Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide Sociology 3488
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jocelyn Rossell on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 3488 at Ohio State University taught by Paul Malackany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociological Theory in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Introduction to Sociological Theory Study Guide Exam 1 92415 Definitions Social Facts conditions and circumstances external to individual that determine course of action Social Solidarity cohesion among social groups Collective Conscience Totally of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizen Religion uni ed system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things Anomie condition where societal norms are in con ict or entirely absent Economic Class groups of individuals who share a common position in relation to means of production Means of production mechanism by which things are produced Social Relations of production relationships emergent from productive forces relation to people Private Ownership capital consumer goods consumer services aspects of commerce Alienation dehumanizing consequence of workers estrangement or separation from means of production the product of their labor their own speciesbeing and humanity as a whole Labor Theory of Value value of an object determined by amount of labor time taken to produce it Exchange value what we can get relative to other goods Surplus Value difference between what workers earn and the price of the goods produced Commodity Fetishism viewing goods as if they have magical powers Rationalization An ongoing process in which social interaction and institutions become governed by methodological procedures and calculable rules Iron Cage of Rationality bound to the technical and economic conditions of machine production which determine the lives of all the individuals who are born into this mechanism with irresistible force Iron Law of Oligarchy all largescale organizations concentrate power despite form andor goals Power Chance of man or a number of men to realize their own will in a social action even against resistance of others Introduction to Sociological Theory Theory 0 Holds observation and fact together 0 System of generalized statements or propositions about phenomena 0 Theory as a Science I Explain predict produce testable and falsi able hypotheses Facts Make Sense When They o Are interpreted 0 Use preexisting categories 0 Use assumption Classical Theory 0 Sociology first emerged 0 Mid l9t early 20th centuries Contemporary Theory 0 1935 present 0 Modern sociology The Enlightenment Advent of civil society Increasing pace to modern life New attitude and method of though uid thought Emphasis on REASON I Systematic observation 0000 339 The Brain Trust Auguste Compte Emile Durkheim Karl Marx Max Weber 0000 Industrial Revolution 0 Power driven technology to manufacturing 0 Farm to factory urbanization 0 Social change 2 Central Questions 0 Question of Order what accounts for patterns predictability and experience as routine I Collectivist approach and orientation Overarching system Works downward to shape society Reality with Sui Generis o The idea is out there I Individualist approach and orientation Create and recreate order Work upwards to produce Autonomy to social actors 0 Act as agency 0 Question of Action what factors motivate individuals and groups to act I Nonrational Values morals norms Desires and emotions I Rational Maximize rewards Minimize costs Functionalism Emile Durkheim We as individuals working for the same good What holds society together and how 0 Commonalities how do we feel what if we are alone I Concerts sports funerals celebrity following Background Sociology is scientific 0 Any social thing can be studied sociologically 0 Research should be objective and educational o Aimed to show how social forces affect peoples behavior 0 Dialoging with 0 August Compte I Rational and I Reality scientific I Society is organic 0 Herbert Spencer Organic view of society I Survival of the fittest I I Government interferes with human law 00000 O O Concern with social fact Uncover conditions that shape individual behavior Macro society is greater than individual Collectivist approach to order Stresses nonrational aspects of social fact I Not strategic interests not institutions Emphasizes collective representation and sentiments Nonrational approach to action O 0 Social Facts conditions and circumstances external to individual that determine course of action Social Solidarity cohesion among social groups Social Facts 0 O O O 0 External Deterministic Coercive Universal I Form verse content will vary Ex laws morals beliefs customs religion marriage fashion currency kinship Traditional Society 0 O O 0 Close nit smaller Agricultural Simpler Elders in Charge Modern Society 0 O O 0 Larger Industrial Complex Lawyers and court Social Solidarity O 0 Mechanical homogeneity I Collective consciousness I Not much diversity I Functional equivalency Organic I Interdependence I Different but rely on each other I Division of Labor I Cultural differences Traditional Society Mechanical Solidarity Society is in Individual I It is the way it is I Taken for granted Modern Society Organic Solidarity Individual is in Society I Integrate and regulate Society and Individual 0 Society exists prior to the individual macro order 0 Society shapes individual action 0 Action is an outgrowth of social arrangements I Not a result of individual conduct Holding it Together 0 Collective Sentiments Solidarity Collective Integration I Values attitudes I Group cohesion Integration and Affirmation 0 Tell a story and tell that it is right 0 Social facts to reaffirm I Monogamy Collective Conscience 0 Like a cartoon thought bubble not static 0 Totally of beliefs and sentiments common to average citizen 0 Forms determine system which has own life 0 Socialization Division of Labor 0 Densi I More people smaller spaces I Urbanization o Specialization I Particular task to particular people 0 Changes require new order I Threaten the functioning of society I Social disorganization change identity 0 Positives I Functional O I Social mobility I Ef cient At rst seems like ef cient Need to rely don t over divide Negatives I Isolating I Confusing I Taken too far Collective Conscience O 0000 Collective sentiments from socialization I Norms values beliefs Overcome selfinterest and egoism Give us moral compass Resultsocial integration Product of society and produced through interaction Religion O 0000 Uni ed system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things I Beyond spirituality and any deity Fundamental to moral regulation Encodes system of relations to group Social life is religious life Realms I Sacred Extraordinary I Profane Mundane and routine Processes I Ritualization Routine acts I Symbolization Anomie 0000 Condition Where societal norms are in con ict or entirely absent State of normlessness Times of transition Social disorganization lack of integration and regulation anomie Deviance O O 0 Normal and inevitable Individual is egotistic Suicide I Rates conditioned by integration and regulation I Social acts I Anomic too little regulation I Egotisticnot enough integration I Fatalistic too much regulation I Altruistic too much integration Social Conflict Karl Marx Framework 0 Society is in a state of con ict and competition 0 Resources wealth land statusprestige ideas power 0 Consequence of difference classes gender age labor 0 Social chang good it makes for progress Background 0 Historical Materialism I Mode of production I Dialectical 0 Economy as basis of society 0 Human nature is to work I Work is the active endeavor 0 Social change I Historical unfolding Dialoguing With 0 Henri de SaintSimon I 1760 l 825 I Social principals to counter egoism and exploitation 0 David Ricardo I 1772 l 823 I Comparative advantage I Labor theory of value wages 0 Adam Smith I 17231790 I Government and economy symbolic relations I Historical unfolding o Collectivist approach to order I Historical transition and social class 0 Rational approach to action I Realize the interests 0 Industrial Revolution I Produced dire economic conditions 0 Economic Class O O O I Groups of individuals who share a common position in relation to means of production Means of production I Mechanism by which things are produced Social Relations of production I Relationships emergent from productive forces relation to people Private Ownership I Capital consumer goods consumer services aspects of commerce Class Con ict O O Bourgeoisie I Owners dominant Proletariat I Wage labor subordinate Basis for relations Labor options I Sell labor power limited options Surplus IdeationalSuperstructure O O O Controlling realm of ideas Ruling class exploits subordinate I Subordinate labors for the ruling class Individual talent makes them desirable Work smarter not harder I Controlling ideas Ruling class creates ideas to justify exploitation According to Smith 0 Laissez fair capitalism I Guided by invisible hand I Encourages free market competition I Discourages artif1cial regulation I Serves best interest of most people According to Marx O O O O Rationalist approach I Humanist Free market I Not liberating I Not free Alienating I Human capacity unrealized Capitalism is I Selfbettering for owners I A barrier to selfactualization I A spring board to monopoly I Inherently exploitive Alienation 0 000000 0 Maj or concern Lose moral compass General state of individuals in capitalism Present forces that appear alien Workers lose control of their labor Owners are unclear with alienation From product I Can t afford what s being produced From self I Works for a higher power From others I See others as things Means of Life 0 O O 0 Natural world When we commodify things they become foreign Relation of worker to product Relation of process to act of production I Has to be there under capitalism rhythm Species Being O O Alienation from species essence I Unsure who you are anymore Humans have actual and potential selves Object and subiect aware of both Human nature I Function of human endeavor M I Separate from endeavor I Conscious life activity I More natural to labor Economic Base Social Relations Political Economy Alienated Labor Private Property Money Capitalism and Consumption Money 0 O Alienated ability of mankind What we can t do as humans we can do with money I Transformative I Contradictory Like what we do hate jobs but need money 0 Money as medium for exchange Labor Theory of Value 0 Value of an object determined by amount of labor time taken to produce it 0 Exchange value I What we can get relative to other goods Surplus Value 0 Difference between what workers earn and the price of the goods produced 0 Source of ineguality and exploitation Exchange 0 Owners I Money commodity more money 0 Laborers I Commodity earn money buy commodity Commodity Fetishism 0 Viewing goods as if they have magical powers 0 Relate to things not people 0 Social interaction 0 Sense of selfidentity with the object Conspicuous Consumption 0 Leisure class bene ts from waste 0 Status power prestige Consciousness 0 Model of social change 0 False Consciousness I Born to shop forced to work I Don t see obiective constricted view mislead I Lead away from collective ideas I Think they are farther ahead than they are 0 Class Consciousness I Will never get ahead I Shared idea of objective conditions Social Change Model 0 Struggle between classes I Failed capitalist I Organized proletariat 0 Class consciousness I Capitalism socialism communism I Private property Rationalization Max Weber Overview 0 Weber con ict and rationalization 0 Ideal types I Social action I Bureaucracy o Wants to know if today s capital society is better than before I He says no to a degree Background of Weber 0 He is a doom and gloom type 0 Soulless world mentality 0 Science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action in order to arrive at a casual explanation of its course and effects 0 Interpretative understanding I Weber is rst person to care about why people do things I Subjective dimensions Sociology to Weber 0 To understand meanings 0 Individuals assign to their lived realities o Context meaning consequences for conduct 0 Not as neat and tidy as Durkheim Social Action 0 Observable or internal 0 Can take3 forms I Intervening Deliberately get involved I Abstaining Deliberately not getting involved I Acguiescence Going with the ow Weber Dialogued With 0 Friearaich Nietzche I God is Dead I Rise of charisma rise of power I Loss of meaning Rationalization 0 An ongoing process in which social interaction and institutions become governed by methodological procedures and calculable rules I Music mathematical skills Visual arts composition style color scheme I Sex rational act from procreation Sports starts out for fun ends with money Goals I Ef ciency I Predictability I Calculability Dialoging with Mary I End of history I Economic basis I Capitalism leads to alienation estrangement Weber goes with I No end to prehistory I No singular basis I Rationalization disenchantment I Questions rational aspects associated with capitalism I Private property and surplus aren t his concerns I Doesn t have an issue with capitalism Economic Basis O O O O O 0 Development of society could not be reduced to a single casual explanation Calls attention to ideas Independent cultural forces Switchmen on the tracks NOT capitalism I Rationalism undermines creativity and individuality I Standard routine cold and empty Indifferent to differences O O O Multidimensional Action I Rational Instrumental rational action I NonRational The protestant calling Order I Collectivist Bureaucracy I Individualist Charismatic authority why are they like that I Ideal Types 0 0 Known for conceptualizing pure categories Conceptual Yardsticks I Similarities I Differences I Casual connections I Social Action 0 0 Strategic I Instrumentalrational action Efficient pursuit of goals Weigh the possible means Ex go to class to pursue an A on exam I Valuerational action Strategic selection of means An end itself Nothing beyond forming the action Impulsive I Affective action Impulsive and emotional Not weighing options Ex burning cough when winning a game without considering repercussions I Traditional action What has been done Adhere to a routine Ex stopping at a red light rituals I Bureaucracy O O Hierarchy I Pyramid small numbers at top Specialized division of labor Written rules and procedures Meritbased I Better you do farther you go Extensively recorded I Growth in improvement from learning from past Impersonal Rids of biases Iron Law of Oligarchy O 0 All large scale organizations concentrate power despite form andor goals 3 step process I Must be bureaucracies I Centralization of authority I Leaves the power in a few hands Iron Cage of Rationality o This order is now bound to the technical and economic conditions of machine production which determine the lives of all the individuals who are born into this mechanism with irresistible force 0 Ex Frankenstein Disenchantment o Disenchantment of the world 0 Disney world behind the curtain I Spend money to have fun 0 Values traditions emotions become formal impersonal procedures 0 Magical things we explain away with science I Results in meaninglessness 0 Ex nding out Santa isn t real Irrationalities o Inefficiencies o Unpredictability o Unproductive I Parkinson s Law work will expand to the time given to ll it o Dehumanizing o Irrational aspects of rational society unintended of effects 0 Ex automotive phone with customer service Religion as Capitalism 0 O Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism Religious beliefs fueled secular world I Durkheim man worships self I Marx opiate of the masses Religion is System of Meaning 0 O O O 0 Explain evil and suffering Impetus for change Legitimates order economic Rationalization of reality I No place sense of senselessness Western emissary prophecy I Follow rules of divine I Eastern was selfre ection 0 Religious virtuosos saw selves compelled to adjust demands I Cultural rationalization I Religion is tamed and organized Protestant Ethic O 2 central foci I Rationalization I Role of ideas shaping it o Protestantism I Follower as instruments of the Devine I Submit to the calling 0 The Calling I Must submit to it I Actively work for divine glory I How do you know if you are answering the call Wealth accumulation visible in material world Success and Pro t Wealth as con rmation Idleness and luxury discourages o Devil s work I Cultural Factors Dovetail Religious based compulsion to get wealthy Restriction on consumption New Ethos o Capitalist ethos replaces religious ethos 0 Search for meaning search for goods I Disenchantment o Rationalization and bureaucratization over traditionalism o Capitalist economy is I Immense cosmos I Individual born in I Presents self to him 0 Iron cage I Has imprisoned us I Pursuit of lifestyle of the rich and famous 0 Most important opponent we must designate traditionalism Man as Trustee 0 He is calling Labor directed at accumulation O O Pragmatic Methodical Wealth conditionally bad 0 Pursue don t spend o Inequality from the Devine Social Organization 0 Class Economic life chances Property or lack of property Class situation market situation Possession of goods and opportunities for income Styles of life andor conventions Social estimation Hierarchy intersected with class Exclusive Restricts interaction Classes own production While status groups consume goods Political or legal order Rational planning Strategic motives interests Organizations residing in sphere of power Chance of man or a number of men to realize their own will in a social action even against resistance of others Dominator exercise of authority Legitimate authority based on belief systems surrounding authority Traditional heredity right of passage 0 Obedience to person LegalRational rationality establishes law 0 Obedience to position Charismatic appeal of individual 0 Obedience to person and their gift 0 Routinezation of charisma transformation of charisma into legalrational andor traditional form
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