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Advanced General Chemistry Review I

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Advanced General Chemistry Review I Chem 109

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Madison > Chemistry > Chem 109 > Advanced General Chemistry Review I
Advanced General Chemistry
Ive Hermans

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Midterm #1 for Chemistry 109 at UW-Madison. Covers electromagnetic radiation, electron configuration, periodic trends, ionic versus covalent compounds and bonding, and solid state structures.
Advanced General Chemistry
Ive Hermans
Study Guide
Bucky Scientis
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by y-chen9 on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 109 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Ive Hermans in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 505 views. For similar materials see Advanced General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chemistry 109 Midterm I Review By Yang Chen Professor Ive Hermans TA Hangjian Zhao Textbook quotChemistry The Molecular Sciencequot Moore amp Stanitski 5e CHAPTER 5 Electron Con guration and the Periodic iabe Main Idea e have wave properties also TREAT ELECTRONS AS WAVE PHENOMENON Electromagnetic Radiation Energy released by electromagnetic mechanisms Visible light xrays and radio waves are all examples of EMR The interaction of light with matter is one form of EMR The magnetic elds are quotwave shapedquot In a perfect vacuum EMR moves at the speed of light We can describe EMR in two ways 0 Wavelength A The distance between peaks or troughs in a wave Measured in nm or m There are two properties of wavelengths Destructive Interference 2 waves collide destroying each other Constructive Interference 2 waves come together to make a bigger wave 0 Frequency v The number of complete waves point at a given time Measured in hertz Us or squot1 waves per second 0 Spectrum Graph of intensity of radiation versus wavelength 0 EMR Spectrum highest energy highest frequency shortest wavelengtthowest energy lowest frequency longest wavelength gamma rays Xrays UV visible light color IR microwaves radio waves long radio waves Planck39s Quantum Theorv 1900 idea by Max Planck that when an atom in a hot object vibrates the energies of the vibrations have to be integer multiples of some quantum 0 Quantum The smallest amount of energy that can exist independenUy o Ehv h Planck39s Constant Explains the frequency of radiation to the energy per quantum 6626x10A34 Jljs Photoelectric Effect Early 19005 Albert Einstein applied Planck39s ideas to come up with the photoelectric effect This idea proposed that speci c metals emit electrons when hit by light of certain wavelengths o Photon Massless particle of electromagnetic radiation 0 When a photon hits a metal it can release an electron from that metal That electron is now a photoelectron One photon can only release one electron When the electron is knocked out it gets energy transferred from the photon In 1911 Ernest Rutherford discovered that atoms contain a nucleus surrounded by electrons The Bohr Model In 1913 Niels Bohr used quantum theory to explain the behavior of the electron in a Hydrogen atom using mathematics This model explains that electron circles the nucleus in orbits of speci c radii o The rst orbit in the Bohr model has n1 and is closest to the nucleus 0 The furthest orbit in the Bohr model has n in nity and corresponds to E0 o Electrons in the Bohr model can only move between orbits by absorbing and emitting energy in quanta n increases absorption D Change E gt 0 n decreases emission D Change E lt 0 0 Energy Level Each speci c radii is an energy level Ground State Atoms with electrons arranged to give lowest possible energy Excited State Any state greater than ground state 0 When an atom moves from one energy level to another it is in transition Change E 2179x10quot18J 1nquot2 nal 1nquot2 intitial In 1924 Louis de Broglie proposed that electrons are wave phenomenon and that the wavelength of a particleelectron depends on its mass velocity and Planck39s constant 0 A hmv Uncertainty Principle In the late 19205 Werner Heisenberg proposed that its impossible to simultaneously determine the exact position and exact momentum of an electron Orbital Describes the probability that an electron is in a given area around a nucleus The result of Erwin Schodinger39s mathematical wave function 0 Lil wave function LIJquot2 Probability of finding an electron in X orbital s orbitals spherical p orbitals dumbbell shaped d orbitals fourleaf clover shaped Nodes Region in space where the probability of nding an electron is zero of nodes n1 On a graph there is where the oscillating function intersects with the Xaxis p orbital always has a node at its center 0 Therefore nding an electron there is zero Quantum Numbers Used to describe electron structure 0 Principal QN1St QN n Relates to atomic orbital s size 0000 n 123 in nity 0 Angular Momentum QN2nCI ON I Relates to the atomic orbital s shape I O nl 0 5 atomic orbital l 1 p atomic orbital l 2 d atomic orbital 0 Magnetic QN3rCI QN ml Relates to the atomic orbital s orientation m Any integer value between land including 0 0 Spin QN4th QN ms Relates to the atomic orbital s magnetic spin 12 spin up or 12 spin down Electron Con guration The description of atomic orbitals taken up by all electrons in an atom or monoatomic ion 0 5 block Group 1 and 2 o p block Group 3 through 8 o d block Transition metals directly in table 0 f block Transition metals not directing in table o Pattern ls 25 2p 3s 3p 45 3d 4p 55 4d 5p 65 4f 5d 6p 75 5f 6d 7p Hund39s Rule Shows how subshells are lled Electrons want to be as stable as possible This means lling up with the maximum number of unpaired electrons all with the same spin o You have to ll quotupquot all the arrows in a subshell before you can ll quotdownquot NobleGas Notation A shortcut way of writing the electron con guration of an element by starting with the noble gas preceding the element and then writing out the rest of the con guration lon Electron Con gurations When atoms from s and p blocks form ions electrons are removed or added to an atom39s valence shell to achieve noblegas con guration soeectronic Atomsions with the same electron con guration Diamagnetic Substances with paired electrons Paramagnetic Substances with unpaired electrons Ferromaonetic Permanent magnets like fridge magnets that have unpaired electrons all spinning in the same direction 0 Greatest magnetism D lowest magnetism F lt P lt D Periodic Trends Atomic Radii Decreases across a period because electrons in the same shell are more attracted by larger nuclear charge Increases down a group because electrons occupy larger shells Periodic Trends lonic Radii Radius of an atom that is a positive or nega veion o Cations increase in size down the group o Anions increase in size down the group 0 Radius of cation lt radius of neutral atom lt radius of anion 0 When an atom can form more than one cation the larager the charge is then the smaller the ion 0 Periodic Trends Ionization Eneroies The energy requires to remove an electron o The harder to remove an e the greater the IE 0 The rst IE usually decreases down a group and increases across a period 0 The opposite is electron af nity energy change to add an e lonic Compounds Generally combination of metal and nonmetal o Consists of ions packed in crystal lattice o Crystalline solids 0 High melting point 0 High boiling points 0 Good conductors of electricity when molten poor when solid 0 Poor conductors of heat 0 Sometimes soluble in water lonic Bonding Generally between nonmetals and nonmetals Transfer of electrons between atoms Generally involves two oppositely charge ions The ions don39t overlap like the atoms in covalent bonds they are merely close to each other due to attraction In the Lewis Structure the electrons in the attraction should therefore not be symbolized as a line like in a covalent bond Covalent Bonding o Atoms that do overlap and share valence electrons This helps the atom gain more stability CHAPTER 9 Solid State Structures Main Idea The nature of solids is determined by the forces holding their nanoscale properties together lonic Formed from metals and nonmetals o Composed of positive and negative ions 0 Held together by ionic bonding 0 Examples Salts Metallic Formed from metals 0 Composed of metal ions surrounded with electrons o Held together by metallic bonding 0 Examples lron silver copper and other metal alloys 0 Molecular Formed from metals and nonmetals o Composed of covalently bonded molecules 0 Held together by London forces dipoledipole forces hydrogen bonds 0 Examples H2 l2 H20 0 Network Formed from 4A elements and compounds with silicon and oxygen 0 Composed of atoms held in an in nite one two three dimensional network 0 Held together by covalent bonds 0 Examples Graphite diamond quartz Amorphous Formed from a broad range of elements and compounds 0 Composed of covalently bonded networks of atoms or collections of large molecules 0 Held together by covalent bonds 0 Examples Glass polyethylene nylon The structure of a crvstalline solid is ordered and longrange while the structure of an amorphous solid is not orderly and has little longrange order A crystalline structure therefore has planar faces and sharper edges than the amorphous But the amorphous is still hard and has shape Crvstallization Also known as the reverse of melting solidi cation or freezing o It is always an exothermic process Sublimation Change of a solid into a gas Deposition Gas into solid 0 Heating Curve A graph of temperature versus quantity of energy transferred to a sample Crvstal Lattice The 3D arrangement of particles 0 Unit Cell Small part of lattice that when repeated along the directions de ned by its edges makes the whole crystal structure 0 Cubic Unit Cell Has edges of equal length that meet at 90 degree angles o Primitive cubic pc 2 x radius edge 2r l o Bodycentered Cubic bcc Face diagonal 4 x radius 2 x edge 4r xE l o Facecentered cubic fcc Body diagonal 4 x radius 3 x edge 4r 3 I Closest Packing Arrangement of very tight packing of ions atoms or molecules that maximizes attractions and results in a stable structure 0 Hexagonal ClosestPacking Spheres are packed closely together in a layer The next layer of sphere go in the in between spaces of the last layer This makes the whole structure tighter Network Solids Big molecules with all atoms connected to one another via covalent bonding o Most exist as silicates Allotrooes Different forms of the same element but in the same physical state and also at the same pressure and temperature CHAPTER 6 Covalent Bonding Main ldea Covalent bonding is one major form of bonding that exists between elements and molecules It is very important as most interactions involving Carbon exist with covalent bonds Covalent Bond Force attracting 2 or more atoms together when one or more pairs of electrons are being shared 0 Single covalent bond amp double covalent bond 0 Bonding electrons amp one pairs Lewis Structures Represents ionic and covalent bondingmolecules 0 Only valence electrons are represented 0 Lone pairs are placed rst o If octet rules not satis ed at this point a double bond must be formed 0 Covalent bond can be showed with a line or 2 dots ionic bond is still dots o Ionic structure should be placed in brackets with charge shown on outside Saturated Hvdrocarbon An alkane that contains only C H and C C single covalent bonds Functional Group Speci c group of atoms in an organic molecule that has characteristic chemical properties to the molecule Alkane Simplest organic molecule with C H single bonds Alkene Hydrocarbon with more or more C C double bonds 0 Every alkene is also an unsaturated hydrocarbon Alkyne Hydrocarbon with one or more triple bonds per molecule Cistrans IsomerismGeometric Isomerism Ocurs with Alkenes When molecules are different in their arrangement of atoms on either side of a CC double bond This is due to no rotation around the CC double bond 0 CisIsomer When 2 atoms or groups of atoms are both attached on the same side of the CC bond 0 TransIsomer opposite side


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