Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 HIST 1200 (History, Angela Bell, Survey of American History Since 1865)
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HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SC_Megan Buckallew on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Angela Bell, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Brandon Flint in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 Devastation of Civil War 620000 casualities 0 Better weapons resulted from technology changes so more people were killed 0 Religious motivation churches thought it was immoral o Martyrdom South was destroyed 0 Many plans put into place for Reconstruction some were harsh some were lenient Freedmen s Bureau Federal government agency that served as an aid to freed slaves o Taught them how to read write 0 United families that were once separated 0 Provided legal aid in court Initiated by Abraham Lincoln Black codes Result of Southern white s backlash to losing war and having to free slaves 0 Set of laws against African Americans restricted their freedom Sharecropping Solution to former slaves having no money 0 They worked as a tenant on a white man s land in exchange for share of the harvest Radical Reconstruction Consisted of laws that gave back to African Americans 0 Civil Rights Bill vetoed by Johnson but overturned stated that birth citizenship with the exception of Native Americans now that everyone born in the US was a citizen that meant they received full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and propertyquot 0 14th Amendment Addressed citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws Southern states were forced to ratify it if they wanted to regain representation in Congress equal rights 0 Reconstruction Act process of states entering union 0 15th Amendment prohibited federal and state governments to deny the right of citizens to vote based on race South got around this by placing literary tests and poll taxes in the voting process Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction Era by pulling federal troops out of the South Growth of Industrialization raw materials coal oil improved construction sympathetic government growing population gave money to RR which spiked economy investment and banking provided capital that companies needed for expansion machines replaced manual labor Andrew Carnegie steel 0 ties for skyscrapers 0 Gospel of Wealth 6 captains of industry John D Rockefeller oil 0 Standard Oil was company 0 maker of vertical integration Skyscrapers made from steel represented power because of height created elevators and steel girders Thomas Edison light bulb and gramophone part of technological process First Transcontinental Railroad Pacific Railroadquot San Francisco to west of Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Union Pacific ran from western edge of Iowa to Utah then the Central Pacific ran from Utah to California met at Promontory Point Union had veterans working it plains Central had Asians rocky paths Effects of Railroad Travel times diminish Time zones are created Tourism boosts National parks Settles Great Plains because it went through them people could get out there National advertising because they could now get across continent Growth of cities due to increase in goods Symbols of progress Corruption in Railroads Central Pacific and Union Pacific were competing Business failures there wasn t even enough goods to ship and make full use of railroads Political failures railroads needed government to subsidize them which caused corruption 0 Pacific Railway Act of 1864 railroad gives away money in stock to congressmen in return for land 0 Panic of 1864 investors realized RR were sketchy many companies were bankrupt caused mistrust Social failures Homestead Act of 1862 If people moved west the government would give them a plot of land to cultivate and live on after 5 years of being on the land they could pay a price and actually own it for good Difficulties of farm life Money problems 0 Overproduction resulted in lower prices of crops 0 Cost of food 0 Winters Insects o Grasshoppers 0 Fires Rainfall o Frequent droughts Prairie madnessquot 0 Great Plains were far from Washington DC so voices were not heard easily 0 Loneliness Sand Creek Massacre 1804 Cheyenne Indians vs US Militia o 250 people died twothirds were women and children 0 US militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village Wounded Knee 1890 Group of US militia surrounded Wounded Knee camp 0 Indians wanted their buffalo and their nomadic life back so to do this they danced the Ghost Dance and wore Ghost Shirts which they believed would protect them from the US s bullets o This dancing terrified the US militia they attacked and killed 200 people Carlisle Indian School Attempt to integrate Native American children into American society Dawes Act of 1887 Took all Native American land and divided it into squares then each family got a square and were forced to farm on it o This was hard for Native Americans because men didn t farm they hunted so gender roles were being messed up The Farmer s Alliance 1870 s Made Populist Party But were originally nonpolitical Goals 0 Support government regulation of transportation industry I Because prices to transport goods were expensive 0 Establish income tax 0 Ease debt loans Populist Party 1892 Platform farmers first group to establish a platform 0 Government should own railroads instead of corporations 0 Currency should be based on gold and silver not just gold I Going off Gold Standard would cause in ation which causes farmer s loans to decrease o Graduated income tax Election of 1896 William McKinley vs William Jennings Bryan Populist ran many times for Populist party 0 First modern election McKinley wins Wizard of Oz Similarities 0 Dorothy Kansas farmer 0 Witches industrialists o Wizard scheming politicians o Emerald City Washington DC 0 Yellow brick road resembles gold Victorianism Middleupper class from North Key ideas 0 Free agency control life 0 Free labor control work 0 Selfcontrol reason over emotion honesty I Control sexual passion Masturbation is bad Plain Facts for the Young amp Oldquot IH Kellog sex waste of energy 0 Control diet I Spicy sweet food was thought to drive sexual desire bad Family life 0 Christian Gentlemen aggressive makes living for family more energy 0 True Women moral patient loving Culture 0 Sentimentalism men in workplace so women could produce items involved with the culture books art etc o Genteel Tradition re ects goodness in American literature 0 Optimism through their culture they can teach good morals to childrenworld Social Darwinism Survival of the fittest natural selection Iustifies racism whites better in their eyes In uences government policy 0 Government shouldn t hand out money because that disrupts natural selection Gospel of Wealthquot Andrew Carnegie o wants to use money of rich people for libraries and parks so the poor who are naturally better on the inside can have a chance to move up on the social ladder New Immigrants late 1800 searly 1900 s New immigrants SE Europeans o Came for jobs 0 Poor conditions in Europe I Potato famine in Ireland I Peasants forced off of land Fears of immigrants by US 0 Racially inferior o Catholicism I AntiCatholic in America Thought they would take over schools and the political system Pope was their ruler so Americans thought that these brainwashed people would become the majority in America and take over Fear that they would destroy the culture of America Immigration Act of 1924 o Largest exclusion of immigrants I Would see how many of that race were living in the US in 1890 then would take only 2 of that number and let them into US Working Life Machines replace manual labor Scientific management 0 People would come into factories and look for ways to make the work more efficient I Timed how long a certain process would take and figure out how to cut off seconds or minutes from it Thought it would result in more production more profit Victorian Leisure Central Park 0 Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead in 1800 s I Purpose was to allow people to get away from the busy and crowded NYC streets and come to a place to relax scenic escape 0 White City 0 Very prestigious architecture 0 Held lectures for learning 0 White buildings Both of these failed 0 Central Park became loud and chaotic 0 White City was considered pretty but very boring I People had to walk through Midway to get to White City and just found Midway a lot more exciting than white buildings to learn in Coney Island Rejected Victorianism and its properselfcontrolled ways 0 Originally a resort for rich people but with the Nickel Trolley the less fortunate were able to take the trolley to get there for a cheap price 0 People wore swimsuits shorts tank tops I Compared to NYC attire which was long dresses and trench coats o Amusement parks were wild I Dreamland Park I Caused men and women to have to touch each other in the rides which was frowned upon by Victorianism Reactions to this crazy island 0 Paintings to depict the scene I Battle of Lightsquot Stella Angry and crazy painting to show chaos o Behavioral scientists studied Coney Island I Called people savages I When people were part of the big crowd at the island they lose their morals and together create chaos 0 Maxim Gorky Boredom I Thought it was mindless to participate there Problems of City Life 0 Worries o Bureaucracy instead of people being entrepreneurs and starting their own businesses and companies they were working for a boss loss of freedom I Against Victorianism because there was no free labor involved 0 Fragmented self some part of us is going to be uncontrolled while in cities 0 Neurasthenia people thought the crazy amounts of people and cars would cause them to go insane I Overwhelmed and lead to mental breakdowns The Strenuous Life Teddy Roosevelt played a part in this 0 Gives Strenuous Lifequot speech I Says Victorianism causes humans to be weak Encouraged people to embrace the outdoor life 0 Camping hunting fishing Summer camps for children 0 Allowed them to embrace their wild side allowed them to properly grow and get the wildness out of their system Boy scouts 0 Boys learned outdoor activities and how to survive outdoors Sports 0 Baseball free and open no time limit uncontrollable 0 Football rough and wild got anger out o Biking and basketball for women I Susan B Anthony said cycling gave women freedom Resulted in pants instead of skirts The Call of the Wildquot Jack London 0 Adventure novel set in Alaska about the survival of the fittest and escape to primitivism Conservation Movement Conservation setting aside land but humans still allowed in it Began with Transcendentalism in 1840 s live in nature away from cities Roosevelt supported movement 0 Refused to shoot a weak female bear I Led to Teddy Bear 0 Established national parks Muscular Christianity Late 1800 s People worried that Christianity had become to feminine 0 Man Nobody Knowsquot Bruce Barton I about how Jesus was manly o Endicott Peabody I Seminary student who was 6 feet tall muscular build I Focused on men in his work connected with them I Showed them baseball believed it would help them rediscover their masculinity in the midst of their strenuous lives Penny Press early 1800 s Larger circulation of newspapers because of technological developments 0 Made it cheaper because there were more 1 cent per paper others were 6 0 Made news accessible to middle class citizens for a reasonable price 0 Covered crime tragedy gossip and adventure 0 Popularized newspapers throughout America made journalism more important Advertising Advances Made money from advertising Broader variety of advertisements theaters events businesses etc Moved from seller s market to buyer s market 0 Made ads more creative to look more appealing o In bigger cities there were more options of newspapers and more competition for advertising so buyer had a choice Iournalism as Vocation mid 1800 s Growth during Civil War newspapers would hire journalists to write about war Iournalism became a profession not just a hobby 0 People actually went to school and became qualified to work I Raised newspaper s credibility o Iournalists became famous Yellow Iournalism late 1800 s Sensationalistic focused on scandals and gossip o Pulitzer made headlines bold o Hearst was part of NY journal which focused on crime to gain readers 0 Both owned newspapers in NY Competition to sell more papers and to make them more sensationalistic Contribution to SpanishAmerican war National in uence of journalists Result of industrialization Led to more consumerism more goods 9 more ads 9 more shopping New Imperialism late 1800 searly 1900 s Period of colonial expansion Why did America expand o Strenuous life people wanted to escape their busy lives and experience the calm in the wilderness I Frederick Iackson Turner wilderness transformed Europeans into americans but now there wasn t a wilderness USA covered had to go elsewherequot Missionaries spread across America to share gospel Increasing navy More nationalism Pledge of Allegiance started to be spoken Racial ideology idea that if whites expanded they could take care of other races and show them how to be civil I White Man s Burdenquot Rudyard Kipling 0 Economics depression in 1890 s had to expand to sell more goods OOOO SpanishAmerican War 1898 Con ict between US and Spain that resulted in the end of Spanish colonial rule in America and the US acquisition of territories Originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain 1 Cubans revolt against Spain 2 Spain executed many Cubans and relocated them by force 3 Americans become concerned because Cubans sold goods to them and they felt like they needed to protect that also because they overthrew Britain s rule and connected to Cuba 4 USS Maine exploded battleship which had been sent to protect US citizens and property after an antiSpanish riot in Cuba America is mad at Spain 5 Declare war for two reasons a Put end to barbarity and mistreatment of Cubans it was the right thing to do to get involved b Injury to American commerce 6 Americans declare Teller Amendment throw Spain out and then leave for good 7 Troops under Teddy Roosevelt Rough Ridersquot football players boxers cowboys went to San Juan Hill to fight 8 War ended 4 months later with Spain surrendering 9 US was given Cuba Guam Philippines and Puerto Rico 10 US makes Platt Amendment they re going to stay involved with Cuba opposite of Teller Amendment a Restricted Cuba in the conduct of foreign policy and commercial relations Established it s boundaries c Demanded that they sell or lease lands for coaling or naval stations to the US 11 They make Guantanamo Bay a permanent military arsenal Philippine War 1899 Con ict arose when the Philippines tried to secure their independence from the US after Spain gave the Philippines to the US The US thought Filipinos were savages tried to tame them by staying involved 0 Emilio Aguinaldo was one of the leaders of the Philippines who led the revolt against the US 0 Tens of thousands of Filipinos were killed 0 4000 Americans killed Spurred debate about imperialism and how people didn t want Americans to breed with savages Great White Fleet Big Stickquot ideology to show power that the US had great power aunting it o Roosevelt s words speak softly and carry a big stickquot 0 Negotiate peacefully but threaten with the big stickquot the military US Navy battle eet circled around the world in 1907 by order of President Roosevelt Foraker Act of 1900 Stemmed from the question of if the people from these acquired territories were considered US citizens or just subjects US doesn t want Puerto Ricans to be part of the US because they would just drag them down wouldn t supply anything worthwhile o Decided that residents of Puerto Rico would be citizens but they couldn t vote and didn t have state representation like the rest of the states Upton Sinclair Wrote The Iunglequot 0 About the meat processing plants in America I Revealed that they were not sanitary whatsoever Used random parts of animals and rats for sausage meat If meat dropped on the oor they would sweep it up within all the hair and dust and use it all in the meat Iacob Riis Photojournalist How the Other Half Livesquot 0 Revealed images of the poor I Children on the streets I Tenant houses I Life of poor
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