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Date Created: 09/01/14
Immune System Review Guide Chapter 22 Lymphatic System amp Immunity Lymphatic system function Production of lymphocytes Distribution and maintenance of lymphocytes and Removal of excess extracellular fluid ECF gt Drainage system Definitions Lymph Fluid similar to blood plasma but fewer proteins Antigen A substance that stimulates cells to produce antibodies ANTbody GENerator Antibody A protein made by plasma cells that binds to a specific antigen Pathogen Any agents that cause disease ex viruses bacteria fungi protists Vaccine A dead or weakened pathogen Generates an immune response without developing disease symptoms Does not have to be a virus Physical barriers Prevent approach of and deny access to pathogens into body skin hairs Immunological surveillance Destroys abnormal cells which are recognized through NK cells Inflammatory response Temporary repair at an injury site Slow the spread of pathogens away from injury site gt Regeneration Fever To maintain body temperature greater than 372 C 99 F Faster mobilization of tissue defenses and an accelerated repair process Increase body metabolism Phagocytes Performs phagocytosis Phagocytosis The engulfing of extracellular materials or pathogens Macrophages Fixed Permanent residents of specific tissues and organs Free Travel through the body arriving at injury site by migration through adjacent tissues or by recruitment from circulating blood Interferons Increase resistance of cells to infection Slow the spread of disease Alpha Beta and Gamma Complement Attacks and breaks down cell walls Attracts phagocytes Stimulates inflammation Lymphatic tissues and organs Tonsils A lymphoid nodule in in the wall of the pharynx Lymph nodes Function as Lymph filters similar to how kidneys filter blood Lymph glands gt cervical axillary inguinal pelvic and lumbar Thymus Large in children Decrease in size after puberty 2 lobes Immature Tcells develop in the cortex Mature Tcells move into the medulla where they can enter the bloodstream Makes thymosin hormone that stimulates the development of lymphocytes Spleen Filters the blood Removes abnormal RBCs Stores iron from recycled RBCs Responds to presence of foreign antigens by initiating B and T cells Func ons NK cells Natural killer cells Tcells Activated when they bind to an antigen presenting cell After activation Tcell divides into Cytotoxic T cells Helper Tcells Memory Tcells and Suppressor Tcells Bcells Become activated by presence of an antigen Activated Bcells form Plasma cells and Memory Bcells wait until 2nd exposure and then convert into plasma cells live up to 20 years Plasma cells Secrete antibodies Cytotoxic Killer T cells Destroy infected cells Helper Tcells Stimulate the development of more Tcells attract macrophages attract NK cells and promote Bcell division Memory cells Wait until 2nd exposure to the antigen then will convert into active Tcells Herd communityimmunity When enough of the population in a community are vaccinated so a disease won t spread or run in the community Antibiotics are effective at killing bacteria They are ineffective against viruses Specific and Nonspecific defense Anatomic Barrier lt Nonspecific gt Inflammatory Response Acquired gt Passive Innate lt Specific gt Acquired gt Active gt Natural Active gt Induced vaccinated Chapter 19 Blood Typing Agglutination Clumping of RBCs in a response to a reaction between an antibody and an an gen How blood type is inherited Genotype what you inherit Phenotype from your parents your blood type AA or A0 gt A BB or B0 gt B AB gt AB OO gt 0 or gt gt O is RECESSIVE to A and B gt A is CODOMINANT with B gt is RECESSIVE to Rh disease When cells from the fetus enters the mother s bloodstream The mother makes antibodies and starts to attack the baby s red blood cells It can now be treated because of the Man with the Golden Arm from Au who had a certain blood plasma to help treat it Blood Type Can Receive Can Donate To Has Antigens Clots with From Antibodies A A A 0 0 A AB A amp Rh antigens antiA amp antiRh A A O A AB A antigens antiA B B B 0 0 B AB B amp Rh antigens antiB amp antiRh B B O B AB B antigens antiB AB A A B B AB A B Rh antiA B Rh AB AB O antigens 0 AB A B AB AB A and B antiA amp antiB O antigens 0 0 0 A B AB Rh antigens antiRh 0 O O A B AB 0 No antigens no clotting w any antibodies Blood type A gt Can make antiB antibodies when sensitized to B antigens Blood type B gt Can make antiA antibodies when sensitized to A antigens Blood type AB gt Will not make antibodies against other blood types Blood type 0 gt Can make antiA and antiB antibodies when sensitized to A or B antigens
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