Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide BMS 208-03
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 1 91715 1013 PM Human Anatomy Anatomy To cut apart the study of structure Physiology the study of function The Anatomic Position Body in an upright position and facing forward with limbs laying along the body and parallel the thumbs pointing out palms facing forward Anatomic Directions Terms that describe the relative positions of one body structure to another 0 AnteriorPosterior ForwardBackward SuperiorInferior AboveBelow MedialLateral closer to the midlineaway from the midline Applies to the trunk ProximalDistal HigherLower applies only to appendages SuperficialDeep Sectional Anatomy Plane Anatomy imaginary flat surface passing through the body or an organ 0 Saqittal Plane Median down the middle 0 Transverse Plane horizontally cut in half 0 Coronal Plane divides front to back Body Cavities Dorsal Posterior o Cranial Cavity formed by skull bones o Vertebral Canal formed by vertebral column bones Ventral Anterior o Thoracic The superior cavity The heart is located in the middle called the mediastinum and surrounded by pericardium Lungs lined by 2 layer serous membrane called pleura produces fluid to allow movement and prevent friction Mediastinum Pleural Pericardial Diaphragm 0 Question for thought What s the difference between thoracic and pectoral o Abdominopelvic The inferior cavity these two are separated by the diaphragm Abdominopelvic Quadrants Cavity can be divided into four quadrants The Patients right and left not yours El El El El Right Upper Quadrant RUQ Left Upper Quadrant LUQ Right Lower Quadrant RLQ Left Lower Quadrant LLQ Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity El Umbilical Region in the center of the regions surrounds the naval issues that result from lactose intolerant Epigastric Region above Epi the umbilical region heartburn high in the digestive system Hypogastric Region below hypo the umbilical region bladder UTI Right Hypochondriac Region right below the ribcage gallbladder Left Hypochondriac Region spleen right below the ribcage Right Lumbar Region Left Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Area between leg and pubic region Left Iliac Region Hip region Chapter 2 91715 1013 PM Levels of Organization in the Human Body Chemical Level Atoms amp Molecule Cell Level Table 22 pg 27 Tissue Level Epithelial Organ Level Small Intestine Organ System Level Cardiovascular System Heart arteries and veins blood Organism Level Cell Components amp Functions Plasma Cell Membrane communication interceuar connection enclose cell contents regulates movement Cytoplasm stores nutrients and dissolved solutes Cytosol support organelles Organelles carry out specific functions Inclusions Store Materials Nucleus Cell control center Nuclear Envelope barrier between nuceopasm and cytoplasm Nuclear Pores allows passage of materials Nuceous Synthesizes rRNA and makes ribosomes in the nucleus Chromatin amp Chromosomes Site of genes in the DNA Smooth ER makes lipids metabolizes carbohydrates and detoxifies drugs and alcohol Rough ER makes proteins for secretion proteins for the plasma membrane amp lysosomal enzymes transport amp stores molecules Golgi Apparatus modifies packages amp sort proteins for secretion to be included in the plasma membrane or for lysosomal enzyme synthesis Lysosomes digest materials amp microbes removes damaged cells Peroxisomes convert hydrogen peroxide made during metabolism to water Mitochondria makes most ATP during cellular respiration Ribosomes Make proteins for use in the cell amp secretion or incorporation into the plasma membrane or lysosomes Cytoskeleton structure motility amp transport of materials Microfilaments cell shape muscle contraction intracellular movement separate the cells Intermediate Filaments structural support Microtubules support cell amp uphold its shape keep organelles in place directs organelle movement amp cell movement wcilia amp flagella Centrosome organize microtubules Centrioles organize microtubules during cell division to move chromosomes Cilia move fluid mucus amp other materials over the cell Flagellum propels sperm Microvilli increase the surface area of the cell membrane for easier absorption and secretion Chapter 3 91715 1013 PM Figure 31 and Table 32 Human Maturation Wheel Embryonic Period 0 Begins wthe establishment of three primary germ gastrulation layers which all adult human structure comes from o Ectoderm development of outer layer of skin epidermis and spinal cord nerves endocrine organs structures of the eyes 0 Mesoderm M for muscles is the main organ system that is developed from this germ heart kidneys etc o Endoderm give rise to respiratory system amp digestive system Figure 312 o By the end of the embryonic period the main organ systems have developed Chapter 4 91715 1013 PM Histology the scientific study of tissues 4 Tissue Types Epithelial Tissue most superficial provides protection 0 Functions 0 Protection Lines body surfaces and cavities Covers organs skin mucous membranes stratified squamous 0 Absorption nutrients and molecules lining of digestive system simple columnar o Secretion Endocrine and Exocrine glands sweating salivation adrenaline hormones ducts of glands simple cuboidalcolumnar 0 Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 0 One surface always exposed to fluid or air 0 Totally cellular o No blood vessels avascular receive all nutrition by diffusion 0 Cells rest on a basement membrane 0 Classification and Naming of Epithelial Tissue 0 Simple Epithelium one layer of cells 0 Stratified Epithelium more than one layer of cells Types of Cells n Squamous Cell flat cells n Cuboidal Cell cube shaped cells n Columnar Cell taller column like cell 0 Types of Epithelial Tissue Know how to identify from a drawing and where they can be found 0 Simple Squamous Respiratory System alveoli air sacs in lung tissue Simple Squamous Epithelium lungs Simple Squamous Mesothelium Simple Squamous Endothelium 0 Simple Cuboidal walls of kidney tubules surface of ovaries ducts of glands 0 Simple Columnar anywhere from the beginning of the stomach down to end of the colon gallbladder and stomach o Stratified Squamous epidermis of the skin esophagus oral cavity and rectum any opening o Pseudostratified Ciliated ColumnarLining of the airways lining of the trachea bronchioles nasal cavity Looks like many layers of cells but really only one layer of columnar cells Function is to catch and trap impurities the mucous and cilia catch the impurities o Transitional Changes its shape Found in the Urinary system ureters and bladder not kidney Glandular Epithelial Tissueglands are formed out of epithelial tissue 0 Exocrine glands glands with ducts 2 regions carry secretions out Duct Portion n Simple no branching Simple tubular Simple branched tubular Simple coiled tubular 0 Simple acinar Simple branched acinar n Compound some branching 0 Compound tubular 0 Compound acinar Secretory Portion n Tubular straight I Alveolaracinar bulbous o Endocrine glands glands without ducts secrete directly into the bloodstream glands that produce hormones Connective Tissue Connecting different systems by delivery of good throughout the body most diverse tissue 0 Functions Protection bones and fat protects organs Support and framework bones cartilage and fat Binds structures together ligaments amp tendons Storage fat and bone stores calcium amp phosphorus Transport nutrients hormones gases waste to different parts of the body 0 Immunity protects against diseases 0 Connective Tissue Components OOOOO 0 Cells living component many cells form the extracellular matrix Fibroblasts repairs skin make your scars make the fibers collagen fibers elastic fibers and reticular fibers amp ground substance found in the extracellular matrix Adipocyte stores fats Macrophages pathogen ingesting cells Chondrocyes cartilage cell Osteocytes cellular component in the bone 0 Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers fibers that strengthen amp support the connective tissues n Collagen strong a Elastic elastic n Reticular fine Ground Substance Unstructured material filling space between the cells varies from a liquid to semisolid to solid 0 Types of Connective Tissue o Fluid Connective Tissue liquid tissue Blood transport oxygen amp C02 start and control the immune system blood clotting transport 0 Supporting Connective Tissue interconnectsbinds structures protects tissues solid tissue ex Bone solid matrix amp Cartilage semisolid matrix Bone Tissue p1920 Functions rigid support solid matrix protection aid in movement blood cell formation storage for chemicals n Compactdense calcified matrix made up of osteons Haversian system 0 Osteonsbasic structural unit of the bone tissue lacunae with osteocytes canaliculi lamellae central canal perforating canal Spongycancellous not as structured as compact bone meshwork pattern of bone 0 Trabeculaelatticelike arrangement of narrow plates of bone Bone Cells types of living component 0 Osteocyte maintaining cell doesn t make it grow 0 Osteoblasts Builders make the bones grow 0 Osteoclasts Crushers Remove solid matrix liquefy Bone Matrix 0 Organic younger you are the more organic components 13 flexibility and tensile strength collagen fibers won t break 0 Inorganic 23 as we age we have more inorganic component Harder the bone more prone the bone is to shatter compression strength Cartilage Semisolid matrix El Hyaline Cartilage chondrocytes embedded in firm yet somewhat flexible matrix collagen fibers suspended in abundant ground substance in joints and embryonic cartilage forms rigid support in walls of larynx trachea bronchi and bronchioles Fibrocartilage contains collagen fibers withstands compression matrix contains little ground substance and an abundance in between vertebral bones knees pubic symphasis places where there is high impact on the body Elastic Cartilage chondrocytes embedded in firm and very flexible matrix abundance of elastic fibers ear end of nose 0 Connective Tissue Proper the binding materials attachment points the cushioning like fats Loose Connective Tissue El El Areolar Connective Tissue binds and packs organs surrounds nerves vessels and subcutaneous layer Adipose Tissue stores fat and insulates protects surrounds kidney and other organs found in subcutaneous layer Reticularmakes up the stroma of the lymphatic organs Dense Connective Tissue El Muscular Tissue Dense Regular connective tissue collagen fibers arranged parallel to direction of stress tendons amp ligaments Dense irregular connective tissue collagen fibers arranged in random array dermis amp capsules of organs Elastic Connective Tissue elastic fibers arranged in parallel array medium sized arteries ligaments between vertebrae Skeletal Fibers are long striated pattern of banding and parallel Voluntary muscle tissue that is attached to bone and skin 0 Cardiac Cells are short striated and have intercalated disks between themalows for specific ions that activiate the cardiac muscle cells to spread quickly throughout the entire organ synchronous contraction relies on these disks Involuntary muscle Ussue 0 Smooth Cells are short and nonstriated Involuntary muscle tissue found on the walls of arteries to contract and allows for the blood to travel to different parts of the body quicker Nervous Tissue 0 Found in 0 Brain and Spinal Cord Central Nervous System 0 Peripheral Nerves Types of Cells found in Nervous Tissue o Neurons functional unit of the nervous system Conducts impulses from one body region to another Major parts of Neurons a Cell body Soma houses the nucleus amp other organelles controls the rest of the cell amp produces protein for the cell a Axon carries outgoing signals to other cells n Dendrites bring stimulation to the neuron receives the signals and transmits them to the cell body 0 Glial cells form specific surroundings for the cell Several different types Support and protect neurons Common and only source of true cancer in the nervous system HOMEWORK SO FAR p 13Fig 18amp Table 13 p 73 Fig 312 p 2829 Table 22 QUIZ assigned Tuesday the 15th or before and due 24th 0 All from her lecture Chapter 5 91715 1013 PM Fig 312 Small review of in what stages in the Embryonic Period these tissues are created 0 Ectoderm o Epidermal Tissue o Nervous Tissue o Retina 0 Eye Lens 0 Mesoderm o dermis 0 muscle tissue 0 connective tissue Endoderm 0 Respiratory amp Digestive System EXAM 1 Tuesday Sept 22 The Integumentary System Skin cutaneous membrane epidermis dermis hypodermis Accessory Structures hair nails glands associated glands 0 Functions 0 Protection Excretion Thermal regulation goose bumps Storage of Nutrients Lipids Synthesis of vitamin D Perception of the environment all the receptors nervous system receptors embedded in the skin OOOOO SKIN Layers o Epidermis epithelial tissue 5 layersstrata from bottom to top Stratum Basale Single layer of stem cells all keratinocytes attached to basement membrane separating epidermis from the dermis Germ layer allowing cells to divide very Rapidly The layer that makes up our fingerprints a Two types of Cells that occupy the Stratum Basale Keratinocytes 0 Carry the pigment o divide very rapidly Melanocytes 0 do not divide very rapidly o produce the pigmentmelaninabsorbs UV radiation protecting deeper layers dermis from damage to protein and fibers 0 activity of the melanocytes is the reasoning behind people s skin tone Ancestors exposed to sunlight more often leads to them having more active melanocytes Stratum Spinosum the keratinocytes appear to have spines Langerhans cells Stratum Granulosum cells filled with granules of waxy protein keratinprovides protection from drying out losing hydration cells here eventually die and their cell membranes break and allow the keratin to flow out Stratum Lucidum translucent thin layer of keratinocytes Stratum Corneum Thick layer of dead keratinocytes 2030 layers of dead scaly interlocking keratinized cells corneocytes Desquamation shedding of superficial layer of squamous cells this entire process takes 6 weeks 0 Dermis connective tissue Papillary Layer looser layer closer to the epidermis n Composed of areolar connective tissue a Project into epidermis forming dermal papillae projections which interlock with epidermal dges n Contains blood vessels and nerves n Wavyness allows space for more receptors more sensitive to touch and temperature Reticular Layer Denser layer a Dense irregular connective tissue lots of fibers arranged in all sorts of directions a Bundles of collagen and elastin fibers n Wrinklesfibers produced at a lower rate a Layer of the skin where pigment can be placed 0 HypodermisSubcutaneous Fat connective tissue adipose tissue Loose areolar and adipose connective tissue Contains large arteries and veins Adipose Tissue here for extra cushion and energy storage 0 Skin Types 0 Thick Skin palms of our hands and soles of our feet 0 Thin Skin 0 Wrinkles due to decreased number of dermal papillae Elastin fibrils reduced disorganized andor denatured UV exposure Loss of fat padding in hypodermis Fibers in the dermis made out of protein so they can be affected by physical exposure to destructive factors heat fibers change their shape get very tight and pull the epidermis inwards wrinkle o Laxnesshollowness in the skin due to loss of subcutaneous tissuefat cells that support the vessels in this layer Ways to get rid of these freezing amp Lipo ACCESSORY STRUCTURES Sensory Organs Sebaceous Gland the gland producing oilsebum whose function is to make your hair more pliable sebaceous follicle excretes sebum onto skin Sweat Glands o Apocrine Sweat Glands Armpits nipples groin axillary anal Sticky cloudy odorous secretion Organic parts of the cell plus the oils living environment for bacteria these areas very prone to infections 0 Merocrine Sweat Gland Widely distributed Secretes water and electrocytes 0 Hair 0 Shaft visible part of the hair composed of dead epithelial cells 0 Root below the surface composed of dead epithelial cells 0 Connective tissue sheathfollicle tube that surrounds the root hair extends down into the dermis amp sometimes the subcutaneous layer towards the blood vessel that provides blood flow 0 Papillae made up of connective tissue and contains blood vessels and nerves it is the attachment of the hair follicle to the blood vessels within the dermis 0 Bulb follicle forms a hair bulb around the papillae o Cortex Center of the root is many layers of flattened dead keratinocytes o Cuticle layer of translucent dead keratinocytes that surrounds the cortex 0 Sebaceous Gland always attached to the hair and produces sebum amp releases it onto the surface of the hair as it emerges across the epidermis provides lubrication and antibacterial activity 0 Arrector Pili Muscle raises the hair away from the skin traps the air around the skin detects vibrations 0 Matrix the dead cells that get pushed out of the papillae 0 Blood Vessels tighteningconstricting up causes hair loss 0 GROWTH STAGES Anagen Phase Growth stage Catagen Phase Cell division stops and the follicle shrinks Telogen Phase Phase where hair is shed QUIZES 30 Min all the plugins java working Have G blackboard login and be prepared for test
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