psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2
psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2 Psych 302
Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Chapter 3 Elicited behaviors – behavior that happens in response to some environmental event Innate vs. learned behaviors Reflexes involuntary and automatic response (unlearned) - Pathway from sensory stimulus to motor response > processing handled solely by spine - Palmar grasp, eye blink, knee jerk, diving reflex Reflex Arc – nerve pathway involved in a reflex action Includes sensory and motor nerve w/ a synapse between Habituation – decreasing responses to a frequent bur innocuous stimulus Sensitization – increasing responses to a noxious/arousing stimulus Dishabituation – renewal of a response, previously habituated, that occurs when the organism is resented w/ novel stimulus Stimulus intensity – the strength of stimuli ex. Getting punched > if it hurt (high intensity), if it didn’t hurt (low intensity) Dual Process Theory – habituation and sensitization are independent of each other but operate parallel > good at explaining short term habituation Evolutionary perspective/advantage Opposing Reactivity Opponent Process Theory of Emotions – habituation and sensitization represent two opposing tendencies of reactivity > strong vs. weak Ex. Lotto ticket / roller coaster > both events elicited strong emotional response but when event was withdrawn, an opposite response was elicited and then gradually disappeared Habituation Neural Process – activated by every presentation of a stimulus - Occur in SR System > analogous of reflex arc Sensitization Neural Process only activated by arousing events - Occur in the State system > determines the animal’s general level of responsiveness or “arousal” * Whether we habituate or sensitize will depend upon which is stronger in given set of circumstance Types of learning: - Mere Exposure learning: perceptual learning without explicit training - Perceptual learning: experience w/ a set of stimuli makes the same stimuli easier to distinguish > increased ability to make fine distinctions Discrimination Training – Spatial Learning/ Tinbergen – acquisition of information about one’s surroundings - Hippocampal place cells: special neurons involved in navigation in space - Cognitive map: mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Priming/ Bluejays Novel Object Recognition – test for recognition memory Aplysia/habituation/sensitization - Habituation: repeated touch depletes sensory neuron of transmitter (synaptic depression) - Gentle touch to siphon, produces gill withdrawal > repeat every minute for 1015 min > progressively shorter with durations > recovers quickly but w/ many sessions becomes longlasting - Sensitization: tail shock activates interneurons that release serotonin > serotonin modulates sensory neurons to release more transmitter onto next activation - Gentle touch produces gill withdrawal > aversive shock to tail > next touch much longer withdrawal duration > recovers quickly but becomes long lasting w/ multiple sessions Cortical plasticity: refinement in the receptive fields of neurons of the sensory cortex due to development or experience Plasicity during development – brain changes with development and experience brain is consistently rewiring based on experience Hebbian learning – suggests an experienced based “natural selection” for most useful synaptic connections Homunculus/somatosensory cortex – pictorial representation of the primary somatosensory cortex Hippocampus & spatial learning London Taxi drivers study Cochlear implant Chapter 4 Classical conditioning US – food UR salivation CS – bell CR – response to conditioning Pavlov – physiological centers of learning US center – specific part of brain that becomes activated whenever US is present CS center – becomes activated during conditioning Response center – part of the brain responsible for every UR Appetitive conditioning – food is provided as a reward following the presentation of a stimulus Aversive conditioning – noxious stimuli are associated w/ undesirable or unwanted behavior that is to be modified or abolished (Ex. Nauseainducing drugs in treatment of alcoholism) Eyeblink conditioning – involves the pairing of a conditioned (usually a tone) stimulus to an unconditioned stimulus (air puff) > CR = blinking in response to tone Used to studysteural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory Acquisition phase – 1 stage of learning when a response is established In classical condition, the period when the stimulus evokes the conditioned response Extinction – gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing Kamin's blocking effect – refers to failures of learning and/or the expression of classically conditioned responses when a target stimulus is presented Spontaneous recovery – refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay Timing in classical conditioning Simultaneous conditioning – conditioning that occurs frequently, unintentionally, or unplanned Delay conditioning – conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus by a significant time period and the organism learns to withhold its conditioned response Backward conditioning – behaviorconditioning method in which unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented before a neutral stimulus (NS) Latent inhibition – observation that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning than a new stimulus Boy who cried wolf eventually ignored > when real wolf attacked, no one helped b/c “wolf” was not predictive RescorlaWagner model – organisms anticipate important events from the stimuli around them >learning a CSUS association depends on how much the US is expected - Sum of stimulus weights = animals prediction - When prediction is wrong, weights are adjusted > when error is 0, no learning occurs (ex. An injection hurt as much as you expected) Mackintosh Model CS – proposed a model of classical conditioning focused on attention and the way the CS is processed ISI – “interstimulus interval” / timing of presentation (timing in classical conditioning) Conditioned taste aversion – occurs when an animals associates the taste of a certain food w/ symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance Physiological research / Aplysia – use to study habituation b/c it has only about 20,000 neurons that are hardwired, some of which are large enough to see w/ the naked eye Mammals/neural pathways Purkinje cells – neurons located in the cerebellar cortex Interpositus nucleus – involved in the formation & execution of the conditioned response Pontine nuclei – part of the pons involved in motor activity Climbing fibers –series of neuronal projections from inferior olivary nucleus located in brain Mossy fibers – 2 different bundles of axons in the brain 1) Cerebellum mossy fibers one of the major inputs to cerebellum Source of pathway is cerebral cortex 2) Hippocampus – unmyelinated axons project along mossy fibers Inferior olive – largest nucleus situation in the olivary body part (prominent olive structures in brain), of the brain * involved in motor control Humans /cerebellum Compensatory response model – bodies would compensate for burst of adrenaline (ex. Body would calm down and then adrenaline will rush but not too high > homeostasis balance Higher order conditioning – refers to a situation in which a stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with a condition stimulus to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus Ex. tone that has been conditioning w/ food to produce salivation Brain Stimulation Cerebellar damage/Thompson studies Inhibitory feedback – situation in which the substances at the end of a long series of reactions inhibits a reaction at the beginning of the series of reactions Hippocampus & CS – removal of the hippocampus does not alter basic classical conditioning paradigms - Does eliminate latent inhibition - Disrupts other paradigms that depend on changes in the processing of the cs - US modulation occurs in the cerebellum (rescorlawagner) - CS modulation occurs in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe Activitydependent enhancement – CS – weak sensory activation that primes the sensory neuron, but causes no further change US – serotonin release, but too weak to cause sensitization CS+US – primed sensory neuron responds to even a weak level of serotonin Synapses changes in learning CREB1/CREB2 CREB1: activated and promotes growth of new synapses CREB2: deactivated, as it inhibits growth of new synapses Clinical Significance drug addiction/abuse and Classical conditioning – environmental CS (ex. appearance and smell of drug taking location) produce CR drug craving in anticipation of US drug - Even subtle changes (Ex. To drug taste) can overrun tolerance and increase drug effects > increases possibility overdose - Administer the medication in a slightly different environment each time Bouton study (2002) – suggests that therapists conduct cueexposure therapy in different contexts including home Over varying time lengths with small amounts of drug use
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