Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ENVD 3114
Popular in History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings
Popular in Environmental Science
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Peters on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENVD 3114 at University of Colorado taught by Lindsay,Georgia Lucille in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings in Environmental Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Exam 1 Monday December 7 y History of Buildings vocab adobe bay cairn cantilever cob compression corbelling eave falsework lintel monolithic mortise and tenon oculus pis altuba earthy substances shaped into unbaked bricks a regularly repeated spatial unit of a building or wall defined by vaults windows orders or other prominent vertical features prehistoric mound containing passages lined with monoliths a horizontal structural member supported at one end only by a wall oracdumn method of adobe construction piling up mud balls in a spiral pattern the force within a structure that can crush or push together architectural members parallel masonry layers that extend in cantilever each beyond the one below usually to make an arch or a vault the overhang of a sloping roof projecting beyond a wall centering wooden scaffolds built to sustain arches and vaults during construction a horizontal spanning element between two uprights or posts made from a single stone a woodjoining method in which a projecting tongue of one member is fitted into a slot of a corresponding shape in another member a round window usually at the apex of a dome rammed earth or clay used as a building material post and beam shear stresses tension trabeation transom true arch compression vault vernacular responding to wattle and daub wooden axis mundi bas on buttress causeway cladding Monday December 7 y a construction system using vertical supports spanned by horizontal beams a force that occurs parallel to a plan pulling it in several duec ons the force tending to bend stretch or pull apart an architectural member the horizontal span between two upright planes or columns a horizontal ledge across a window one of the strongest arches that is made from tapered masonry blocks which are arranged radially resulting in total an arched ceiling or roof comprehends the traditions of building passed down through generations while innovating accordingly and and local resources construction system using woven branches and twigs plastered over with mud as filling between the larger members or a frame a monumental building marking the center of the world for Neolithic cultures a round rectangular or polygonal defensive projecting of a fortress wall an exterior mass usually shaped like a thick rib or flange that helps support a wall a raised road or path a protective layer of material added to an exterior wall clerestory mastaba mortar mullions obelisk polychromy pylon StUCCO tell classic sloping sides terrace of thanthe ziggurats aedicule by cha ya Monday December 7 y the elevated range of windows in a wall that rises above adjacent roofs an Arabic word for table signifying the ancient Egyptian flat topped rectangular tombs with sloping battered sides a binding substance such as cement or lime used to hold rows of masonry together uprights that divide windows or other openings a tall square shaft usually of one piece of stone tapering upward and ending in a pyramidal tip architectural decoration using a variety of colors or varicolored materials the monumental truncated pyramidal towers flanking an entrance to an ancient Egyptian temple a substantial supporting pillar an exterior plaster building finish a type of archaeolooical mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries A tell looks like a low truncated cone with a flat top and a level embankment top roof or raised platform adjoining a building often paved or landscaped for leisure use a series attached row houses with rear gardens set at a lower level street a Mesopotamian templetower in the form of a staged pyramid a recess in a wall framed by columns supporting an entablature and pediment like a little temple front and intended as a shrine or a shelter for a statue a door window or other aperture framed columns or pilasters and crowned with a pediment an indian buddhist cave temple or shrine carved out of a hillside with a nave side aisles and a stupa in the apse mandala parkara the pedestal redented stupa strut acropolis agora architrave barracks base cap al caryatid casemates chapel used Monday December 7 y a magic diagram of the cosmos made from overlaid geometric patterns used throughout India as the basis for the plan of monumental religious structures a walled enclosure in a Hindu temple compound like a temenos temenos a sacred enclosure built to separate ancient temple from the rest of the city a support for a column statue or urn a plan based on jogging lines like a sawtooth a Buddhist memorial mound that enshrines relics or marks a sacred site a sloping roof beam at right angles to a pitched roof surface joining a rafter to a collar beam the upper town or elevated stronghold of an ancient Greek city containing the chief temples the open meeting space or marketplace in an ancient Greek city the beam that spans a pair of columns modest longitudinal buildings for housing the military the lowest supporting part of a column pier or wall the upper element of a column or pilaster above the shaft a draped female figured used as a pillar a room in a fortress wall with openings a small area within a Christian church containing an altar and used for private prayer a room or building within a larger complex for religious ceremonies classicism colonnade colossus cross vaults entablature fresco fneze decorative gabled intercolumnation loggia order parapet pavMon peripteral Monday December 7 y ancient Greek and Roman architectural forms and principles or the revival of these forms in later periods a row of columns supporting a beam or entablature a statue that is much larger than life size the intersection of two barrel vaults the horizontal spanning element of a classical order divided into the architrave a wall painting made on wet plaster with waterbased colors in a classical order the middle horizontal division of an entablature usually decorated with sculpture an elevated horizontal band on a wall the area where the wall meets the overhangs of a pitched or otherwise inclined roof the space between adjacent columns a roofed porch or gallery with an open arcade or colonnade a classical column and entablature Greek Doric Ionic Corinthian Roman Tuscan and Composite a low guarding wall at the top of a building a small ornamental building in a garden a prominent projecting volume or a larger building surrounded by a single row of columns peristyle podium relief rendering shaft stoa StUCCO stylobate veneer volutes Monday December 7 y a roofed columned porch or colonnade surrounding a building or courtyard a raised platform or base carved or embossed decoration raised above a back ground plane the smoothing or elaboration of the surface on the wall though either carving or plastering the main vertical part of a column between the base and the capital a long roofed portico with columns along the front and a wall at the back used for public life in ancient an exterior plaster building finish the top step of a temple platform an applied decorative surface a spiral or scroll buildings Hakka Fortress Catalhoyuk Stonehenge middle for Baka Pygmy Hut hunter Ur city and were central Monday December 7 y 12th or 15th century CE Chuxi Fujian Province China toulu fortress houses made of rammed earth or pise 7th millenium BCE or between 74006000 BCE Southern Turkey city of dense underground rectangular cells for nomadicagricultural way of life in which the adobe walls are the streets houses are entered from above and the dead are buried under the beds 30001500 BCE Salisbury Plain England mysterious monolithic rock formation near burial grounds with a temple in the prayer 20000 years ago Central Africa half dome structures of intertwined branches covered with leaves mongulu built by gatherer nomads 20th century BC Iraq the largest BronzeAge Mesopotamia following the demise of Sargon s Akkod in which the streets therefore the walls of the city continually rose and houses made of mud brick with several rooms wrapping around a courtyard Monday December 7 y Ur Ziggurat 20th century BCE Iraq layered temple of mud and brick in which burial chambers laid below and a bridal chamber sat at the top which was used by priests and animal sacrifice and is an example of early societal organization Khufu Pyramid Cairo 2500s BC the first and largest pyramid 775 feet per side 479 feet tall 60 stories 6 million tons made of limestone and with corners aligned with the cardinal directions built by Khufu Cheops Luxor Temple 1480 BC as initiated by Hatshepsut a small granite chapel which was added onto over time particularly by Amenhotep III who designed it to unfold into 3 axial parts Chaitya Hall Karli 120 CE a chiseled stone Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end 15 columns on each side of the nave wooden nonstructural ribs along the top and sculpted friezes of elephants and couples in which Buddhists participated in walking meditation in around and out of the cave Borobudur Temple Yogyakarta Java lnodnesia 800 CE Buddhist shrine of stone and volcanic ash built by the Sailendra dynasty which mimics a 3 dimensional mandala and symbolizes the legendary Mount Meru home of the gods in Indian mythology in which people walk clock wise from the bottom to the top from suffering to enlightenment Lakshmana Temple Khaiuraho India 930950 AD Hindu temple built by Yashovarman and dedicated to Vishnu whose structure is that of Hindu temple architecture and the plan consists of 5 vertical offset facets called rathas which can be recognized by a beehive shape statues of sex scenes and 600 gods throughout the structure Acropolis area of Cecropia after Athenian king While Neolithic era there have from the Early Neolithic 6th Panhenon Marathon leveled the 47 doric and festival in Athens Temple I which which structures with concepts Agora to indoor plumbing organized waste water was heavy rain Monday December 7 y core fortified area located on a flattopped rock that rises 150 m 490 ft above sea level in the city of Athens with a surface about 3 hectares 74 acres It was also known as the legendary serpentman Cecrops the first the earliest artifacts date to the Middle been documented habitations in Attica millennium BC 490 488 BC Athens Greece a marble sanctuary built for Athena Parthenos in Athens shortly after the Battle of upon a solid limestone foundation that extended and southern part of the Acropolis summit which features 23 ionic columns and a mural of the quadrennial early 7th century Tikal Guatemala also known as Temple of Great Jaguar a 70 degree angled step pyramid of limestone is a tomb for Kings and their wives and place for sacrifice features hieroglyphic texts and a roof of two parallel vaulted hallow between to reduce weight indeterminate parklike void in the middle of the city where men could express their dedication to the city left loosely defined facilitate the dialogues of participatory democracy The ancient Greek civilization of Crete known as the Minoan civilization was the first civilization to usea well water system for bringing in clean water taking out and storm sewage canals for overflow when there windows Monday December 7 y gridded streets slowly gained primacy through the work of Hippodamus of Miletus who planned and replanned many Greek cities in accordance with this form he Greek grid had its streets aligned roughly in relation to the cardinal pointsl3 and generally looked to take advantage of visual cues based on the hilly landscape typical of Greece and Asia Minor41 secular public space drawing its intellectual roots from Greek and Roman philosophers such as Epicurus and Marcus Aurelius it is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries Doric order the stoutest and least decorated of classical Greek columns doric has a plain capital a fluted shaft and no base the entablature is decorated with alternating squares filled with triglyphs and metopes preferred by mainland and western colonies 450 BCE ex second Temple of Hera at IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII n llllll I Paestum 1O Monday December 7 y Ionic order the middle size of Greek classical columns with bulging bases slender shafts capitals decorated with scrolls and a greater num ber of flutes 1 9 550 BCE ex Temple of Artemis Corinthian order the most attenuated and richly decorated of the three classical Greek orders acanthus leaves caucoli emerge from its capital and are topped by small volutes western arcadian region of Main land Greece late 5th century BCE designed by lktinos ex Temple of Apollo Epicurus NW I M llirrlill 11
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