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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Hinds on Monday September 1, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to a course at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.
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Date Created: 09/01/14
PSY110 Test 2 study sheet Learning Know the 6 kinds of learning Pavlov s original studies of Classical Conditioning Understand the terms habituation and sensitization Know about Thorndike his puzzle boxes and his Law of Effect and how that law provides definitions for reward and punishment Know the basics of BF Skinner39s work on the schedules of reinforcement including the 4 types of partial reinforcement Know the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment Know the difference between shaping also known as successive approximation and chaining Understand the term Behavior Modification also called Behavioral Therapy Know about Albert Bandura39s Bobo doll studies including the ideas of vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment and how these studies led researchers to make a distinction between learning and behavior for the first time In the text be sure to read the section on Cognitive In uences on Learning Memory Know about the sensory register iconic memory echoic memory photographic memory also called Eidetic Imagery the tachistoscope and the work of Sperling Understand his basic study techniques as described in class Know the main function of shortterm memory as presented in lecture Be familiar wi lizabeth Loftus and her work on implanted memories as described in class chunking Know about the famous memory work of Erik Kandel as mentioned both in lecture and in the text Know what animal he used in this research and the main nding as explained in lecture I also talked about the quotsearch for the Engramquot using planaria In longterm memory know the names of the three types mentioned in lecture episodic procedural semantic and know what each means Understand The Serial Position Effect and how I used it to introduce the following terms proactive interference retroactive interference primacy effect recency effect Be sure you know the difference between those 2 kinds of interference for an applied question Also know the difference between Deep Processing techniques and shallow processing techniques as presented in lecture And know the difference between retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia In the book look for the following terms and know which is which Clustering Method of Loci Narrative Story Acrostics and Acronyms Also in the book look for the section in the Memory chapter on MEMORY AS A DYNAMIC PROCESS Finally know the three theories of forgetting that were covered in lecture Motivation Early instinct based theories of motivation explained nothing Eventually they were abandoned but know Freud39s concepts of Eros and Thanatos Drive Reduction theories also were mostly abandoned in favor of Optimal Level Theory also called Arousal Theory Understand the Yerkes Dodson Law Know Maslow39s five needs in order Understand what Social learning theory says about motivation Look in the book for discussions of Cognitive Theories of Motivation Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Eating Disorders Personality Know and understand the following Freud39s three structures of the personality Id Ego and Superego along with the guiding principle for each Know all 8 defense mechanisms well enough to apply them when I present an example Know Freud39s ve stages of sexual development Oral Anal Phallic Latency and Genital Oedipus and Electra Complexes How did Erik Erikson39s theory differ from Freud Know the basics of Carl Jung39s theory Analytical Psychology and the following terms Collective Unconscious archetypes Mandala Anima Animus The Behavioral Model of personality The Humanistic Model of Personality and the work of Carl Rogers Understand what is meant by Unconditional Positive Regard and Active Listening Know the 5 common responses to an emotional communication and which one is best Understand what Biology has to offer about personality differences in animals and in people The work of Jerome Kagen on shyness and the general idea of Identical twin studies usually identical twins who were separated at birth and adopted by different families with no contact during development Know each of the 10 or 12 personality tests covered in lecture For example know what the letters MMPI stand for what the test is like and whether it is one of the Objective Projective or Research tests The 16PF MCMI NEOPI Rorschach TAT Type AB IE scale OptimismPessimism Need for Achievement Intelligence Know the brief History of Intelligence testing Darwin Galton Binet the Binet Simon Scale of 1905 the StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale of 1916 in California The formula for IQ The Army Alpha The Army Beta The three Wechsler scales WAIS WISC WPPSI and the age range for each Understand the three big ideas in Psychometrics Reliability Validity and Standardization In Particular be sure you know the difference between Testretest reliability and Criterion Validity Know the 4 theories of Intelligence covered in lecture Spearman Thurstone Guilford and Gardner Know each of Gardner39s kinds of intelligence Under Controversies in intelligence testing understand the basics of the NatureNurture issue and know about the work of Arthur Jensen Also understand what I say in lecture about Test Bias and how it relates to Validity Psy 110 Test 3 study sheet I hope this helps though it is mostly a list of all of the terms and concepts that are already on your three lecture outlines One big advantage might be that I help narrow your focus for extra topics in the textbook Development Regarding the philosophical background of child development understand the following Original Sin Tabula Rasa Innate Goodness Nobel Savage gave way to scienti c observation of child development The three big issues in development NatureNurture Developmental Continuity vs Discontinuity Cross Sectional research vs Longitudinal research John Horn39s idea of Fluid intelligence vs Crystallized intelligence Know the three stages of prenatal development Zygote embryo fetus and the corresponding ages Understand the term Teratogen and know the ones mentioned in lecture particularly Alcohol FAS Vitamin A and Thalidomide Be able to list three advantages of breast feeding over bottle feeding Under Social Attachment understand the following Freud39s Oral Gratification Harlow and Zimmerman39s Contact Comfort Konrad Lorenzes Imprinting during a critical period Erik Erikson Trust vs Mistrust Mary Ainsworth s Strange Situation Test of Secure and Insecure attachment Stage Theories Review Freud39s 5 stages of psychosexual development Know Piaget39s 4 stages of cognitive development by name and approximate ages Also know the one research concept mentioned in lecture for each stage Also be sure to understand the following 4 terms from Piaget assimilation accommodation schema and egocentricism Learn the names of Erikson39s eight stages or crises in order with approximate ages for each Also be sure to know the definitions of the three terms I defined in lecture initiative industry and intimacy Know Kohlberg39s three stages or levels of Moral Development and the guiding principle of each Finally know KublerRosses 5 stages of death dying and grief denial anger bargaining depression acceptance Understand that the old storm and stress view of adolescence is back again Understand what that view says Know the very basics of Haidt39s new theory of morality including the 5 Moral Foundations he identified In the Development Chapter although it is interesting you may skip the section on quotThe Beginning of Lifequot which covers genetics Be sure to focus on the section called quotCognitive Developmentquot and the work of Piaget Read the rest of the chapter to consolidate and clarify topics covered in lecture or to learn about things that seem interesting to you After all it39s your education Social Psychology Just follow along with the outlines Know about the ABC model of attitudes and what those letters stand for Know the variables and terms listed under each component of the Yale Group39s conceptualization of Persuasion Learn the factors associated with the Speaker the Message and the Target including terms like forewarning and inoculation A onesided argument works best when target is initially in favor of the message Twosided works best when target is initially opposed to the message Know all of the basic details of Festinger39s 1 20 study and how it relates to Cognitive Dissonance Theory What are the three ways that we can reduce cognitive dissonance Know the basics of Attributional Theory and the details of that 2 by 2 table of possible types of causal attribution Be able to apply that table to an example such as the one given in class Understand the following three related terms ActorObserver effect Fundamental Attributional Error SelfServing Bias This chapter introduces many terms Know the following Social In uence has three subheadings Conformity Compliance and Obedience The Ash Line comparison studies of Conformity The power of an ally in the conformity studies The Doorinthefacetechnique the Footinthedoortechnique of gaining compliance Be familiar with Stanley Milgram39s Obedience study What part did the real subject play What is the main conclusion of that study and it39s many replications Irving Janis and his concept of Groupthink Be able to define The Bystander Effect 2 possible explanations Fear of social blunder diffusion of responsibility IV Aggression no lecture text only A Instinct Freud Thanatos amp Eros From motivation lecture instinct theories of aggression gave Way to drive theories B DriveFrustrationAggression Hypothesis 1939 A popular but outdated theory that said all aggression stems from frustration of some desire C Social Learning The current theory that claims aggressive behavior is learned classically operantly or observastionally This is more optimistic because it does not have to be learned A nonviolent world is possible Prejudice discrimination stereotype racism sexism social categorization usthem or ingroupoutgroup illusory correlation selfserving bias again The ultimate Attributional Error Interpersonal attraction love and friendship four relevant factors similarity proximity reciprocity physical attractiveness romantic love Passionate Love Companionate Love In the text look carefully at the following three sections Attribution Theory Attraction and Aggression Pay special attention to the marginal definitions in those sections Emotions and Stress and Health Emotions Know the basics of Plutchik39s Wheel of Emotions 8 primary emotions 8 secondary or mixed emotions various intensities No need to memorize the actual emotions Know the difference between the three Theories of how we know our own emotions 1 J amesLange 2 CannonBard 3 Schachter amp Singer What part of emotional expression is learned and what part is innate What did Darwin say about human facial expressions Stress Holmes and Rahe39s Life events checklist it39s goal and short comings Richard Lazarus idea of Cognitive appraisal Con ict frustration and environmental factors are all sources of stress Understand the basic idea of Selye39s General Adaptation Syndrome and the three stages alarm resistance and exhaustion Carefully review all of the social cognitive personality and behavioral factors that help us cope with stress Pay special attention to the new terms here like Problem Focused vs Emotion Focused coping Learned Helplessness Type A coronary prone Personality and how Hostility works with that and finally Psychological Hardiness which is made up of three factors in combination commitment Internal locus of control and problem focused coping Health Psychology Understand the basic idea of health psychology and how stress research and the effect of stress on the immune system got people thinking about Psychoneuroimmunology In the text pay special attention to the three Theories of Emotions These theories differ in geometry which may be seen in figure 132 Carefully read the quotSuproxinquot study by Schachter and Singer 1962
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