Art History Study Guide Quiz 1
Art History Study Guide Quiz 1 AHI 101LR
Popular in Survey Egypt To Renaiss
Popular in Art History
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AHI 101LR at University at Buffalo taught by Watrous, L V in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 480 views. For similar materials see Survey Egypt To Renaiss in Art History at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Art History Review for Quiz 1 Paleolithic Art People during this time moved with animal herds as these were their source of food and clothing Neanderthals began to express themselves symbolically Though people lived near the entrance of caves the art that they created was deep within the caves up to a halfmile inside Creating these paintings would have been an extraordinary task as caves were incredibly dark and paintings were done 1015 feet above the cave oor Built wooden scaffolding amp used lamps Rather than using paintbrushes they blew paint created from crushed rocks onto the cave walls Paintings were often created on top of one anothersuggests and immediacy about them that they were associated with a certain action 1 Spotted Horses and Human Hands PechMerle Cave France 25000 BC I L 139Ji A 39 People were living with amp hunting animals Paid attention to only certain parts of the horses Only belly is emphasized indicates that horse was a source of food Paintings used in ceremony where young people are being initiated into society hunting Earliest known site of prehistoric cave paintings Depicts grazing resting or running animals wild horses bison mammoths bears panthers owls deer amp wild goats and occasional humans both male and female Many handprints and thousands of geometric markings such as circles grids and dots Charcoal used to draw rhinos could be carbon dated to determine relative age Bison Altamira Spain 12509 B I 39 V39quotf 3911 b lb I l I w Created sculptural effects by painting over natural irregularities in cave walls amp ceilings Painted on limestone 4 Stonehenge England 29001500 BC Circular plain measures 150 feet across Builders constructed platforms to hoist the massive rocks upright and into place Set to trace the rising and setting of the sun amp moon throughout the year Site began as a cemetery of cremation burials marked by bluestones which were brought in from 150 miles away Stones organized to trace celestial events throughout the year MegalithicMedium of art created with large stones Heel stoneLarge stone placed northeast of the circle which helped to trace the sun Mesopotamian Art Mesopotamian art was dominated by political scenes wars amp con icts as it was in uenced mainly by the kings in power 5 Stele of Naram Sin 2250 BC Emblem of NaramSin s divine authority to rule Depicts important military victory over Lullubi people of the Zagros Mountains Figures to the left represent NaramSin s army while figures to the right represent the enemy Artist included identifiable native trees of the region to convey that this event really happened and was not just a generic battle scene 7 6 Votive statue of Gudea 2090 BC Civilians placed praying statues of themselves in shrine as a reminder to the gods of their reverence Inscriptions recounting details of all the things the donor had accomplished in the god s honor were often included Statues served as a standin for the donor locked in eyecontact with the god 7 Stele of Hammurabi 1750 BCgt Law code inscribed in cuneiform for civilians to see Earliest law code known to man Scene depicts Hammurabi greeting Shamash the sun god and god of justice who hands him the law code Establishes divine moral and political authority for the law Approximately 7 tall carved from diorite 8 Assyrian King on Lion Hunt 860 BC ASSYRIAN KING HUNTING LIONS Depicts King Assurnasirpal II on a lion hunt Lion hunts were an annual event meant to showcase the king s power and dominance Royal propaganda intended to frighten civilians into submission Tigris amp EuphratesRivers that run through present day Syria and Iraq UrSumerian Citystate in Mesopotamia UrukCity in Babylon BabylonSignificant city in Mesopotamia situated in the fertile valley between the Tigris amp Euphrates rivers ZigguratStepped rectangular tower surmounted with a temple Conventionalfollowing tradition rather than creating something new ArtisanArtists who followed convention RegisterVertical level in artwork that is often separated into multiple sections HieraticKing is always at center and top of artwork SteleCarved stone slab used to convey a message ShamashGod of justice Egyptian Art 9 Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun 1330 BC Placed directly over Tutankhamun s mummy Made primarily of gold blue glass and semi precious stones Depicts king s relationship to his father the sun god 10 Palette of Narmer 3000 BC Displays convention in Egyptian art Symbols show where and what took place the artists sacrifice realism for clarification of purpose Front of palette commonly interpreted as representing the unification of Egypt and the beginning of the country s growth as a powerful nation Flip side indicates Narmer s importance by showing him as significantly larger than the other figures present Wears the crown of Upper Egypt while striking down the enemy Falcon depicts the god Horus who holds a rope tied around the neck of a man whose head is attached to Papyrusa plant that represented Lower Egypt Message is that Narmer ruler of Upper Egypt is in complete control of Lower Egypt 11 King Khafre 2500 BC Blocky sculpting style exudes a sense of strong dignity calm and permanence Falcon god Horus perches on the back of the throne protectively holding the king s head with his wings Lions form the throne s legs while Lotus and Papyrus plants beneath the seat symbolize Khafre s power over both Upper Lotus and Lower Papyrus Egypt Carved from an unusual type of gneiss imported from Nubia that glows deep blue the celestial color of Horus when illuminated by sunlight 12 King Menkaure and Queen 2480 BC Khafre s heir Both are striding forward King re ects the Egyptian ideals in masculinity as an athletic youthful figure wearing the royal kilt and head cloth Queen s closefitting garments reveal female ideals a soft slightly swelling body that offsets the king s muscularity Polishing of the statue was never finished indicating that the work may have been started only a few years before Menkaure s death 13 King Akhenaten 1350 BC Akhenaten made radical political spiritual and cultural changes to Egypt in his 17year reign Replaced the god Amun with Aten beginning a new religion Relocated Egypt s capital much further north naming it Akhetaten Horizon of the Atenquot Historians refer to this period as the Amarna period Radical changes in royal artistic convention King is portrayed to be nearly androgynous in this sculpture with softer more typically feminine features Sagging stomach and small frail arms are a stark contrast to the power exuded by previous royal statues Dimples hint at ephemeral human emotionquot uncommon among artistic portrayals of royalty Completely distinguished himself from other kings Portrays Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti playing with their daughters Couple receives the blessings of Aten who shines down in the center of the relief sculpture Portrays the fidgety behavior of children and chaos of home life rather than the serenity shown in previous royal portraits Once Akhenaten died everything in Egypt returned to normal IsisGoddess worshiped as the ideal wife and mother as well as the patronage of nature married to Osiris OsirisGod of the afterlife and the underworld married to Isis HorusSun god child of Isis and Osiris Karnaklargest temple complex in the world located east of the Nile AmunGod of airmajor god in Egypt that religion was structured around AtenGod that replaced Amun when Akhenaten took the throne Canon of ProportionsConvention used in Egyptian artwork that divided the piece into a grid Each feature came to a predetermined height on the grid in all works ex 4 blocks to the knee 11 blocks to belly button 15 Pyramid Field Giza 2500 BC Great Pyramid is 755ft at the base and 481 feet high 2300000 blocks of stone each weighing an average of 25 tons were used to construct this pyramid Site was carefully planned to follow the sun s eastwest path Next to each of the pyramids was a funerary temple connected by a causeway to a valley temple on the bank of the Nile When a king died his embalmed body was brought to this temple where it received elaborate ceremonies Body was eventually entombed in a deep vault within the pyramid and the end of a long narrow passageway Three false passageways obstructed the view of the tomb to protect the king from intruders Egyptians believed that when a person died their ka soul remained and therefore stocked the tomb with everything that it would need in the afterlife Pyramids believed to be in the shape of a sun ray were coated with white limestone so they shone in the sun 16 Ti Hunting on the Nile 2400 BC H W 39 1 1 rq t I x quot v 1 its 1 i l is Relief sculpture appears on the walls of Dynasty official Ti s tomb Shows him watching a hippopotamus huntan official duty of royal courtiers Egyptians believed that Seth the god of chaos disguised himself as a hippo and the animals were destructive as they often wandered into fields and ruined crops Depictions of the hunt convey the valor and triumph of good over evil Showcases Egyptian convention used in artworkblock diagram 17 Judgment of Hunefer before Osiris Book of the Dead 1285 BC ow L 1 f i 53quot 23F 53 w 37 39 139 L z U r s 39in 739 4 22mquot 333 1 5m iiizquot l jlplm lmnlm I 39a llllrillalln39l39 n 23 I a 133 1 n t 2 h quot 397 J t Egyptians came to believe that the only people who could enjoy an afterlife were those free from wrongdoing Dead were thought to undergo a last judgment consisting of two tests performed by Osiris god of the Underworld The deceased were questioned about the goodness of their lives and then had their hearts weighed against an ostrich feather the symbol of goodness and truth KaEgyptian word for soul Mastabatomb for nobility RaEgyptian sun god Anubisgod associated with mummification and the afterlife HathorGoddess of joy femininity and motherhood Queen Hatshepsut Regarded as one of Egypt s most successful pharaohs and the first great female ruler in history Photo Sources 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 Horses httpwwwutaotcomwp contentuploadsZ01301PechMerleHorsesipg Animals httpitos3amazonawscomwpcontentuploads201406w1s1 chauveta20140624870x581ipg Bison httpsnorthernexposurespainfileswordpresscom20 1403manields 218jpg Stonehenge httpssmediacache ak0pinimgcomoriginalsa2cd28a2cd287f1396803cd26808c29e5c8ac4ipg Stele of Naram Sin https wwwoneontaedu facultV farberas arth Images ARTH200 politics nara m sinjpg Votive Statue of Gudea httpssmediacache ak0pinimgcom736x9629f89629f89b3d9880bded8134ca4783dff6ipg Stele of Hammurabi httpsclassconnections3amazonawscom511 ashcards777511ipgstele cod e of hammurabi1317438604288ipg Assyrian King on Lion Hunt httpwwwsacredtextscomanembaimg38400ipg Mask of Tutankhamun httpwwweternalegyptorgimageselements3324 3 10x3 1 0ipg Palette of Narmer httpss3amazonawscomclassconnection84 ashcards6355084pngscreen shot 20141009 at 120959 am148F31988A7551B9F68png King Khafre httpsclassconnections3amazonawscom1 52 ashcards40341 52ipgartstor 103 41822000139152143F8BD276D1D9ADBBFipg Menkaure amp Queen http arthistoryresourcesnet menkaure images menkaureipg King Akhenaten httpwwwcrystalinkscomakhnatontallgif Akhenaten amp His Family httpsclassconnections3amazonawscom447 ashcards5932447ipgakhenat en familV11486B023FD218BD8A8Eipg Pyramids httpi2wpcomwwwancientcodecomwp contentuploadsZ01501shutterstock 57523771 pg b httpclassconnections3amazonawscom2 1 1 ashcards2 1332 1 1pnggiza plat eau 13487229926441355210285005png 16 Ti Hunting on the Nile httpsegyptsiteswordpresscomfiles200902ti1ipg 17 Book of the Dead httpstudydroidcomimageCardsO9eacard9906553 frontjpg
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