New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2

by: jh1371

psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2 Psych 302

Marketplace > California State University - Fullerton > Psychlogy > Psych 302 > psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2
Cal State Fullerton

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Study guide part 2 for test 1 in learning and memory. Covers ch. 3-4
Learning and Memory
Dr. Wilson-Ozima
Study Guide
learning and memory, psych 302, Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Learning and Memory

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by jh1371 on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 302 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Wilson-Ozima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


Reviews for psych 302 learning and memory study guide test 1 part 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/10/16
Chapter 3 Elicited behaviors – behavior that happens in response to some environmental event ­ Innate vs. learned behaviors Reflexes ­ involuntary and automatic response (unlearned) - Pathway from sensory stimulus to motor response > processing handled solely by spine - Palmar grasp, eye blink, knee jerk, diving reflex Reflex Arc – nerve pathway involved in a reflex action  ­ Includes sensory and motor nerve w/ a synapse between Habituation – decreasing responses to a frequent bur innocuous stimulus Sensitization – increasing responses to a noxious/arousing stimulus Dishabituation – renewal of a response, previously habituated, that occurs when the organism is  resented w/ novel stimulus Stimulus intensity – the strength of stimuli   ­ ex. Getting punched > if it hurt (high intensity), if it didn’t hurt (low intensity) Dual Process Theory – habituation and sensitization are independent of each other but operate  parallel > good at explaining short term habituation Evolutionary perspective/advantage Opposing Reactivity Opponent Process Theory of Emotions – habituation and sensitization represent two opposing  tendencies of reactivity > strong vs. weak  ­ Ex. Lotto ticket / roller coaster > both events elicited strong emotional response but  when event was withdrawn, an opposite response was elicited and then gradually disappeared  Habituation Neural Process – activated by every presentation of a stimulus - Occur in S­R System > analogous of reflex arc Sensitization Neural Process ­ only activated by arousing events - Occur in the State system > determines the animal’s general level of  responsiveness or “arousal” * Whether we habituate or sensitize will depend upon which is stronger in given set of  circumstance Types of learning: - Mere Exposure learning: perceptual learning without explicit training - Perceptual learning: experience w/ a set of stimuli makes the same stimuli easier  to distinguish > increased ability to make fine distinctions Discrimination Training –  Spatial Learning/ Tinbergen – acquisition of information about one’s surroundings  - Hippocampal place cells: special neurons involved in navigation in space - Cognitive map: mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Priming/ Bluejays Novel Object Recognition – test for recognition memory Aplysia/habituation/sensitization - Habituation: repeated touch depletes sensory neuron of transmitter (synaptic  depression) - Gentle touch to siphon, produces gill withdrawal > repeat every minute for 10­15 min > progressively shorter with durations > recovers quickly but w/ many  sessions becomes long­lasting - Sensitization: tail shock activates interneurons that release serotonin > serotonin  modulates sensory neurons to release more transmitter onto next activation  - Gentle touch produces gill withdrawal > aversive shock to tail > next touch much longer withdrawal duration > recovers quickly but becomes long lasting w/  multiple sessions Cortical plasticity: refinement in the receptive fields of neurons of the sensory cortex due to  development or experience  Plasicity during development – brain changes with development and experience  ­ brain is consistently rewiring based on experience Hebbian learning – suggests an experienced based “natural selection” for most useful synaptic  connections Homunculus/somatosensory cortex – pictorial representation of the primary somatosensory  cortex Hippocampus & spatial learning London Taxi drivers study Cochlear implant Chapter 4 Classical conditioning US – food           UR ­ salivation CS – bell            CR – response to conditioning  Pavlov – physiological centers of learning ­ US center – specific part of brain that becomes activated whenever US is present           ­ CS center – becomes activated during conditioning           ­ Response center – part of the brain responsible for every UR Appetitive conditioning – food is provided as a reward following the presentation of a stimulus Aversive conditioning – noxious stimuli are associated w/ undesirable or unwanted behavior  that is to be modified or abolished (Ex. Nausea­inducing drugs in treatment of alcoholism) Eyeblink conditioning – involves the pairing of a conditioned (usually a tone) stimulus to an  unconditioned stimulus (air puff) > CR = blinking in response to tone ­ Used to studysteural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory Acquisition phase – 1  stage of learning when a response is established ­ In classical condition, the period when the stimulus evokes the conditioned response Extinction – gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing Kamin's blocking effect – refers to failures of learning and/or the expression of classically  conditioned responses when a target stimulus is presented Spontaneous recovery – refers to the re­emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned  response after a delay Timing in classical conditioning Simultaneous conditioning – conditioning that occurs frequently, unintentionally, or unplanned Delay conditioning – conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus by a significant  time period and the organism learns to withhold its conditioned response Backward conditioning – behavior­conditioning method in which unconditioned stimulus (US)  is presented before a neutral stimulus (NS) Latent inhibition – observation that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning than a  new stimulus ­ Boy who cried wolf eventually ignored > when real wolf attacked, no one helped b/c  “wolf” was not predictive Rescorla­Wagner model – organisms anticipate important events from the stimuli around them  >learning a CS­US association depends on how much the US is expected - Sum of stimulus weights = animals prediction  - When prediction is wrong, weights are adjusted > when error is 0, no learning  occurs (ex. An injection hurt as much as you expected) Mackintosh Model­ CS – proposed a model of classical conditioning focused on attention and  the way the CS is processed ISI – “interstimulus interval” / timing of presentation (timing in classical conditioning) Conditioned taste aversion – occurs when an animals associates the taste of a certain food w/  symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance Physiological research / Aplysia – use to study habituation b/c it has only about 20,000 neurons  that are hard­wired, some of which are large enough to see w/ the naked eye Mammals/neural pathways Purkinje cells – neurons located in the cerebellar cortex Interpositus nucleus – involved in the formation & execution of the conditioned response Pontine nuclei – part of the pons involved in motor activity Climbing fibers –series of neuronal projections from inferior olivary nucleus located in brain Mossy fibers – 2 different bundles of axons in the brain 1) Cerebellum  ­ mossy fibers one of the major inputs to cerebellum  ­ Source of pathway is cerebral cortex 2) Hippocampus – unmyelinated axons project along mossy fibers Inferior olive – largest nucleus situation in the olivary body part (prominent olive structures in  brain), of the brain * involved in motor control Humans /cerebellum Compensatory response model – bodies would compensate for burst of adrenaline (ex. Body  would calm down and then adrenaline will rush but not too high > homeostasis ­ balance Higher order conditioning – refers to a situation in which a stimulus that was previously neutral  is paired with a condition stimulus to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned  stimulus ­ Ex. tone that has been conditioning w/ food to produce salivation Brain Stimulation Cerebellar damage/Thompson studies Inhibitory feedback – situation in which the substances at the end of a long series of reactions  inhibits a reaction at the beginning of the series of reactions Hippocampus & CS – removal of the hippocampus does not alter basic classical conditioning  paradigms - Does eliminate latent inhibition - Disrupts other paradigms that depend on changes in the processing of the cs - US modulation occurs in the cerebellum (rescorla­wagner) - CS modulation occurs in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe Activity­dependent enhancement – CS – weak sensory activation that primes the sensory  neuron, but causes no further change US – serotonin release, but too weak to cause sensitization CS+US – primed sensory neuron responds to even a weak level of serotonin  Synapses changes in learning CREB­1/CREB­2­ CREB1: activated and promotes growth of new synapses        CREB2: deactivated, as it inhibits growth of new synapses Clinical Significance drug addiction/abuse and Classical conditioning – environmental CS (ex.  appearance and smell of drug taking location) produce CR drug craving in anticipation of US  drug - Even subtle changes (Ex. To drug taste) can overrun tolerance and increase drug  effects > increases possibility overdose - Administer the medication in a slightly different environment each time Bouton study (2002) – suggests that therapists conduct cue­exposure therapy   ­in different contexts including home ­ Over varying time lengths ­ with small amounts of drug use


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.