Study Guide PSYC 218 - 01
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
PSYC 218 - 01
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Sandozz on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 218 - 01 at Radford University taught by Lara Barbir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Monday December 7 y STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 13 Adolescent Psychology Chapter 1 Introduction Outline Early Greece Aristotle believes in the ability to choosePlato believes in the ability to reason Middle Ages Teenagers treated as mini adults not a good time to live in 18th century 2021 st century is when more scientific study was done on adolescents Important Theories G Stanley Hall Storm and Stress View Adolescence is a turbulent time full of mood swingsconflicts Margaret Mead Sociocultural View Sociocultural vs Biological development The lnventionist View Adolescence was created to produce school work and economics 18901920 TwentyTwentieth First Century changes cohortgroup and cohort effectsera 1950319703 Problems surrounding ethnicity political protests upward mobility and the women movement all were issues during this time period Millennials The group of people born after 1980 Two characteristics of these generations are ethnic diversity and technology advancements Stereotyping Adolescent generalization gap putting stereotypes in a limited group of teens Positive youth development adolescences reflect the positive psychology approach studying people who are already happy 5 0 3 of PYD competence confidence connection character caringcompassion Monday December 7 y Social context a setting in which development occurs influenced by historical cultural economic factors Social policy course of action developed by the gov to help its peope The Global Perspective Adolescences experiences are different gender family school peers and religion Emerging Adulthood 1825 years of age 5 keys identity exploration Instability Selffocus Feeling in between Age of possibilities Becoming an adult holding a permeant full time job Marriage in other cultures Intellectual psychological emotional and social development Resilience Adapting positively despite significant ricks and adverse circumstances Nature vs Nurture nature genetics whats inside of you nurture environment peersfamily where you live Early vs later experience early experiences rest on the belief that each life is a broken trail late experiences doesn t matter what happens in early exp Continuity vs Discontinuity continuity development is gradual and continues discontinuity development has distinct stages The Science of Adolescents Development Science and scientific method 1 propose a problemprocess to be a study 2 collect research info data 3 Analyze data 4 Draw conclusion Monday December 7 y Theories An interrelated coherent set of ideas that help explain problems Four Theories 1 Psychoanalytic Freud and Erikson 2 Cognitive Piaget 3 Behavioral Social Cognitive Vygotsky Skinner Bandura 4 Ecological Bronfenbrenner Psychoanalytic View beyond your awareness unconscious Must analyze symbolic meanings of behavior Freud Psychoanalytic theory ID unconscious Ego mediator Superego internalized ideals 5 stages Oral Birth to 1 12 mouthsucking biting chewing Anal1 12 to 3 yrs anusbowel and bladder control Phallic 3 to 6 yrs Genitalsmasturbation Latency 6 yrs to puberty repression of sexual feelings Genital puberty plus maturation of sexual orientation Erikson theory psychosocial lnfancy Trust vs mistrust birth18 months trusting caregivers that are reliable and affectionate Lacking that will lead to distrust Early Childhood Autonomy vs shame 23 years Sense of independence potty training age Successful leads to autonomy and failure leads to shame Preschool Initiative vs guilt 35 years Children begin asserting control in their environment Success leads to sense of purpose and failure leads to guilt Monday December 7 y School Age Industry vs Inferiority 611 years Children have to cope with school demands Success leads to competence and failure leads to inferiority Adolescence Identity vs Role Confusion 12 to 18 years Teens star to develop identity and sense of themselves Success leads to a healthy self identity and failure leads to a weak sense of self Young Adulthood Intimacy vs Isolation 1940 years Young adults want to form intimate relationships Success leads to healthy strong relationships and failure leads to isolation Middle Adulthood Generativer vs Stagnation 4065 years Adults need to nurture those who will outlast them often their children Success leads to feelings of accomplishments and failure leads to feelings of uninvolvement Maturity Ego Integrity vs Despair 65 to death Older adults need to feel like there life has a purpose Success leads to feelings of wisdom and failure leads to bitterness and despair Cognitive Theories Piaget cognitive development sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operational V90tSKY s sociocultural theory Cognitive development involves learning to use language Information processing theory Monday December 7 y continuity individuals manipulate info monitor it and stagerize about it Behaviorism we can only observe what we can directly see and measure Development is a gradual change Skinners Operant Conditioning the consequences change whether the behavior will occur ADD AVOID postive reinforcement negative reinforcement reward based positive punishment negative punishment Bandura s Social cognitive theory observational learning behavior cognition and environment are key factors in development Ecological Theory Monday December 7 y Brofendbrenners theory you microsytstem mesosystem exosystem macrosystem chromosystem added biological influences to his newer theory An Electic Theorectial Orientation no single theory can explain adolescent each theory has contributed to what we know about adolescents does not follow any single theory Research in Adolescents Test hypotheses 21 st century research has been expanded focusing on adolescents Methods for collecting data 1 Observation must be systematic most control certain factors 2 Naturalistic Observation 3 Survey Interview quickest way sometimes wide range of topics The Nature of Development Development a pattern of change at birth Monday December 7 y biological cognitive and socioemotional all interact Periods of development Childhood 1 prenatal conception birth 2 infancy birth 18 months to 24 months 3 early childhood 24 months to 56 years preschool middlelate childhood 6 1011 years 4Adolescence Early adolescence middle school age pubertal change Late adolescence the second change of life 1013 beginning of adolescence late teens ending of adolescence Adulthood 5Early adulthood 20s3O 6 Middle adulthood 30s50s 7 Late adulthood 6070s until death Developmental transitions theY re important junctures Adolescence begins in biology and ends in culture Psychological Measures assessing hormones in the bloodstream body composition is also a focus of physiological assessment recently brain research has been conducted more on adolescents Monday December 7 y Experience Sampling participants given papers and experimenters beep them then participants tell them where they are what they39re doing wants to see where adolescents spend more time parents are always involved when adolescents are participants Case Study in depth look at a single person very subjective caution about generalizing Research Designs Descriptive research aim to observe and explain behavior Correlation strength between 2 eventscharacteristics helps predicts how people will behave R correlation coefficient positive correlation both going up or down negative correlation one going up one going down 1 or 1 closer to these means a good relationship closer to 0 no relationship correlation doesn t equaI causation Monday December 7 y Experimental Research carefully regulated IV manipulated DV reacts to manipulation of the IV Experimental group and control group Random Assignment Time Span of Research studies that focus on age relating to some other variable to common Crosssectional research studying people of all ages Longitudinal research studying the same indiv over a period of time provides a wealth of information Ethical research know your rights IRB APA informed consent confidentiality debriefing deception Minimizing bias gender bias culture and ethnicity bias avoid ethnic gloss Chapter 2 Puberty Health and Biological Foundation Pubeny A period of rapid physical changes and bodily changes Monday December 7 y takes place in early adolescence determines in puberty What intimates puberty Weight body fat leptin hormone involved in weight gain changes in the endocrine system Heredity not an environmental accident 916 years of ages varies environmental factors can influence it s onset and duration Hormones powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands androgens male hormones estrogens women hormones Testosterone androgen development of external glands heightvoice depending linked to sexual desire Estradial estrogen breast uterine development skeletical changes The Endocrine System puberty involves the action of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis Hypothalamus fightflightfeeding and forenication Pituitary regulates other glands and secretes the follicle stimulating hormone luteinizing Thyriod gland Interacts with the pituitary and skeletal maturation 1O Monday December 7 y gonads the sex glands AdrenaracheGonadarache involves hormonal changes in the adrenal glands 69 years in girls about 1 year later in boys Gonadarche follows the adrenrche by 2 years Pubeny Primary sex characteristics ovaries testes secondary sex char pubic hair breast and genital development Menarche first period mid to late gonadarche in girls Spermarche First ejaculation in boys Higher body weight may cause earlier pubertal development lf birth weight is heavier and gain weight more during infancy may onset puberty it s characteristics sociocultural and environmental factors Adoption absence of father family conflict material harshness child maltreatment early substance abuse neglect low economic status Growth Spurt girls 9 boys 11 peaks girls 11 12 boys 13 12 weight gain followers height gain 11 Monday December 7 y girls 18le boys20bs Sexual Maturation Males increased penis testicle size pubic hair minor voice change facial hair spermache Females development of breasts pubic hair height gain hips don t lie widen menarche Precocious before age 8 in girls before age 9 in boys treated by medically suppressing gonadotropic secretions which temp stops puberty Psychological dimensions of puberty body image gender differences girls are less happy with their bodies hormones alone don t predict behavior increased estrogen linked to depression in teen girls Early and late maturation adolescents feel like the stand out boys view themselves as more positive girls have more problems when maturating early HeaHh early formation of goodbad habits in adolescence years expert goals 1 reduce health comprising behavior 2 increase health enhancing behaviors 12 Monday December 7 y RiskTaking behavior intensity excitement and arousal are all things adolescents seek community resources serves as a protective factor Neurobiological explanations of adolescent risk taking Health Services adolescent use healthcare system less lack of confidentiality CO St poor organization Leading Cause of Death accidents injuries suicidehomicide Emerging Adulthood 18 25 twice the morality rate of adolescents more likely to be obesemental health disorder Nutrition healthcomprising behavior eating disorders parents play a role role models schools play a role Exercise becoming active throughout adolescents 13 Monday December 7 y only 31 meet the recommend amount of exercise positive affect on weight status low blood pressure good sleep pattern Role of Family influence exercise 913 exercise more when they feel safe number of places to play parents who participate Schools Fail to provide physical edu class TV Computers screenbased activity lowers physical fitness Exercise helps with depression and anxiety Spons both positivenegative influences Positives improves physical health selfconfidence motivation to excel Negatives anxiety to win injuries 14 Monday December 7 y distracted form school work unrealistic expectations pressure from parentscoach steroids too much focus on winning female athlete problems Sleep feel more tiredsleepy more crankyirritable fall asleep in school depressed drink caffeinated beverages Evolution humans are relative newcomer to the earth Natural Selection darwin 1859 adaptive behavior Evolutionary developmental psychology Heredity Environment they interact to produce development behavior genetics Correlations genes influence types of environment to which they are exposed 15 Monday December 7 y evocate genotype Active nichepicking genotype passive genotype Sharednonshared experimental experience considers experiences adolescents have with other adolescents in the home The Epigentic View emphasizes that development is an interchange Chapter 3 The Brain and Cognitive Development The Brain Neurons cell body dendrites and axon structure cognition and emotion brain plasticity Myelination increase speed and increase fire potential myelin sheath Neurons White matter the whitish color of myelinated axons Grey matter dendrites and the cell body of the neuron White matter increases in adolescents Synaptogensis increase in connections between nuerons old connections get pruned Neurotransmitters chemicals that carry info across the synaptic gap Dopamine reward circuit neurotransmitter 16 Brain Structure Important structure changes Corpus callosum connects 2 hemispheres Prefrontal cortex decision making Amygdala intense emotions Experience and Plasticity Hippocampus memory location Olfactory bulb sense of smell The Cognitive Developmental View Piagets theory best known theory biologically adaptive assimilate and accommodate schema mental framework Equilibration a shift in thinking from on state to another Cognitive changes in emerging adulthood realistic and pragmatic thinking reflective and relativistic thinking fifth post formal stage Wisdom expert knowledge about practical aspects of life high levels of wisdom are rare 17 Monday December 7 y Monday December 7 y late adulthood is a window for wisdom Big 5 personality factors 1 Openness 2 Consciousness 3 ExtraVersion 4 Agreeableness 5 Neuroticism Vygotsky s theory continuity view knowledge as collaborative learning social cultural Zone of proximal development lower upper limit social constructivist approach The Information Processing View How info gets into adolescents minds how its stored how its retrieved info processing is a framework facet of development influenced by capacity and speed of processing Attention focusing of mental effort concentration selective attention divided attention sustained attention 18 executive attention Memory central to life and info processing short term 30 secs Working Memory mental workbench prefrontal cortex Long term permanent improves during adolescence Cognitive control controlling attention reducing interfering thoughts cognitive flexibility Executive functioning Making decisions critical thinking creative thinking metacognition DualProcess Model analytical and experiential which compete with each other Monday December 7 y Creativity the ability to think in novel ways and discover unique solutions Convergent one answer 19 Monday December 7 y Divergent creative thinking to find many answers Expertise increased interest in experts Metacognition knowing about knowing The Psychometric Intelligence View emphasizes individual differences in intelligence Intelligence the ability to solve problems Alfred Binet Test 1905 Developed test of 30 questions mental age individuals level of mental development relative to others Intelligent Quotient IQ MACA x 100 David Wechsler scale of intelligence 3rd edition Wechsler Preschool and Primary 2 yrs 6 months 7 yrs 3 months WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale Multiple Intelligence Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner Triarchic theory 3 types of intelligences analytical pratical creative 20 Monday December 7 y Gardner 8 frames of mind 1 N9391 gt90 8 verbal math matical spa al bodilykinesthetic muscial interpersonal intrapersonal Naturalist Emotional Intelligence emphasizes interpersonal intrapersonal and practical aspects of intelligence Social Cognition 21 people they watch interact with relationships with these people Adolescent Egocentrism Heightened selfconsciousness of adolescents Imaginary audience personal fable
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