EXAM 1 Study Guide
EXAM 1 Study Guide EXSC 223 001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chase Heffron on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EXSC 223 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 324 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Physical Education at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Exsc 223 Anatomy and Physiology Test 1 Study guide Chapters 14 Chapter 1 is the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye structures are studied system by system is the study of body structures as they relate to the skin covering them 1 2 3 4 5 is the study of all structures within a certain region of the body 6 is the study of cells 7 is the study of tissues 8 is the study of the functions of living systems 9 Explain the principle of complementary as it pertains to anatomy and physiology 10 Name the 8 characteristics unique to living organisms 11 Explain anabolism and cataboism 12 The dynamic state of equilibrium which maintains a relatively constant environment 13 Give an example of a negative feedback loop within the body and explain how it works using the words stimulus receptor control center effector and response 14 Selfperpetuating oops within the body that do not restore homeostasis are 15 Give an example of a positive feedback loop Chapter 2 1 Name 2 ways catalysts effect chemical reactions 2 TF Catalysts are consumed in chemical reactions 3 Biological catalysts are called 4 The two parts that make up a biological catalyst is the and the 5 Substrates bind to the of the enzyme 6 Protein function can be regulated by regulating its For the following ll in with increase or decrease 7 Catalysts the rate of chemical reactions Increasing temperature the rate of a chemical reaction Lowering the number of particles being reacted upon the rate of a chemical reaction Increasing the concentration of the reactant the rate of the chemical reaction Lowering the ph the rate of the chemical reaction 8 The capacity to do work is 9 The main energy substance within cells is 10 Modifying the shape of a protein by adding a phosphate group is called 11 Name the 3 primary ways in which the body uses energy 12 An is a compound that donates a hydrogen ion to another compound 13 A solution with a pH of 5 has x more hydrogens than a pH 6 solution 14 Explain how the body regulates its constant internal pH level by explaining the carbonic acid bicarbonate system 15 These compounds resist changes in pH by converting acids or bases into weaker ones Chapter 3 1 State the 4 parts of the cell theory 2 Name the 3 major parts most eukaryotic cells contain an exception being red blood cells 3 semipermeable lipid soluble 4 Jelly like substance that everything exists in within a cell 5 these give cells their shape and structure 6 these are important in the assembly of the cytoskeleton and in cell reproduction 7 stores DNA 8 Filled with pores and is double layered 9 within the nucleus ribosomes are manufactured here 10 material that contains the codes for protein synthesis 11 condensed DNA 12 site of protein manufacture 13 dotted with ribosomes Located near the nucleus within the cell 14 vesicles are formed here that store enzymes and molecules and then shipped out to the membrane 15 produces ATP 16 break down particles with degradative enzymes they carry 17 Contain hydrogen peroxide that is used to break molecules down 18 refers to the cytosol and all the organelles within the cell 19 The cell membrane is made up of a biayer with proteins and cholesterol dispersed throughout 20 makes the cell membrane more stable in high temperatures and keeps the membrane uid in low temperatures 21 TF The inner layer of the membrane is hydrophobic and the outer layer hydrophilic 22 Explain the difference between diffusion and osmosis 23 these are phospholipids that essentially have a sugar added to them 24 these are involved in transport functions through the membrane Hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions with the hydrophobic portion being on the outside and hydrophilic on the inside 25 sit on the outside or inside of the membrane They are typically smaller and hydrophilic They are enzymes or intracellular signaling molecules 26 Explain the importance of the glycoproteins on the cell membrane 27 the fuzzy coat made up of sugar groups attached to the proteins facing the extracellular space 28 this is simple diffusion where small fat soube molecules can cross through the membrane to narrow the concentration gradient This is done without using energy 29 transport This is a type of transport through the membrane that does not require energy that is done through an integral protein 30 proteins allow one or a couple ions to cross through at a time 31 proteins aow ipid soube molecules glucose and amino acids to cross through 32 Water crosses the membrane through proteins called 33 An solution has the same solute concentration of that to cytosol 34 A solution has a higher than normal salt concentration 35 A solution has a lower than normal salt concentration 36 this form of transport through the cell membrane requires energy In this form of transport substances are being moved against a concentration gradient 37 Explain the Sodium potassium pump and how it establishes a gradient 38 in this form of transport substances are moved through the membrane by the gradient that39s established by the sodium potassium pump 39 transport glucose through the membrane with the gradient established by the sodium potassium pump 40 Name the 3 types of vesicular transport 41 Explain exocytosis lnclude tSNARES and vSNARES in your description 42 Explain the 3 types of endocytosis 43 The protein aids in the formation of vesicles in endocytosis 44 this is a molecule that binds to something 45 these are the largest of the cytoskeletal elements Made up of tubulin and gives cells a distinct shape Also serve as an important highway for vesicles to move around the cell 46 these are the toughest most brous cytoskeletal elements Can withstand high tensile foce They are associated with membrane structures called desmosomes When stress is put on these laments it is distributed throughout the cell 47 these laments are made of actin and bind to integral and peripheral proteins to help stabilize the membrane 48 Microtubules emanate from 49 consists of small membrane proteins that link to adjacent cells like rivets Create water tight seal between cells 50 high stress connection between two cells 51 are formed by series of proteins called connexon that form between two cells allowing them to communicate 52 The inner membrane of the mitochondria is called 53 The space inside the inner membrane in mitochondria is called the 54 metabolism is speci c to mitochondria ATP is resynthesized 55 Compare and contrast RNA to DNA 56 Explain transcription in its 3 stages 57 Explain translation in its 3 stages 58 are triplets of nucleobases that code for an amino acid 59 ribonucleoprotein particle that targets peptide chains created from ribosomes into the endoplasmic reticulum 60 Explain how proteins peptide chains are brought into the Rough endoplasmic reticulum and what happens to them in this organelle 61 What organelle are proteins shipped to from the Rough ER 62 Vesicles enter the golgi apparatus on the and are sent out on the Be able to explain proteins synthesis for the exam everything that happens between translation in the nucleus to proteins being shipped out of the golgi apparatus in vesicles to be released through exocytosis or to become a part of the cell membrane 63 The degradation of soluble cytosolic proteins is called 64 Explain the ubiquitin proteasome pathway 65 Explain a couple functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum 66 is the theory that the nucleus can only support a certain amount of cell vmume 67 A is a region at the ends of chromatids that protect the chromosome from deterioration and from fusing with neighboring chromosomes 68 an enzyme that restores lengthelongates the telomeres of chromosomes 69 noncoding region of chromosomes where the sister chromatids attach 70 proteins found at the centromere that connects the mitotic spindle to chromatid 71 DNA wraps around these proteins to become more stable 72 The DNA histone combination is known as a 73 The phase where the cell is not reproducing is known as the 74 Explain the G1 phase of the interphase 75 Explain the S phase of the interphase 76 The nal growth phase that includes a nal checkpoint before mitosis is called the 77 Fragments produced by the polymerase from the old template strand of DNA during DNA replication are called 78 Explain what happens to the cell in early prophase and late prophase 79 Phase where all the sister chromatids are lined up in the center of the cell and microtubule have attached to the kinetochore on both sides of the sister chromatids 80 Phase where sister chromatids separate is the 81 Phase where nuclear envelope begins forming around the chromatids on each side of the cell and the cleavage furrow begins to split the cell in two 82 The splitting of the cell into two is called 83 Name the two proteins that regulate the cells progression through the life cycle and 84 Explain how levels of these proteins regulate the cell cycle 85 The removes cyclin in the g1 phase 86 The promotes the entrance of the cell into mitosis from the g2 phase Chapter 4 Only epithelial tissue will be the only tissue type covered on this exam Name the four types of tissues sheets of cells that line a body surface or body cavity Name the two major types of epithelia What are 6 functions of epithelial cells Name 5 special characteristics of epithelia This is the exposed surface of epithelia This is the surface of epithelia that is not exposed TF There is always a basal surface and an apical surface in epithelial tissue tissue that separates epithelia from underlying connective tissue It is always adjacent to the basal surface of epithelia 10 Name and explain the 3 shapes of epithelial cells 11 this type of epithelia tissue is a very thin single layer of squamous cells This type of tissue is found in the lungs 12 this is a single layer of cuboidal cells Found in the kidneys 13 tall single layer of cells They can be ciliated or may not be ciliated Found in the gastrointestinal column 14 a not uniform layer of columnar cells This particular tissue contains goblet cells between the columnar cells 15 are specialized epithelial cells that produce mucus 16 multiple layers of squamous cells The skin is an example of this tissue 17 tissue type that transitions from strati ed to simple as it stretches out Seen in the bladder 18 consists of one or more cells that create and secrete a product 19 glands are ductless glands that release their product directly into the extracellular space 20 glands secrete their product to an outer portion of the body 21 Single celled exocrine glands are called exocrine glands Ex Goblet cells 22 Explain the two regions of multicellular exocrine glands 23 This mode of secretion is basically exocytosis Cells release their product through a duct 24 In this mode of secretion cells produce their product until they rupture releasing their product Study Guide Key Chapter 1 Anatomy Gross anatomy Systemic anatomy Surface anatomy Regional anatomy Cytology Histology mNOWU39lhUJNH Physiology 9 This is the relationship between structure and function Every structure in the body is built a certain way so it is capable of performing the function it needs to 10 Maintaining of boundaries movement responsiveness digestion metabolism excretion growth and reproduction 11 Anabolism is the part of metabolism that involves synthesis of molecules into more complex molecules This uses energy Catabolism is the part of metabolism that involves the breaking down of molecules to gain their energy or to be used in other anabolic reactions 12 Homeostasis 13 On a hot day you go out and begin sweating You start sweating because of a negative feedback loop The high temperature is the stimulus that is received by nerve cells in your skin The nerve cells send messages to the hypothalamus or control center in this case that your body temperature is rising The hypothalamus sends messages to the effector or sweat glands to release sweat The response is sweating 14 Positive feedback loops 15 When there is a break in a blood vessel platelets adhere to the site of damage and release chemicals These chemicals keep attracting more and more platelets This process only ends when it is shut down by a negative feedback loop Chapter 2 Speed up rate of reaction and lower activation energy False Enzymes Apoenzyme and cofactor Active site Shape Decrease increases increases increases decreases Energy ATP LOWNOWU39lhUJNH 10 Phosphorylation 11 a electrical energy nerve impulses b Mechanical energy movement muscle shortening c Chemical energy ATP l ADP 12 Acid 13 10 14 Carbonic acid is a compound in the body that soaks up H ions when pH is low and releases H ions when the pH in the body is high 15 Buffers Chapter 3 1 A The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms B organism activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells C Principle of complementarity speci c subcellular structures dictate biochemical activity cells only contain the organelles they need D continuity of life has a cellular basis all cells come from other cells 2 Nucleus Cell membrane and cytoplasm Plasma membrane Cytosol Cytoskeletal elements Centrioles Nucleus Nuclear envelope LOWNOWU39lbw Nucleolus 10 DNA 11 Chromosomes 12 Ribosomes 13 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 14 Golgi apparatus 15 Mitochondria 16 Lysosomes 17 Peroxisomes 18 Cytoplasm 19 Phospholipid 20 Cholesterol 21 True 22 Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low and Osmosis is the movement of water through a semi permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration 23 Glycolipids 24 lntegral membrane proteins 25 Peripheral proteins 26 They are important for recognition The sugars attached to these proteins are how your body distinguishes you from foreign substances within your body They act as an ID tag for your cells Your body will destroy foreign cells tissue because it doesn39t recognize the glycoproteins 27 Glycocalyx 28 Passive transport 29 Facilitated transport 30 Channel proteins 31 Carrier proteins 32 Aquaporiens 33 Isotonic 34 Hypertonic 35 Hypotonic 36 Active transport 37 There are integral proteins that have sites where sodium and potassium can bind to the protein Sodium is pumped out of the cell and potassium is pumped in The pump picks up 3 sodium ions within the cell and then is phosphorylated to change shape and release the ions into the interstitial uid This requires ATP Then 2 potassium ions move into the cell when the phosphate group is released from the protein This 3 to 2 ratio of salt out and potassium in creates a gradient that pushes other substances into the cell like sugar 38 Secondary active transport 39 Cotransporterssymports 40 Endocytosis Exocytosis Transcytosis 41 Exocytosis occurs when the vesicle docks with membrane and releases contents into the extracellular uid lnvolves two sets of proteins One set on the inside of the cell and complementary proteins on the vesicle These are called tSNAREs and k SNAREs VSNAREs are associated with the vesicle and t with the plasma membrane Could be eliminating waste or releasing something that it created These proteins allow vesicles to dock bond to membrane and temporarily become part of the membrane This allows membrane to open up With the membrane open the contents of the vesicle are released into the extracellular uid 42 Phagocytosis is the process where a white blood cells forms a vesicle around substances in the extracellular uid Pseudopods help white blood cells fold around captured material to form a vesicle Pinocytosis is where the cell takes in a random sample of uid outside the cell through endocytosis Receptor Mediated Endocytosis RME Receptors that target speci c material in the extracellular uid such as ions or proteins and concentrates substances in protein coated vesicles 43 Clathrin 44Ugand 45 Microtubules 46 Intermediate laments 47 Actin micro laments 48 Centrioles 49 Tight junction 50 Desmosome 51 Gap junction 52 Cristae 53 Matrix 54 Aerobic 55 RNA and DNA differ by one OH group On the second carbon in RNA there is a hydroxyl group and DNA on the second carbon there is a hydrogen DNA because it doesn39t have this hydroxyl group forms a double helix RNA is typically single stranded RNA can form extremely complex shapes DNA is where genes are stored RNA is what ribosomes are made of Another difference between RNA and DNA is that RNA contains Uracil U and DNA contains Thymine T 56 Initiation RNA polymerase binds to a region of the DNA called the promoter When the polymerase is bound it separates the two strands of DNA Elongation polymerase has unwinded the double stranded DNA and has made a copy of one strand the template strand and allows the DNA to rewind behind it RNA is complementary to the template strand This is the strand of DNA that was copied The mRNA transcript is produced from this Termination This tells the polymerase to stop 57 Initiation is when the start codon AUG begins the sequence of translation Elongation is the process of tRNA adding amino acids one by one and forming a chain of amino acids Termination is the stopping of translation by codon UGA or the other stop codons At the end of Translation a protein or peptide chain is created 58Codons 59 Signal recognition particle 60 The proteins produced by ribosomes on the RER are pulled into the RER matrix by the Signal Recognition Particle The proteins inside the RER become modi ed This is called post translational modi cation Some are made into gycoproteins some proteins aid in the folding of these proteins and they will be packaged into a vesicle to be taken out 61 Golgi Apparatus 62 Cisside Transside 63 Proteoysis 64 The ubiquitin proteasome pathway takes useless proteins and recycles its amino acids To do this old proteins must be tagged with the protein ubiquitin This tagging requires ATP This causes a proteasome another protein to degrade the proteins and reuse the amino acids This process will happen to damaged proteins incorrectly folded proteins and aged or unneeded proteins cyclins 65 Triglycerides are synthesized here Other functions include cholesterol synthesis in the liver lipid metabolism steroid hormone synthesis drug alcohol detoxi cation breakdown of stored glycogen ln muscle cells Caquot2 storage and release 66 Nuclear domain theory 67 Telomere 68 Telomerase 69 Centromere 70 Kinetochore 71 Histones 72 Nucleosome 73 lnterphase 74 This is called the growth phase of the cell In this phase there is a checkpoint This checkpoint determines whether or not the cell can advance to the next cell When the cell is ready it advances to the S phase 75 DNA is replicated during this phase 76 G2 phase 77 Okazaki fragments 78 Early prophase involves the centromeres parting ways in the cell and moving towards separate poles In early prophase the nuclear envelope is still visible In late prophase the nuclear envelope disintegrates The centromeres have also moved to opposite poles and reformed microtubules The microtubules attach to the protein called kinetochore that is associated with each sister chromatids The microtubules push all the sister chromatids to the center 79 Metaphase 80 Anaphase 81 Telophase 82 Cytokinesis 83 CDK and Cyclin 84 Both of these proteins are necessary to progress through the cell cycle They work together Levels of cyclin uctuate sometimes not present sometimes there is a lot When cyclin and CDK are together the cell advances through the cell cycle When there is only CDK the cell is stuck in 61 When the cell is done with mitosis the cell eliminates all cyclin In 61 cyclin gets tagged with ubiquitin and the proteasome degrades the cyclin It is eliminated so the cell does not undergo mitosis too early At the 61 checkpoint cyclin begins to get produced It continues to be produced in the S and 62 phase At the end of the 62 phase there is the mitotic promoting factor MPF When there is enough MPF the cell will enter mitosis The regulation of the cell cycle is based on the amount of cyclin in the cell 85 Ubiquitin Proteosome Pathway 86 Mitotic Promoting Factor Chapter 4 Connective Epithelial Nervous Muscular Epithelia cells Covering or lining epithelium and glandular epithelium 1 2 3 4 Protection digestion ltrations excretion secretions sensory receptions 5 A Polarity B Specialized contacts epithelial cells do not connect to the extra cellular matrix through these contacts C Supported by connective tissue D Epithelial cells can have nerve endings but are often avascular no blood vessels running through them E Capable of regeneration 6 Apical surface 7 Basal surface 8 True 9 Basement membrane 10 Squamus attened these cells are wider than they are tall Cuboidal about same height as width Columnar much taller than they are wide 11 Simple squamous 12 Simple cuboidal 13 Simple columnar 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Pseudostrati ed columnar Goblet cells Strati ed squamous Transitional epithelia Gland Endocrine glands Exocrine glands Unicellular exocrine glands Multicellular glands have two distinct regions the duct and the secretory region The cells that make up the gland secrete their product into the duct There are simple duct structures and compound duct structures Simple duct structures involves a single duct connected to the gland and the compound duct involves separate branches of the duct that all lead to a single duct 23 Merocrine 24 Holocrine
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