond o It separates it into cations and anions 5 Any metal oxide what results in no solution I Water exception is group 1A metals 0 Which ionic compounds ARE SOLUBLE in water I Any that include Na K NH4 Nitrates N0339 I Acetates CH3COO I Most chlorides Clquot I most Sulfates 504239 not AgCl BaSO4 and PbSO4 I most carbonates I most phosphates o What ionic compounds are INSOLUBLE in water I Sulfides 2quot I hydroxides OH39 I except LiOh NaOH KOH NH4 OH which are soluble in water What is Electronegativity I Measure of atom or groups tendency to attract electrons Why does the hydration shell appear I electromagnetic attraction between and charges 16 Which has a greater electronegativity EN 0 or H I O has greater EN Where is the greatest EN in the periodic table I Elements farther up and toward the right have greatest EN What happens during hydration I Water is added combined What is it called when water molecules form around an ion I hydration shell what is a solution I result or mixture what is a solute I is the substance that will be dissolved in something else What is a solvent I What something is dissolved in Solute solvent I solute solvent solution When making kool aid what is the solvent solute and solution Solvent water Solute kool aid mix sugar Solution kool aid mixture 17 Electrolytes and Non electrolytes When does dissociation happen to an ionic compound I when water is added What happens with dissociation I Ionic compound separates into cations and anions if iconic compounds disassociate near 100 what kind of electrolyte is it 0 strong electrolyte how do you know if an ionic compound is a weak electrolyte o If it dissociates 50 or less if an iconic compound disassociates 1 or less is it an electrolyte o No nonelectrolyte What electrolytes are in blood 0 Cations I Na138mEqL K 5mEqL I Mg2 3mEqL Ca24mEqL o Anions I CI39 110 mEqL HC03 30 mEqL I HPO4239 4mEqL proteins 6 mEqL What electrolyte concentration treats fluid loss 0 Saline solution 89 154 mEqL What electrolyte concentration treats malnutrition and low potassium levels 0 KCI 5 dextrose40 mEqL 18 If a patient is recovering from being dehydration and needs to replenish electrolytes what is a good solution to use 0 Ringers Solution Na 147 mEqL Applications in health What hormone controls ion homeostasis I Mineralocorticoid What do pumps amp channels do 0 control import and export of ions of the cell and various compartments with in the cell What is a pump that is present in all tissues of the body 0 NaK What is a pump associated with bones o Ca2H1 pump What is Osmosis 0 Flow of water across selectively permeable membrane What is osmotic pressure 0 The pressure applied during osmosis RBC s and Osmosis If the cell is Isotonic what does that mean 0 Equal parts the cell is healthy and normal How might a Hypotonic cell die o It swells and bursts little amount of solution What type of cell would die because is shrank o Hypertonic too much solute cell shrinks crenates and can die 19 Example If a cell has 50 glucose than it has 50 water and the solution has 70 glucose means it has 30 water what happens to the cell Water always moves from higher concentration to lower So it will move from the cell 50 to the solution 30 The cell is losing water it is hypertonic therefore it will shrink crenate and probably die How do the kidneys use osmosis I Blood comes into the kidneys goes into the glomerulus and is returned to the body clean How can someone with kidney failure go about a normal life 0 Dialysis use artificial pump to cleanfilter blood 20
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