Chapters 1 - 4 Study Guide
Chapters 1 - 4 Study Guide ES 270 - C01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Neeman on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ES 270 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Anthony Vega in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Earth Sciences at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Study Guide Earth Science 270 Oceanography Chapters 1 4 Test True or False and Multiple Choice Theory Development What is Science 9 Science is based on physical evidence considers what only can be proven and opinions and beliefs are NOT a part of science Know the Difference between Theory Law and ldea Theory 9 A theory represents the best explanation Law 9 Explains what occurs in an absolute sense Idea 9 An opinion conviction or principle Scientific Theory Steps Hypothesis is formulated 9 Not an educated guess as many assume it is a testable statement Data are collected 9 Unbiased collection methods Data are quantitatively analyzed and results produced The results are examined and interpreted Hypothesis is either accepted as valid or rejected WPP N Basic Science Information Universe formation 9 The Big Bang 137 million years ago 9 Rapid expansion and the beginning of space and time 9 E mc2 9 First galaxies formed about a billion years later Earth layers Earth 9 Formed through gravitational consolidation 0 Once entirely molten 9 Allowed for density stratification 9 Cooling from outside in over its lifetime 9 Active heat from friction and radioactive decay 9 Distinct layers Other Earth layers 9 Hydrosphere cryosphere biosphere atmosphere Chapter One Ocean sources 0 Volcanic outgassing 0 H20 0 C02 0 N2 Sulfur Outgassing 45 billion years ago water could not collect on hot surface Went on for millions of years Surface finally cooled enough for water droplets to form Rain fell continually Minerals remain when water evaporates Concentrated in basins salty oceans Comets 9 Early earth bombardment for first billion years or so Europa 9 Ice crust with slush or water underneath Mars Early thick atmosphere of CPZ with vast evidence of an ocean and streams Over time surface absorbed coZ and atmosphere thinned and largely disappeared Canyons and sedimentary rocks remain today ce at poles Largely dry ice Titan Saturn s Moon Saturn s largest moon Composed of water ice and rocky surface Surface liquids detected only place other than Earth May have an ocean of hydrocarbons liquid methane Chapter Two Early explorers Phoenicians 1500 to 300 BC Mediterranean Sea region Established vast trade networks Created detailed maps Polynesians Inhabited the Pacific from Asia through the maritime continent Some of the greatest open water seafarers ever Settled an area the size of a large continent Vikings o Scandinavian adventurers and explorers o Built strong fast and stable ships 0 By 1000 AD colonized Iceland Greenland and North America 0 Lacked resources to sustain colonies IMPORTANT PEOPLE TO REMEMBER Chinese 9 1400s 9 explored Indian Ocean Indonesia Africa and the Atlantic Henry the Navigator 9 Explored west coast of Africa established a navigation school on Canary Islands Columbus 9 never saw mainland North America 4 trips opened routes to quotthe new world Magellan 9 first to circumnavigate the glove 1519 to 1520 9 Killed in the Philippians 9 Left with 260 soldiers 18 returned James Cook 9 British Royal Navy 9 First scientific voyages 9 found and charted New Zealand Great Barrier Reef Tanga Hawaii Easter Island etc 9 sampled marine life plants and animals 9 ocean data John Harrison 9 Designed and built a clock that was accurate enough to determine longitude Ben Franklin 9 Noticed and with the help of his cousin charted and published the first chart of the ocean Matthew Maury 9 The first person to sense the worldwide pattern of surface winds and currents Charles Wyville Thompson and John Murray 9 Proposed the Challenger Expedition which took a variety of physical oceanographic measurements collected information on ocean currents meteorology the distribution of sediments the location and profiles of coral reefs and discovered 4717 new species Modern Technology Polar Exploration 9 explorers reached both the North and South pole in the 20th century Meteor Expedition 9 First expedition to use modern optical and electronic equipment for oceanographic investigation The Atlantic 9 investigations on this research vessel confirmed the presence of the MidAtlantic Ridge Robot devices are becoming more capable o ROVS are revolutionzing marine science 0 Some robots are autonomous instructions programmed into them before they are released 0 Among the most capable of these is HROV Nereus the deepestdiving vehicle now in operation Satellites have become important tools in ocean Exploration o TOPEXIPosedion 9 a satellite orbiting above Earth that allows coverage of 95 of the icefree ocean every 10 days 0 Jason 1 9 its primary task it to monitor global climate interaction between the sea and the atmosphere 0 AQUA 9 a project to collect a large amount of information about Earth s water cycle Plate Tectonics Alfred Wegner 9 theory of continental drift 9 notion that the position of the continents are not fixed but migrate over time Continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle Pangaea 9 super continent with all earth s land Broke up into many smaller continents over past 250 million years Fossil 9 Evidence matches between locations that are extremely far from one another Fossils represent specific ecosystems of the past Critters are unique to those locations Rock types and rock stratigraphy Match for disparate locations Mount chains 9 Appalachians and mountains in Greenland North Europe and African match Chains are continuous when continents are placed together Ecoclimatic Evidence 9 glacial evidence Show ice flowed out from central point near South Africa when continents are placed together Mapping The Ocean Floor Early method 9 using a weighted line to measure depth Modern 9 Echo sounding 9 multibeam systems 9 satellite altimetry Echo sounding 9 a method of measuring seafloor depth using powerful sound pulses Multibeam systems 9 provide more accurate measurements than echo sounders Multibeam systems collect data from up to 121 beams to measure the contours of the ocean floor Satellite altimetry 9 measures the sea surface height from orbit Satellites can bounce 1000 pulses of radar energy off of the ocean surface every second Cross section of the Atlantic basin and the continental United States showing the range of elevations There are two primary classifications of ocean floor Continental Margins 9 the submerged outer edge of a continent 9 two types of margins Passive margins face the edges of diverging tectonic plates Active 9 are located near the edges of converging plates Margins are the site of volcanic and earthquake activity Ocean Basin 9 the deep seafloor beyond the continental margin Continental Margins amp Components Continental shelf 9 the shallow submerged edge of the continent Continental slope 9 the transition between the continental shelf and the deepocean floor Shelf break 9 the abrupt transition from continental shelf to continental slope Continental rise 9 accumulated sediment found at the base of the continental slope Submarine canyons 9 are a feature of some continental margins They cut into the continental shelf and slope often terminating on the deepsea floor in a fanshaped wedge of sediment Turbidity currents 9 occur when turbulence mixes sediments into water above a slopping bottom Canyons formed by abrasive formed by turbidity currents plunging down the canyons Features of the deepocean floor 0 Oceanic Ridges o Hydrothermal vents o Abyssal plains and abyssal hills 0 Seamounts and guyouts o Trenches and island arcs o Oceanic ridges 9 mountainous chain of young basaltic rock at an active spreading center 0 Trenches 9 arcshaped depressions caused by the subduction of a converging ocean plate
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