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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Morgan Mechelke

Exam 1 Study Guide NEP 1034H - 01

Morgan Mechelke
GPA 3.76
Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors
Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin

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About this Document

Here's a concise study guide to review for the first exam. Covers all material that was highlighted from the class review.
Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors
Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin
Study Guide
Study Guide, nutrition, Exam 1, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Mechelke on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NEP 1034H - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
EXAM 1 REVIEW NUTR1034 CH1 What is Nutrition Essential Nutrients 1 macronutrients energyyielding nutrients needed in higher amounts a carbohydrates lipids fats proteins i provide energy carbs and protein 4 kcalg fats 9 kcalg ii organic compounds contain carbon atoms 1 proteins contain nitrogen atoms b carbs gt supply glucose energy source c fats gt cushion organs insulate body d proteins gt provide energy but mainly used for tissue growth making hormones nutrient transportation 2 micronutrients needed in smaller amounts a vitamins and minerals 3 water large amounts needed daily can only live a few days wo it 4 vitamins and minerals essential for metabolism do NOT provide energy a catalysts speed up chemical reactions b vitamins organic compounds minerals inorganic substances CH2 Healthy Eating Reference Values 0 Estimated Average Requirement EAR average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of 50 percent of individuals of same age and gender 0 starting point for determining the other values 0 Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA average amount of nutrient meeting the needs of nearly all individuals 9798 percent based on but set higher than EAR o Adequate Intake Al next best estimate of amount of nutrient needed to maintain good health insufficient scientific data to determine EAR and RDA o Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL highest amt of nutrient not likely to cause harm if consumed daily 0 greater consumption than UL may cause toxicity 0 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR recommended ranges of intakes for energycontaining nutrients o carbs 4565 percent of daily caloric intake about 12 0 fat 2035 percent of daily caloric intake about 13 0 proteins 1035 percent of daily caloric intake about 14 EffH H39h Ematry Gains IK er j i Protein f i i If gi39immseHyFlaEEQmLJ fhmmau yma ag v o more recommendations 0 select nutrient dense foods to meet DRI wo exceeding caloric needs I nutrient density foods with high nutrient density have more nutrients per calorie than foods with lower nutrient density 0 be physically active 0 food labels 0 Food and Drug Administration FDA mandates that every packaged food be labeled with I ingredients list in descending order by weight food name net weight manufacturerdistributor name and address CH3 Basics of Digestion digestion process of breaking down foods into absorbable components using mechanicalchemical means in the gastrointestinal GI tract 0 GI tract includes mouth esophagus stomach small intestine where majority of digestion takes place large intestine o digestion 0 begins in the mouth saliva released salivary amylase o stomach secretes hydrochloric acid I HCI Hydrochloric acid activates pepsin enzyme enhances absorption of minerals breaks down connective tissue protects against invaders 0 large intestine absorbs water and some nutrients chemical digestion by bacteria I bacteria in colon produce vit K and biotin digest fiber and remaining carbohydrates Other related organs 0 liver largest gland in body produces bile metabolizes carbs fats protein stores nutrients detoxifies alcohol 0 gallbladder concentrates and stores bile that s released into GI when fat is ingested o pancreas produces o hormones insulin and glucagon regulate blood glucose 0 sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic chyme protects enzymes from inactivation by acid 0 digestive enzymes amylase digest carbs lipase digest fats trypsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidase digest protein CH4 Carbohydrates Sugars Starches Fiber Carbohydrates 0 main role energy for body in the form of glucose 0 ose carbohydrate 0 glucose is the major source of fuel for brain and red blood cells especially 0 glucose linked together gt glycogen stored form of starch in humans 0 simple carbs monosaccharides and disaccharides o monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose o disaccharides two monosaccharides joined together maltose glucose glucose sucrose glucose fructose lactose glucose galactose complex carbs polysaccharides long chains of linked sugars o starch storage form in plants 0 glycogen storage form in animals I stored in liver and muscle cells only in limited amounts 0 fiber lactose intolerance when lactose maldigestion results in nausea cramps bloating diarrhea flatulence how the body uses carbs 0 glucose supplies energy for body esp brain nervous system red blood cells I fat can provide fuel for muscle and other tissues 0 pancreas releases insulin responding to high blood glucose levels after carbheavy meal I glucose gt energy excess gt glycogen glycogenesis in liver and muscle cells limited capacity I rest of excess glucose converted to fat 0 fuel your body between meals I as blood sugar decreases pancreas releases glucagon to raise blood sugar levels 0 glycogenolysis directed release of glucose from glycogen in liver 0 triggers gluconeogenesis noncarbohydrate sources mainly protein turned into glucose I glycogen storage depleted after 18 hours I without glucose fat can t be broken down completely and ketone bodies are produced which are acidic o ketosis elevated blood levels following a fast of about two days 0 gluconeogenesis occurs 0 brain uses ketone bodies for fuel to spare protein o if fasting continues protein reserves are depleted and death is inevitable o Added sugars 0 sugar is proven to contribute to dental caries tooth cavities 0 diabetes 0 type 1 diabetes 510 percent of cases I autoimmune disease insulinproducing cells in pancreas destroyed gt no insulin is produced I requires daily insulin injections I develops in childhood early adult years 0 type 2 diabetes 9095 percent of cases I cells are insulinresistant eventually insulinproducing cells are exhausted and insulin is required 0 hypoglycemia o reactive hypoglycemia low blood sugar after eating carbohydrate sugarstarch snack or meal I eating small wellbalanced meals throughout the day helps this CH5 Fats Oils and Other Lipids Fats o serve functions when cooking foods esp provide flavor 0 functions in the body 0 energy storage insulation 0 0 protein transport in blood cell membrane structure 0 o lipids triglycerides fats phospholipids sterols cholesterol o triglyceride 3 fatty acids glycerol backbone o phospholipids glycerol backbone 2 fatty acids hydrophobic phosphorus group hydrophilic cell membranes composed of phospholipid bilayer o sterols 4 connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen I ie cholesterol 0 important in cell membrane structure precursor for vit D bile acids sex hormones 0 body makes all cholesterol needed fatty acids 0 saturated fatty acids no 00 double bonds ie stearic acid solid at room temp o unsaturated fatty acids less saturated with hydrogen more liquid at room temp o monounsaturated fatty acids one double bond ie oleic acid olive oil 0 polyunsaturated fatty acids more than one double bond I essential fatty acids linoleic alphalinolenic acids What happens to the fat you eat 0 lipoproteins transport fat through the lymph and blood 0 chylomicrons made in the intestine carry digested fat especially triglycerides w longchain fatty acids through lymph into bloodstream o lowdensity lipoproteins LDL bad cholesterol deposit cholesterol on walls of arteries 0 highdensity lipoproteins HDL good cholesterol remove cholesterol from body deliver to liver for excretion Body use of fat and cholesterol 0 cholesterol adds stability to cell membranes precursor for vit D bile acids sex hormones polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential linoleic acid alphalinolenic acid Heart disease and risk factors 0 uncontrollable risk factors 0 regular exercise to lower LDL and raise HDL cholesterol best way to raise HDL 0 reduce intake of sat fat and trans fat to lower LDL cholesterol levels 0 lose excess weight quit smoking lower to moderate alcohol intake can increase HDL levels 0 Genetics also plays a role CH6 Proteins and Amino Acids o 9 essential amino acids 0 can t be made by the body 0 essential to obtain them from the diet 0 11 nonessential amino acids 0 can be synthesized in the body taking other amino acids and adding nitrogen to the carboncontaining structures 0 still needed for protein synthesis the body degrades and synthesizes proteins 0 amino acids can be used to make body proteins and nonprotein substances 0 after amine groups are removed converted to urea excreted in urine amino acids can also be 0 burned for energy 0 stored as fat excess dietary protein 0 made into glucose gluconeogenesis 0 important during periods of starvation How the body uses proteins 0 structural and mechanical support maintain body tissues 0 collagen ropelike fibrous protein most abundant in the body 0 some act as catalysts and speed up reactions enzymes 0 hormones o insulin 0 growth hormone o maintain fluid balance 0 improves satiety fullness more than carbohydrates or fat Personal protein needs 0 determined by nitrogen balance studies 0 nitrogen balance amount of protein consumed amount of protein used nitrogen excreted I nitrogen imbalances 0 positive nitrogen balance more nitrogen retained for protein synthesis than is excreted 0 negative nitrogen balance more nitrogen excreted than consumed body proteins broken down 0 starvation illness 0 too much protein 0 may increase risk of heart disease kidney stones calcium loss from bones 0 can displace other nutrient and fiberrich foods assoc with reduced risk of chronic diseases I whole grains fruits vegetables 0 complete vs incomplete proteins 0 complete proteins contain all 9 essential amino acids plus some nonessential amino acids ex eggs milk meats fish soy o incomplete proteins low or lacking in at least one essential amino acid the limiting amino acid ex almost all plants I can be upgraded to complete proteins when complemented w other plant proteins which provide enough of the limiting amino acid ex beans and rice peanut butter and wheat bread


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