Art History Exam 1 Lecture Notes
Art History Exam 1 Lecture Notes AHST 1304
Popular in Survey of Western Art History: Renaissance to Modern
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ming-Han Lu on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AHST 1304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Diane Goode in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art History: Renaissance to Modern in Art History at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 Themes of Italian Renaissance Art Classicism Pagan Form with Christian Content Realism Development of Perspective Rising Status of the Artist Humanism Importance of the Virgin Mary Increase in Secular Subjects Portraiture Landscape and the Nude Nicola Pisano Nativity 1260 Baptistry Pulpit Pisa Kleiner p 402 gtBirth of Jesus celebrated on Christmas Day gtOne of five scenes Matthew Mark Luke and John Legend writers were writing books to fill in the gaps of what were not in the Bible gtPictorial Tradition always done that way Annunciation Kleiner p 403 Gospel of Luke March 25 9 months before Jesus is born The very moment the Angel is talking to Mary she conceives Incarnation God is becoming man In order for that happen Jesus has to be born of a mortal woman New Years Day gtVirgin Mary is larger than everyone else Importance of Virgin Maryconvention Size is indicator of importance Nicola Pisano Adoration of the Magi 1260 Baptistry Pulpit Pisa Only the Gospel of Matthew talks about this gtWise men kings visited the baby with their horses gtAn angel led the kings gt 3 gifts Gold Frankincense Myrrh Always 3 wise men because of 3 giftspictorial tradition gtJanuary 6th is when they arrived gtThey were priests astrologers and magicians Style gtLooks like Nicola Pisano is crowding the picture horror vaccui afraid of a vacant space gtAlso Mother Phaedra Pagan in a Christian artwork Pagan Form w Christian Content gtPhaedra was married to Theseus Blank eyes Stylized hair beard horses Not terribly realistic Everything is too carefully arranged Sarcophagus was always for wealthy or important people Greek Times Greeks prized the male prowess Nude males in fine form When Romans took over Greeks they also took over the nude drawings Nicola Pisano Daniel 1260 Baptistry Pulpit Pisa Roman esque Medieval Ages Adam and Eve God puts them in Eden blissfully naked When sent out of Eden they have to hide their nakedness Nudity disappears until Pisano Daniel was placed in a den of lions but after a few days he came out unharmed which awed the Persians Contra posto a stance One leg relaxed Weight on one leg Nicola Pisano was looking at sarcophagi for Hercules Hercules was known for his strength The Gods put Hercules through 12 Labors He had to slay a lion The Namean Lion A lot of sarcophagi have Hercules Giotto the Father of Renaissance Painting Scrovegni Arena Chapel circa around 1305 Padua Italy Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 About 85 feet long not tiny would be open to the public but it s a private family chapel Private patronage Scrovegni made their money through banking and taxes Usury huge sin for charging past 5 of interest would be sent to Hell We have that artwork because the bankers built the artworks since they didn t want to go to hell Top level 6 images on each side 12 about Mother Mary biggest cycle of images about Mary Over Thirty scenes None of them come from the Bible Private Patronage Give credit for being pious Immortalizes the patron Joachim amp Anna Father and Mother of Mary Joachim is shown as extremely uncomfortable Giotto is so important because Injects a new realism realistic emotions happy or sad He is interested in the psychological reactions humans have No props in the landscape little props to show the chapel He will dress people in the same clothes The chief challenge goal of the artist is to make us the viewers forget that we re looking at a 2 dimensional surface but give us the illusion that we re looking at something that is 3 dimensional Painting is actually a 2 dimensional painting Modeling the use of light and shadow to give the illusion of folds in the fabricsvolume threedimensionality Fabrics Drapery The illusion of light and shadow give the illusion of drapery Joachim is being sent out into the emptiness which is parallel to the emptiness in his heart soul Joachim goes to the wilderness for 40 daysFlood for 40 days Resurrection and Ascension 40 Days and got taken in by shepherds The angel tells Joachim that he will have a child Anna receives an annunciation An angel comes to Anna and tells that they re going to have a child this is in Nazareth They meet at Jerusalem and they embrace There is a blue background for all pictures not the sky That blue background is still the Medievalism Flat abstract background that stops our eye from travelling into the distance Shows that Giotto still has one foot in the Medievalism It keeps us focused on the scenes Movement Left to the Right Cropping The shepherd is cropped Suggests that there s something outside than what meets the eye Giotto is very fond of juxtaposing those faces Total eye contact lovely embraces Greater human emotionpsychology Mary Gives Birth New realism Mary reaches and looks at the baby The baby looks at her Giotto s love for eye contact Difference between Giotto and Pisano Pisano s Mary is unemotional and more stoic Giotto draws Mary with human emotions Spatial device Backs turned to the viewers which creates space The water is the vehicle with Fresco Paint on the wall rather quickly Can t make a mistakewait because the wet plaster and pigments at the end of the day miX Secco technique tends to ake off Mary always wears blue because blue was obtained from lapuzel lapizi from Afghanistan or Germany called Azurite 1 After she dies Jesus was already there ruling as king Mary ruled by his side as Queen The sky is blue She is Queen of Heaven 2 Protector of sailors Sea is blue so Mary wears blue Giotto Kiss of Judas Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 12 Apostles Judas betrays Jesus for silver and tells J esus s enemies when they could arrest him Sign is that he ll kiss Jesus Judas wears yellow Yellow is for deceit and evil Peter is angry and trying to protect Jesus He cuts the right ear of the high priest servant FOCAL POINTS The area of emphasis Giotto is usually with juxtaposed faces Early Renaissance Giotto Kiss of Judas Arena Scrovegni Chapel c 1305 Padua Italy Giotto Crucifixion Arena Scrovegni Chapel c 1305 Padua Italy The bad people are on Jesus s Left not our left The good people Mother Mary is also in blue and swooning bc Jesus was just put on the cross are on Jesus s Right not our right Emotionalism a new realism Giotto is very focused on the human emotions Mary had to be supported by Jesus s followers John from the Gospels is holding up Mary John says that Jesus talked to them from the cross and told them that they should always care for each other John amp Mary The Beloved Will always be in the picture Mary Magdalene is at the feet of Jesus She is the one who washed Jesus s feet with her tears and dried his feet with her hair She is also a supreme exampleepitome of repentance She changed her materialistic ways to follow Jesus There is a skull underneath the Cross Jesus was crucified in Golgotha Place of the Skull The soldiers are auctioning Jesus s robes Form of perspective Perspective technique foreshortening A way of giving the illusion that a form recedes back into the space EX The angels are there but not their bodies you see their wings though Their form is receding back into space gtTwo kinds of foreshortening Perpendicular foreshortening Oblique foreshortening The Lamentation pg 48 Cole p 408 Kleiner Everyone is lamenting AngelsMaryJohn were grieving Everyone was overcome by grief On the left there is a picture of Jonah guy swallowed by a fish 2 legs sticking up in waves was spat out after 3 days Jesus was in the tomb for three days and was resurrected The Old Testament Christian theologians were foreshadowing with the Old Testament to the New Typology foreshadowing with works Giotto never signed any of his works We know about him because a lot of people wrote about him Duomo Cathedral exterior and interior 121563 Siena Italy Duccio Maestd Altarpiece 130911 Siena Italy pg 54 Cole 75 by 13 ft Thaumaturgic Missing some of the pieces Poliptic Predella the base Duccio paints them with seams Tempera different from fresco Used water soluble pigments For tempura you miX your pigments with egg yolk Richer and more j ewelesque look You get more details because you can make corrections They were also using a very fine brush made by horse hairs I more details Tempera on Panel Golden Panels He wrote his name under Mary s foot and there is an inscription in Latin Duccio is very good at modeling ppl You can see Mary s knee Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 1 Jesus is washing the feet of his disciples 12 Apostles Jesus got down and washed all of their feet It signals the highest of virtue humility Jesus is extremely humble here 2 The Last Supper Same room as the room where Jesus was washing his Apostles feet He changed the perspectives of the ceiling diagonal lines Linear perspective The Eucharist Communion Jesus instituted it in the room in Jerusalem to his disciples Jesus administered the bread and wine and gave it to his disciples He said Take eat this is my body broken for your sins and Take eat this is my blood poured out for your sins He also announces that one of his disciples is betraying Jesus Judas The Beloved John is leaning on Jesus Pictorial Tradition Some people are wearing halos which means they are holydivine He didn t draw it on the front because it would interrupt the composition He uses trees to divide the scenes The trees below might represent the crosses above made out of the tree trunks Duccio Raising of Lazarus from the Maestc z Altarpiece 130811 Kimbell Museum Ft Worth Texas Florence Italy Has onefifth of the Western world s art They have it because of money Guilds gtAre della manufacturers of gtArte di Calimala refiners of imported clothwool Individuals Bankers and Merchants Arnolfo di Cambio and Brunelleschi Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore Duomo 13quot 15tll centuries Florence Italy It still isn t finished The arches are made out of 3 different marbles white pink and green Brunelleschi loves Roman architecture Won t find a Gothic pointed arch Clear story Brunelleschi thought Gothic architecture as busy He preferred Roman architecture The entrance is called the narthex The center isle is called the nave The nave is divided by the pillars Two side isles The end of the cathedral is called the apse There is also the transept The crossing is where the dome is placed Piers are the pillars count the piers to find how many bays The apse here faces the east The nartheX faces the west Pantheon 118 25 CE Rome Italy c125 AD Piazza del Pantheon Rome Temple to all of the Gods Pan all Theon Gods The domes are Roman contributions 8 domes 8 occuli and one octa Pannini Interor of the Pantheon oc c1750 Coffers Pantheon interior 1 18 125 CE Rome Italy The tribunes were buttresses that supported the building Colosseum 81 CE Rome Italy Man vs man fought Keeping the masses happy First three stories Round arch Romans really favored the motif Repetition columnarchcolumnarch Facade Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 The baptistery was the oldest out of the three 1060s and done in green and white marble Brunelleschi Church of San Lorenzo c 1420s Never a pointed arch The round arch springs from a column Archading separates the nave from the isles Coffering in the ceiling and the occuli There are pilasters forms the motif ColarchColarch The Plinth is the base under the pillar Modular system distance from column to column is 5 plinth widths His signature was that he only used gray and white in his buildings Symbolism is in the arches Michelozzo Medici Palace begun 1446 Florence Italy prototype for the Florence palaces They don t copy it but the format Michelozzo started 3 story house a big cornice and make it classical Distinct look The rough stone on the bottom was left there on purpose rustication Renaissance Art 15quot 16th centuries Or San Michele Orsanmichele 14th century Florence Or Oratory place of prayer San Michele Saint Michael Donatello St Mark from Orsanmichele 141116 Florence Italy Lesser guilds This guild s patron saint is Mark He is over life size Face of St Mark is very believable St Mark stands on a pillow The guild made drapery St George from Orsanmichele c 1420 Florence Italy The base has a story tells about St George s life He s slaying a dragon Saves the Princess because she is Christian George is victorious here He is slaying the evil here Triumph of Christianity over Paganism God over Satan etc Rilievo schiacciato attened relief Forms that are closest to the viewer like George the horse the princess the dragon and cave They are the closest to us We read forms that are lower relief as far from us Forms that are the shallowest relief we read as the farthest from us It s a way to create foreground middle ground and background Atmospheric Perspective All baptisteries are dedicated to John the Baptist Donatello Feast of Herod 142327 Baptismal Font Siena Italy Bronze cast something in bronze Rilievo schiacciato is present It s about John the Baptist s beheading Salomin daughter who dance Orthogonal helps recede into space Transversals lines going horizontal Parallel between painting and sculpture Donatello David c 144660 Florence Italy David standing on the head of Goliath putti scene on Goliath s helmet is a replica of art that the Medici owned Classicism he is in contraposto stance and he is nude A prototype before David Polykleitos Spear Bearer Doryphoros c 450440 BCE Roman Marble copy It was originally in bronze but it was melted for weapons Polykleitos was into proportions Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 Donatello Gattamelata Cunning Cat 144553 Padua Italy Condottiere Humanism emphasis on man Military pursuits are praised Military men are immortalized Marcus Aurelius c 16180CE Rome Italy Baptistery 11th century Florence Italy Ghiberti Baptistry North Doors and detail 1403 24 Florence Italy There is no rilievo schiacciato Quatrefoil Flagellation and Cruci xion 140324 Ghiberti creates a harmony of the whole composition Symmetry Easter Doors 1425 52 Florence Italy Old Testament Rilievo schiacciato Sacrifice of Isaac Meeting of Solomon and Sheba Jacob and Esau Isaac marries Rebecca and she gives birth to Jacob and Esau Esau came out of the womb first so he supposedly has the birth rites Esau is hairy Jacob is fairskinned Jacob was Rebecca s favorite Covered Jacob with animal skin so when Isaac who is blind touches him to give the birth rites he ll think he is giving them to Esau Ghiberti put his selfportrait with his Latin signature under Isaac and Esau Gilded Gentile da Fabriano Strozzi Altarpiece 1423 Florence Italy Great repository the Uffizi theater in Santa Trinita They put a sacristy a place where the priest stored their vestments robes or stoles The robes are very sumptuous fabrics are very rich The adoration of the magi 3 ppl old age middle age and youth People of all ages are coming here to give homage to the Son of God 1st scene the magi didn t leave They are on a rock They see a ship so they are supposed to start their journey by ship 2nd scene the magi find Bethlehem Realism at medieval gold back ground Gentile didn t give that up He still ahs one foot stuck in the medieval ages Strozzi Altarpiece predella Nativity 1423 Florence Italy Jesus casts a natural light In the predella we have for actual cast shadows The shepherds are casting a shadow Reemergence of cast shadows Great stride in realism Cast shadow ows from an object Masaccio Brancacci Chapel c 14241427 Santa Maria del Carmine Florence Italy Peter is healing other people from like lameness There is a real window in the chapel first time in history that someone incorporated real light shining through the window Massacio The Tripute Money c 142427 Brancacci Chapel Santa Maria del Carmine Florence Italy Atmospheric Pressure forms in the distance are hazier and blurrier the farther they are from our eyes vs forms that are closer to us closely perceive Analogous to Rilievo schiacciato attened relief Middle Ages weren t focused on the Earth work but was more focused on spiritual works halos are foreshortened First Book of the Testament Jesus being approached by the Roman tax gatherer Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 Masaccio Adam and Eve c 142427 Brancacci Chapel Florence Italy Adam and Eve ate the fruit of knowledge God illadvised it because they were tempted by Satan They now were ousted out of Eden while ashamed of their nakedness Both Adam and Eve were in anguish Masaccio painted the angel in a day Adam had a joint so he was probably painted in a day Eve was probably painted on a different day catesto introduced to fund for the army That s why they chose the theme for the fresco propaganda Praxiteles Aphrodite c 350 BCE Roman Copy in Florence Uffizi Museum It belonged to the Medici It was also rare because it was usually male nudity In uenced many different artists Fresco spread fresh wet plaster on the wall that you think you can paint that day The next day you come into the chapel and you put fresh wet plaster again Botticelli Primavera c 1482 6 8 X 10 4 Uffizi Florence Italy mythological story humanist writers thinkers philosophers believed that a proper education for aristocrats and males should involve reading the classics Plato Aristotle The poets were trying to read everything they could get their hands on from Greece and Rome the patron for both of these were the Medici Only a cultivated learned elite would commission stories this complex Michaelozzo and other artists joined the humanists trading ideas They all focused on finding out as much as they could on art in Greece and Ancient Rome This was commissioned for a wedding There were owers on the foreground All of them are botanically correct The bloom in the spring time Venus is here Goddess of MarriageLove Cupid is over her head shoots people I people fall in love Usually in art we find the 3 Goddesses called the 3 Graces Goddess of Beauty All of their poses are poise and elegance Mercury is trying to expel some clouds He s trying to keep the dark clouds away with his staff caduceus He s also a God of Commerce Medici were elite bankers Zephyr chases after Flora and then she transforms into a Goddess Botticelli Birth of Venus c 148486 5 9 x 9 2 Uffizi Florence Italy mythological story Nude she is being blown to the sore by two wind gods She will be clothed by a beautiful goddess with owery robes Botticelli is the Medici s favorite painter It s also a verbatim copy of the Praxiteles Aphrodite Righthand on the breasts and the Lefthand on the privates Pagan form of Venus Idealized so there is really no imperfections Elongated figures Botticelli is idealizing Botticelli Madonna of the Magnificat c 1485 Florence Italy She breaks into a hymn because she thanks God 3 major role of Mary Mother of God Queen of Heaven Intercessor She s the one who we go to for our prayers She intercedes our prayers Sienna asking for help fighting against Florence Wars Plagues and Famines She s upclose and personal Cropped so it gives the illusion that they re coming down to their level It s more personal It s no longer unapproachable when she s sitting on a throne Importance of the Virgin Mary This was hung on a wall in somebody s home It was round It was a tando It meant wealth so people are now buying madonnas so they can just pray at home instead of going to church The cropping is significant This painting is 5 feet across Idealized Piero della Francesca Federigo da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza c 147274 Urbino Kleiner pg 479 Family of aristocrats You can tell from the painting Battista dies after her birthday 26 years old and she had 9 children 8 girls and 1 boy They might have used the death mask of Battista Henry Lu AHST 9 01 15 The imperfections on Federigo s face warts Painter didn t have to do it but the painter here is very realistic The two main terms are realism and humanism Francesca didn t idealize and he painted realistically Assume that the patron was okay with it Federigo lost the tip of his nose in a joust He also lost his right eye The depiction of the background was man s domination over nature man s greatness and achievements Man has an awareness of the world around him Tempera Egg Yolkvehicle Fresco Water vehicle Oil gave you a better picture Oil can create layers and glazes The light can re ect off of the oil It ended up in Classicism Federigo s profile view is based on ancient Roman coinage Roman Coin Depicting Vespasian 1st century CE On the back there is an inscription and it talks about Battista in the past tense which is why we know Battista has passed away Battista s description that she is honored by the accomplishments of her great husband When women marry they usually take on the identity of the man They lose their own identity Northern Renaissance Master of Flemalle Merode Altarpiece c 142528 now in the Cloisters Met NYC This belonged to a family named Merode Triptych You can close the Triptych and they cover the middle panel completely 2 feet by 4 feet There are 3 main characteristics of Northern Renaissance Flemish Art 1 Meticulous detail 2 Realism 3 Symbolism the angel talks to Mary and she conceives There is a Carpenter in the right There is a cityscape by the window The lilieze is white which represents that Mary is a virgin You assume that she is literate because she is apparently omniscient The book From Isaiah Chapter 7 Verse 14 The Virgin Birth Behold the Virgin shall conceive and bear a child and call his name Emmanuel The towel hanging on the wall and container of water symbolize the baptism The church walls all represent to Mary s virginity Joseph on his table has symbolism His windowsill has a mouse trap That is perched strategically on the windowsill because the mousetrap meant trapping Satan evil Vase and the stained glass incredible realism symbolism Jan van Eyck Wedding Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife 1434 now in London National Government Also made from oil The great effects of luminosity 32 X 22 inches Mirror the re ection in that mirror The artist signed his name above the mirror Jan van Eyck was here He is also in the re ection so he could tell us that he was there Man in blue and man in red Jan van Eyck must be one of them There are images on the side of the mirror that show the stories of Jesus The crucifixion of Jesus The whole room is re ected in the mirror 4 levels of perception what is real what is painted what is re ected and the viewer There are peaches on the windowsill which symbolize the fruit of the womb hope for fertility baby ripening in the womb Saint Margaret Patron Saint of Childbirth Dog sign of fidelity Giovanni took off his sandals Standing on sacred ground marriage is sacred Servant will carry the sandals Egyptian Art Chandelier tradition was that light a candle each day before the wedding There is one last candle Hugo van der Goes Portinari Altarpiece c 1476 now in Florence Uf zi 20 feet spread Grisaille Adoration of the Shepherds 3 of them parallel the number of Magi The Magi brought 3 gifts Realism and detail Symbolism white ower Mary s virginitypurity Blood was the symbol for blood of Christ There s a sheaf of wheat turns into bread body of Christ
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