Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 Science 101
Popular in Origins in the Natural World
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Kendrick on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Science 101 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Sian Ritchie in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Origins in the Natural World in Science at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Study Guide Science 101 Origins in the Natural World Exam 1 Review of Lecture 1 Aristotle 0 Made many contributions to understanding nature 0 Held insight that change was cyclical o Described the water and rock cycle 0 Anticipated the age of the earth 0 Universe without beginning or end 0 Classification of organisms Aristotles Ideas lost 0 Catholic Church Dominates Europe 0 400 AD St Augustine 0 Truth reveled by God in scripture 0 Study scripture understand nature Medieval Warm Period 10001300 0 European wealth increases 0 Catholic Church brings scholars together start of university 0 End of the period Pope launches Crusades 0 Knights brought back valuables such as books 0 Aristoteles writing returns to Europe 0 Scholars translate Latin 0 Conflict between church and science 1600 s1800 s Enlightenment Period 0 Empirical methods catch on and the culture changes 0 Science becomes experimentary o Explanations bases on Efficient causation rather than Final Causation Final Causation The idea that a Supernatural force such as God or spirits is behind natural occurrences Efficient Causation The idea that there is scientific reasoning for natural occurrences Science shifts away from Final Causes 0 Geology discards the flood Noah s Ark to explain features 0 Biology develops a fossil record 0 The supernatural is no longer part of science The goals of science are to catalog and describe to identify patterns and relationships in nature to understand the forces that create specific patterns Today Modern science prefers testable questions to use hypothesis testing to use empirical evidence to support or reject a hypothesis Science does not prove Results must be repeatable Hypothesis Educated guessproposed explanation as to how something works If a hypothesis has been tested many times and has not been disproved it becomes a fact or law Law Repeated observation about the natural world a rule for how nature behaves A law describes the relationship between variables Laws are almost always equations Theory A synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well tested hypothesis about the natural world Review Lecture 2 Atoms 0 Building blocks of matter 0 Has the characteristics of the element it belongs to o All atoms share fundamental properties Democritus a Greek philosopher observed a beach and argued that a beach looked fluid over a long distance but if one were to look closer they would see the individual particles Aristotle observed liquids and argued that matter can always be divided but it does not change as it divide 2000 years later John Dalton observed chemical reactions and studied how chemicals were able to combine He determined that chemicals always combine in whole number ratios he determined that atoms were solid and spherical He then created the billiard ball model of the atom which showed atoms as billiard balls with weights relative to many of the elements 220 years later 1 Thomson speculated that there was something inside the atom Using a cathode ray tube he was able to send high voltage electricity across a vacuum and was able to observe a glow Using a magnet he was able to show the charge of the glow and discovered the Electron This created the plum pudding model of the atom essentially a sphere containing small negative charges In 1909 Ernest Rutherford did the gold foil experiment He shot alpha particles at a sheet of gold foil If the plum pudding model was correct dense positively charged particles should have shot through the foil In reality most alpha particles shot through but some were deflected This lead Rutherford to determine that there was something dense and positively charged in the middle of the atom Today this is known as the nucleus Review Lecture 3 Niels Bohr developed Rutherford s model further and it is still used today Scientists observed that different elements emit different wavelengths of lights when energized Light 0 Has specific wavelengths o If we split up white light we can see the colors that make up white light 0 A short wavelength means high energy Light and Quantum theory 0 Light has wave particle duality which means it acts as both a wave and a particle 0 Light comes in units called Quanta 0 One Quantum is a photon 0 Each photon has a specific wavelength 0 A photon has no mass or charge Bohr put this idea of photons together with spectral observation of elements and proposed a new model of the atom Electrons exist in specific energy levels but cannot exist between these energy levels the closer to the nucleus the less energy and electron has If an electron receives energy it will jump a level When an electron jumps down it emits energy Jumps between energy levels have different signature wavelengths specific photons are emitted Electrons jump down energy levels to give off photons and this creates an emission spectrum Electrons jump up energy levels and absorb photons of specific wavelengths Electrons possess wave particle duality Review Lecture 3 Within each energy level are different orbitals An S orbital can accommodate a maximum of 2 electrons A P orbital can accommodate a maximum of 6 electrons A d orbital can accommodate a maximum of 10 electrons Energy level 1 can only have s orbitals Energy level 2 can only have s and p orbitals Energy level 3 can only have s p and d orbitals Electrons reside as in the most energetically favorable level lowest closest to nucleus The more electrons in an atom the more energy levels and orbitals within them at ground state the lowest energy levels are full Electrons fill orbitals in a predictable way Electron properties 0 Occupy a particular energy level 0 Have a specific energy The electrons in the outermost shell determine most of an atoms chemical behavior Lecture Review 4 In the nucleus 0 Protons Positive charge 1 mass of 1 o Neutrons No charge mass of 1 An element is a material made of only one kind of atom Atomic Number of protons in nucleus Atomic defines the element Atomic mass is the mass of all the components of an atom Atomic mass can vary for different atoms of the same element because they have different numbers of neutrons These are called isotopes If an atom has the same number of electrons and protons then the atom is neutral Valence electrons are the outermost shellenergy level Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons When atoms bond they create molecules the purpose of making molecules is to become energetically stable There are four ways to become energetically stable 1 Share electrons with another atom 2 Give up an electron to another atom 3 Receive 1 or more electrons 4 Share communally among other atoms When atoms give up or receive electrons this changes their net charge Covalent bond When an electron is shared between atoms Ionic bound When one atom gives up an electron this results in a net positive charge Hydrogen bonds Similar to Ionic bonds hydrogen atoms attract oppositely charged areas Review Lecture 5 The Periodic table is a way of organizing all the elements The atomic number is provided in the box The table is read from left to right The atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons The atomic number is the number of protons Only stable isotopes are listed in the table The table is organized by elements properties The groups columns have the same number of valence electrons so they behave similarly Mendeleev s organization of the elements into the periodic table was based on mass as well as observations of chemical behavior This way of organizing the elements predicted the way electrons are organized within atoms Elements in the same period row have the same number of energy levels Review Lecture 6 Protons have a positive charge and mass of 1 Neutrons have a neutral charge and a mass of 1 Both of these are made up of quarks which are elementary particles There are two types of quarks up quarks and down quarks Up quarks have a charge of 23 while down quarks have a charge of 13 Photons and electrons are also elementary particles Each proton and neutron is made up of three quarks The nucleus is held together by the negatively charged protons This creates an electrical repulsive force The strong force acts over small distances holding them together This also means that larger nuclei are less stable Nuclei of small atoms tend to have the same number of protons and neutrons while nuclei of larger atoms tend to have more neutrons than protons Large unstable nuclei tend to lose bits and pieces this is called radioactive decay There are three types of decay Alpha Decay 0 Alpha particles are emitted and an atom loses two protons and two neutrons or a helium nucleus Beta Decay 0 Beta particles are emitted A neutron changes to a proton 1 down quark becomes an up quark and emits an electron like particle Gamma Decay 0 High frequency radiation can be dangerous
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