EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BIOL 103 - 03
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BIOL 103 - 03
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This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Spees on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 103 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Nelson H. Kraus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY ANATOMY STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Chapter 1 Anatomy study of structure and form Physiology study of function of the body parts Organizational Hierarchy Acronym for Organizational Hierarchy Subatomic Particles PNE Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism SomeoneSAP AlwaysAtoms MakesMolecules MedicineMacromolecules OverOrganelles Counters Cells ToTissues STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY ObtainOrgans ObviousOrgan Systems Optimism Organisms Integumentary System Provides protection regulates temperature site of cutaneous receptors and some glands synthesizes vitamin D prevents water loss Skeletal System Provides support and protection site of hemopoiesis blood cell production stores calcium and phosphorus provides sites for muscle attachments Muscular System Produces body movement generates heat when muscles contract Nervous System A regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli Also responsible for consciousness intelligence memory Endocrine System Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones These hormones regulate things like development growth and metabolism and maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume control digestive processes and reproduction Cardiovascular system Heart and blood vessels heart transports blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones nutrients gases and pick up waste products Lymphatic System Transports and filters lymph and participates in an immune response when necessary Respiratory System Responsible for exchange of gases bt blood and the air in the lungs Urinary System STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules concentrate waste products in the form of urine and expels urine from the body urination Digestive System Mechanically and chemically digests food materials absorbs nutrients and expels waste products Male Reproductive System Produces male sex cells and male hormones transfers sperm to the femaleSEX Female Reproductive System Produces female sex cells and female hormones receives sperm from male site of growth and development of embryo and fetus produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn Anatomic Position individual stands upright with feet parallel and flat on the floor the upper limbs are at the sides of the body and the palms face anteriorly the head is level and the eyes look forward to the observer Coronal plane aka frontal plane vertical plane dividing the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts When taken through the trunk anterior portions contain the chest and the posterior portion contains the back and buttocks Transverse plane aka horizontal plane or cross sectional plane divides the body or organ into superior top and inferior bottom parts When taken through the middle of the trunk the superior portion has the chest and the inferior portion has the abdomen Midsagittal plane aka median plane vertical plane divides the body or organ into left and right halves Through the head will split it into a left an right half Sagittal plane STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane but either to the left or right of the midsagittal plane infinite number of sagittal planes are possible portions are not equal Oblique planes minor planes that pass through a structure at an angle Anatomical Directional Terms Direction relative to front or back of the body Anterior In front of toward the front surface Ex The stomach is anterior to the spinal cord Posterior in back of toward the back surface Ex The heart is posterior to the sternum Dorsal at the back side of the human body Ex The spinal cord is on the dorsal side of the body Ventral at the belly side of the human body Ex The umbilicus is on the ventral side of the body Direction Relative to the head or the bottom of the body Superior Closer to the head Ex The chest is superior to the pelvis Inferior Closer to the feet Ex The stomach is inferior to the heart Cranial cephalic At the head end Ex The shoulders are cranial to the feet Caudal At the rear or tail end Ex The buttocks are caudal to the head Rostral Toward the nose or mouth Ex The frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the back of the head STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Direction Relative to the midline or center of the body Medial Toward the midline of the body Ex The lungs are medial to the shoulders Lateral Away from the midline of the body Ex The arms are lateral to the heart Deep On the inside internal to another structure Ex The heart is deep to the rib cage Superficial On the outside Ex The skin is superficial to the biceps brachii muscle Direction Relative to point of attachment of appendage Proximal closer to point of attachment to trunk Ex The elbow is proximal to the hand Distal Farther away from point of attachment to trunk Ex The wrist is distal to the elbow Human Body Regions Abdominal Region inferior to the thorax chest and superior to the hip bones Antebrachial Forearm the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist Antecubital Region anterior to the elbow aka the cubital region Auricular Visible surface structure of the ear Axillary Armpit Brachial Arm the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow Buccal Cheek Calcaneal Heal of the foot Carpal Wrist Cephalic Head STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Cervical Neck Coxal Hip Cranial Skull Crural Leg the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle Deltoid Shoulder Digital Fingers or toes also called phalangeal DorsalDorsum Back Facial Face Femoral Thigh Fibular Lateral aspect of the leg Frontal Forehead Gluteal Buttock Hallux Great Toe lnguinal Groin sometimes used to indicate the crease or junction of the thigh with the trunk Lumbar Relating to the loins or the inferior part of the back between the ribs and pelvis Mammary Breast Manus Hand Mental Chin Nasal Nose Occipital Posterior aspect of the head Olecranal Posterior aspect of the elbow Oral Mouth Orbital Eye Palmar Palm anterior surface of the hand STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Patellar Kneecap PectoralChest Pelvic Pelvis Perineal Dimondshaped region between the legs that contains the anus and external reproductive organs PesFoot Plantar Sole of the foot Pollex Thumb Popliteal Area posterior to the knee Pubic Anterior region of the pelvis Radial Lateral thumb side aspect of forearm Sacral Posterior region between the hip bones Scapular Shoulder blade Sternal Anterior middle region of the thorax Sural Calf posterior part of the leg Tarsal Ankle root of the foot Thoracic Chest or thorax Tibial Medial aspect of leg Ulnar Medial aspect of the forearm Umbilical Navel Vertebral Spinal column Body Cavities Body is composed of two main spaces the posterior aspect and the ventral cavity Midsagittal view shows both posterior aspect and ventral cavity STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Coronal view shows relationship bt thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities within the ventral cavity A B c E D F G H Abdominopelvic regions A Right hypochondriac region B Epigastric Region C Left hypochondriac region D Right lumbar region E Umbilical region F Left lumbar region G Right lliac region H Hypogastric region Left lliac region Abdominopelvic lQuadrants A Right Upper Quadrant RUQ B Right Lower Quadrant RLQ C Left Upper Quadrant LUQ D Left Lower Quadrant LLQ STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Chapter 5 Epithelial Tissue Composition tightly packed cells with minimal extracellular matrix Functions covers body and organ surfaces lines body cavities and organ cavities forms some glands Subtypes Simple Epithelium Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Pseudostratified Columnar Stratified Epithelium Stratified Squamous Stratified Cuboidal Stratified Columnar Transitional Connective Tissue Composition contains cells protein fibers and ground substance Functions Binds supports and protects other tissues and organs Subtypes Connective Tissue Proper Loose areolar adipose reticular Dense regular irregular elastic Supporting Connective Tissue Cartilage hyaline elastic fibrocartilage Bone STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Fluid Connective Tissue Blood Lymph Muscle Tissue Composition Cells that may be spindleshaped branching or cylindrical contain myofilaments Functions Moves the skeleton or organ walls Subtypes Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Nervous Tissue Composition Contains neurons and glial cells Functions Transmits nerve impulses and processes information SCAN TYPES OF EPITHELIAL FLOW CHARTll Classification of Epithelia Two criteria The number of layers and the shape of the cell at the apical surface Epithelium is simple one cell layer thick Epithelium is stratified two or more layers of cells Epithelial cell shapes Squamous thin flattened cells Cuboidal Cells about as tall as they are wide Columnar Cells taller than they are wide Simple Epithelia Simple Squamous Epithelium 1O 11 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Structure Single layer of thin flat cells resembling irregular floor tiles the single nucleus of each cell bulges at its center Function Rapid diffusion filtration and some secretion in serous membranes Location Air sacs in lungs alveoli lining of lumen of lymph vessels and blood vessels endothelium serous membranes of body cavities mesothelium Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Structure Sigle layer of cells about as tall as they are wide spherical and centrally located nucleus Function Absorption and secretion forms glands and small ducts Location Thyroid gland follicles surface of ovary kidney tubules secretory regions and ducts of most glands Nonciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium Structure Single layer of cells taller than they are wide ovalshaped nucleus oriented lengthwise in basal region of cell apical regions of cell may have microvilli may contain goblet cells that secrete mucin Function Absorption and secretion secretion of mucin Location lining of most of digestive tract Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium Structure Single layer of ciliated cells taller than they are wide ovalshaped nucleus oriented lengthwise in basal region cell may contain goblet cells Function Secretion of mucin and movement of mucus along apical surface of epithelium by cilia oocyte movement through uterine tube Location Lining of the larger bronchioles of respiratory tract and the uterine tubes Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Structure Single layer of cells with varying heights all cells connect to the basement membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface has goblet cells and cilia Function Protection also involved in movement of mucus across surface by ciliary action STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Location Lining of the larger airways of respiratory tract including nasal cavity part of pharynx larynx trachea and bronchi Nonciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Structure Single layer of cells with varying heights all cells connect to the basement membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface lacks goblet cells and cilia Function Protection Location Rare lining of part of the male urethra and epididymis Stratified Epithelia Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium Structure Multiple cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or polyhedral whereas apical cells are squamous apical cells are dead and filled with the protein keratin Function Protection of underlying tissue from abrasion Location Epidermis of skin Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium Structure Multiple cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or polyhedral whereas apical superficial cells are squamous superficial cells are alive and kept moist Function Protection of underlying tissue from abrasion Location lining of oral cavity part of pharynx esophagus lining of vagina and anus Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Structure Two or more layers of cells cells at the apical surface are about as tall as they are wide Function Protection and secretion Location Ducts of most exocrine glands some regions of the male urethra and ovarian follicles Stratified Columnar Epithelium Structure Two or more layers of cells cells at the apical surface are taller than they are wide 12 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Function Protection and secretion Location Large ducts of salivary glands and in membranous part of male urethra Transitional Epithelium Structure Epithelial appearance varies depending upon whether tissue is stretched or relaxed relaxed epithelium top has polyhedral rounded cells at the apical surface whereas distended epithelium bottom has flattened cells at the apical surface some cells are binucleated Function Distension stretching and relaxation to accommodate urine volume changes in the urinary bladder ureters and part of urethra Location Lining of urinary bladder ureters and part of urethra Multicellular Exocrine Glands Structure may have secretory portions called acini also may have conducting portions composed of a lot of ducts that merge to form a larger duct that transports the secretion to the epithelial surface Connective Tissue Components and Organization Composed of cells extracellular matrix of protein fibers and ground substance SCAN CONNECTIVE TISSUE CLASSIFICATIONllll Connective Tissue Proper Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Connective Tissue Structure Abundant viscous ground substance scattered fibroblasts many blood vessels Function Protects tissues and organs binds skin and some epithelia to deeper ssue Location Papillary layer of the dermis skin subcutaneous layer deep to skin surrounds organs nerve cells some muscle cells and blood vessels Adipose Connective Tissue Structure Closely packed adipocytes nucleus pushed to edge of cell by large fat droplet contains many blood vessels Function Stores energy insulates cushions and protects 13 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Location Subcutaneous layer surrounds and covers some organs Reticular Connective Tissue Structure Viscous ground substance scattered arrangement of reticular fibers leukocytes and some fibroblasts Function Provides stroma supportive framework to lymphatic organs Location Spleen lymph nodes and red bone marrow Connective Tissue Proper Dense Connective Tissue Dense Regular Connective Tissue Structure Densely packed parallel arrays of collagen fibers fibroblasts squeezed between layers of fibers scarce ground substance greatly reduced blood supply Function Attaches bone to bone ligament as well as muscle to bone tendon resists stress applied in one direction Location Tendons ligaments eg interosseous membrane between radius and ulna Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Structure Collagen fibers randomly arranged and clumped together fibroblasts in spaces among fivers more ground substance than in dense regular connective tissue extensive blood supply Function Withstands stresses applied in all directions durable Location Most of dermis of skin periosteum covering bone perichondrium covering cartilage some organ capsules Elastic Connective Tissue Structure Predominantly composed of elastic fibers fibroblasts occupy some spaces between fibers Function Allows for stretching and recoil Location Walls of elastic arteries such as the aorta trachea vocal cords Supporting Connective Tissue Cartilage Hyaline Cartilage 14 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Structure Glassyappearing matrix irregularly arranged chondrocytes in lacunae usually covered by perichondrium Function Provides support forms most of fetal skeleton Location Tip of nose trachea most of larynx costal cartilage articular ends of long bones most of fetal skeleton Fibrocartilage Structure Readily visible numerous parallel collagen fibers large chondrocytes in lacunae no perichondrium Function Resists compression acts as shock absorber in some joints Location lntervertebral discs pubic symphysis menisci of knee joints Elastic Cartilage Structure Abundant elastic fibers that form weblike mesh chondrocytes in lacunae perichondrium present Function Maintains shape while permitting extensive flexibility Location External ear epiglottis of larynx Supporting Connective Tissue Bone Structure Calcified extracellular matrix containing osteocytes trapped in lacunae compact bone arranged in osteons concentric lamellae arranged around a central canal spongy bone is a meshwork that has a different organization from compact bone Function Provides levers for body movement supports soft structures protects organs stores calcium and phosphorus spongy bone contains hemopoietic tissue and is the site for hemopoiesis Location Bones of the body Fluid Connective Tissue Blood Structure Contains formed elements erythrocytes leukocytes and platelets dissolved protein within a liquid ground substance called plasma 15 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Function Erythrocytes transport respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide leukocytes help protect the body from infectious agents and platelets help with blood clotting Dissolved protein fibers will coalesce and help with blood clotting when needed Plasma transports nutrients wastes and hormones throughout the body Location Primarily within blood vessels and in the heart leukocytes also located in lymphatic structures and organs and can migrate to infected or inflamed tissues of the body Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Structure and characteristics Long cylindrical striated fibers cells arranged parallel and unbranched fibers are multinucleated fiber is under voluntary control Function Primarily responsible for moving skeleton and selected other components of the body Location Attaches to bones or sometimes to skin eg facial muscles Cardiac Muscle Tissue Structure and characteristics Short started cells typically branching cells contain one or two centrally located nuclei intercalated discs between cells under involuntary control Function Pumps blood through heart Location Heart wall myocardium Smooth Muscle Tissue Structure and characteristics Nonstriated cells that are short and fusiform in shape contain one centrally located nucleus under involuntary control Function Moves and propels materials through internal organs controls the size of the lumen Location Walls of hollow internal organs such as intestines stomach airways urinary bladder uterus and blood vessels Nervous Tissue 16 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Structure Contains neurons which have a cell body dendrites and an axon that extend from the cell body also contains glial cells which lack the processes seen in neurons Function Neurons receive send and process nerve impulses whereas glial cells help protect nourish and support neurons Location Brain spinal cord and nerves Chapter 6 Layers of the Dermis Papillary layer Superficial region of the dermis deep to the epidermis composed of areolar connective tissue Name derives from the projections of the dermis called dermal papillae Dermal Papillae interdigitate with deep projections of the epidermis called epidermal ridges Epidermal ridges are a lot like two sets of egg crates staked on top of one another Epidermal ridges Dermal Papillae increase area of contact bt the two layers and interlock them Dermal Papillae also contain sensory nerve endings that serve as tactile receptors to continuously monitor touch on the surface of the epidermis Reticular layer Forms the deeper major portion of the dermis that extends from the papillary layer to the underlying subcutaneous layer Primarily dense irregular connective tissue through which large bundles of collagen fibers project in all direction Fibers are interwoven into a meshwork that surrounds structures in the dermis such as hair follicles sebaceous glands and sweat glands nerves and blood vessels lntegument Layers and the Subcutaneous Layer 17 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Epidermis Specific Layer Stratum Corneum Most superficial layer of epidermis 2030 layers of dead flattened anucleate keratinfilled keratinocytes Stratum Lucidum 23 layers of anucleate dead keratinocytes seen only in thick skin eg palms of hands soles of feet Stratum Granulosum 35 layers of keratinocytes with distinct granules in cytoplasm keratinization begins in this layer Stratum Spinosum Several layers of keratinocytes attached to neighbors by desmosomes epidermal dendritic cells present Stratum Basale Deepest single layer of cuboidal to low columnar keratinocytes in contact with basement membrane cell division occurs here also contains melanocytes and tactile cells Dermis Papillary Layer Superficial layer of dermis composed of areolar connective tissue forms dermal papmae Reticular Layer Deeper layer of dermis composed of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding hair follicles sebaceous glands and sweat glands nerves and blood vessels Subcutaneous Layer Not considered part of the integument deep to dermis composed of areolar and adipose connective tissue 18 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Structure of a Fingernail Hard derivative of the stratum corneum that protect sensitive fingertips Nails Hair Scalelike modifications of stratum corner layer of the epidermis Form on the dorsal edges of the fingers and toes Protect the distal tips of the digits and prevent damage or extensive distortion during jumping kicking or catching Assist us in grasping objects Nail Plate Distal free edge Pinkish nail body Covers a layer of epidermis called nail bed contains only the deeper living cell layers of the epidermis Nail root proximal part embedded in the skin Nail matrix actively growing part of the nail Lunula Whitish semilunar area of the proximal end of the nail body Nail folds along the lateral and proximal borders of the nail folds of skin that overlap the nail Eponychium cuticle narrow band of epidermis extending from the margin of the nail wall onto the nail body Hyponychium region of thickened stratum corneum over which the free nail edge projects Found almost everywhere on body Minus hands and palmar surface of the fingers the sides of the soles and toes the lips and portions of the external genitalia Derivative of epithelium 19 20 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY A hair grows from a follicle extending from the epidermis into the dermis First Degree burns Superficial burns Involve only the epidermis and are characterized by redness pain and slight edema Mild sunburn Second Degree burns Involve the epidermis and part of the dermis The skin appears red tan or white Blistered and painful Very severe sunburns or scalding from hot liquids or chemicals Third Degree burns Involve the epidermis dermis and subcutaneous layer gt often destroyed Typically are caused by contact with corrosive chemicals or fire or prolonged contact with extremely hot water Rule of Nines The body surface is divided into areas representing 9 or multiples Method to determine the extent of burns in adults and infants Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common type of skin cancer Least dangerous type as it seldom metastasizes Originates in stratum basale First appears as small shiny elevation that enlarges and develops central depression with pearly edge Usually occurs on face Treated by surgical removal of lesion 21 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Lesions usually appear on scalp ears lower lip or dorsum of hand Early leasions are raised reddened scaly Later lesions form concave ulcers with elevated edges Treated by early detection and surgical removal of lesion May metastasize to other parts of the body Malignant Melanoma Most deadly type of skin cancer due to aggressive growth and metastasis Arises from melanocytes usually in a preexisting mole Individuals at increased risk include those who have had severe sunburns especially as children Characterized by change in mole diameter color shape of border and symmetry Survival rate improved by early detection and surgical removal of lesion Advanced cases metastasis of disease difficult to cure and are treated with chemotherapy interferon therapy and radiation therapy ABCDE rule A Asymmetry Onehalf of a mole or birthmark does not match the other B Border Edges are notched irregular blurred or ragged C Color Color is not uniform differing shades usually brown or black and sometimes patches of white blue or red may be seen D Diameter Affected area is larger than 6 mm about 14 inch or is growing larger E Evolving Change in the size shape or color of a mole Ora change in symptoms such as how a mole feels how itchy or tender it feels or what happens on the surface of the mole especially bleeding STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Chapter 8 Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Bones of the Axial Skeleton 80 Skull 22 Cranial bones 8 Frontal bone 1 Parietal bones 2 Temporal bones 2 Occipital bone 1 Sphenoid bone 1 Ethmoid bone 1 Facial bones 14 Zygomatic bones 2 Lacrimal bones 2 Nasal bones 2 Vomer 1 Inferior nasal conchae 2 Palatine bones 2 Maxillae 2 Mandible 1 Associated bones of the skull 7 Auditory ossicles 6 Malleus 2 lncus 2 Stapes 2 Hyoid bone 1 Vertebral Column 26 Cervical vertebrae 7 Thoracic vertebrae 12 Lumbar vertebrae 5 Sacrum 1 Coccyx 1 Thoracic cage 25 Sternum 1 Ribs 24 Bones of the Appendicular Skeleton 63 bones per each side of the body 126 bones total Pectoral girdle 4 bones total Clavicle 2 Scapula 2 Pelvic girdle 2 bones total Os coxae 2 Upper limbs 30 bones per each upper limb 6O bones total Humerus 2 Radius 2 Ulna 2 Scapula 2 Carpals 16 Metacarpals 10 Phalanges 28 Lower limbs 30 bones per each lower limb 6O bones total Femur 2 Tarsals 14 Patella 2 Tibia 2 Fibula 2 Metatarsals 10 Phalanges 28 Major Cranial Cavities 22 23 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY 39 154 Cranm c m m WIquot lfsftf39 39 39 I a J r I39 if g ell8 If 5 1 I 7 35 tl x z X 39 A 23 w Kjhl v VIV amp I lt3 39 DUN z39 h Np th t A V N l W 3 CV I l k mat mm Iry 6 5 V Y L Co Frontal Bone Associated passageways Supraorbital foramen or notch Description and Boundaries of Bone Forms the superior and anterior parts of the skull part of the anterior cranial fossa and orbit Selected Features and their Functions Frontal Crest Attachment site for meninges to help stabilize brain within the skull Frontal Sinuses Lighten bone moisten inhaled air and give resonance to voice Orbital Part Forms roof of orbit Squamous Part Attachment of scalp muscles Supraorbital Margin Forms protective superior border of orbit STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Cranial Cavity Orbit Eye sockets ParanasalSinuses Frontal Ethmoidal Lighten bone moisten inhaled air and give resonance to voice Maxillary Oral Cavity Superior and Posterior Views of The Skull rquotquot N i a a Iquot 239 quot 1 t 6 kiwi 6 a v a inf i I 7 3 I quotI lt a f 1 yu b39rj 5 J J y I t O C 9 9 it Hm I 7 H V a 35 3 Wquot 7 x A H x Al I A 4 1 a L Q0 f M39 I l ff External occipital protuberance 24 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Mastoid Process Mandible Forms the lower jaw 11 f quotir i quotd l m I s j 7 39 quoti J 3 71 quot1 39 1quot b X my 3 mm V l L inquot quoti j V I h V r J tquotl LKt 41quot V I wjmm wmm H 1 39 2r 1 I 111 a 1 K r QT x AC C i hibi 5714quot 4 ac to swam by U Lam Parietal Bone Associated Passageways Parietal Foramen Description and Boundaries of Bone Each forms most of lateral and superior walls of the skull 25 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Selected Features and Their Functions Superior and Inferior Temporal Lines Attachement sites for temporalis muscle Parietal Eminence Forms rounded prominence on each side of the skull Zygomatic Bone Associated Passageways None Description and Boundaries of Bone Each forms a cheek and lateral part of the orbit Selected Features and Their Functions Frontal Process Articulates with frontal bone Temporal Process Articulates with temporal bone to form zygomatic arch Maxillary Process Articulates with maxilla Temporal Bone 26 Associated Passageways Stylomastoid foramen Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Internal acoustic meatus Mastoid foramen Jugular foramen w occipital bone Description and boundaries of bone Each forms inferolateral wall of the skull forms part of the middle cranial fossa Three parts included below Selected Features and Their Functions Petrous Part Protects sensory structures in inner ear Squamous Part Attachment site of some jaw muscles Tympanic Part Houses external acoustic meatus Mastoid Process Attachment site of some neck muscles to extend or rotate head Styloid Process Attachment site for hyoid bone ligaments and muscles Zygomatic Process Articulates with zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch Mandibular Fossa Articulates with mandible Articular Tubercle Limits displacement of head of mandible within mandibular fossa STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Coronal Suture Articulation between the frontal and parietal bones Sagittal Suture Connects the left and right parietal bones along the midline of the skull Parietal Foramina Along the posterior onethird of the sagittal suture serve as the passage of small veins between the brain and the scalp Lamboid Suture Superior part represents the articulation of the occipital bone with both parietal bones Sutural Bone Occipital bone Associated Passageways Foramen magnum Hypoglossal canal Jugular Foramen with temporal bone Condylar canal Description and Boundaries of Bone Forms posteroinferior part of the skull including most of posterior cranial fossa forms part of the base of the skull Selected Features and Their Functions External Occipital Crest Attachment site for ligaments External Occipital Protuberance Attachment site for neck ligaments and muscles Occipital Condyles Articulate with first cervical vertebra 27 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY l V 39 N j w M i l 7 l r K 39 l l l l 39 I f f A I 2quot r L 1 l J I 7 La 1 quot a I A I V iquot H J axequot w ll 39 y I I H I I MAM m anquot x C y H rl A 739quot I Mr r a i M A L A quotquot5 1 L quot39 w r x W3973 7 quotquot7quot ir r39l t swarm r var Posterior Cranial Fossa Most inferior and posterior cranial fossa and extends from the posterior region of the petrous part of the temporal bones to the occipital bones supports part of the brainstem and cerebellum Middle Cranial Fossa Inferior and posterior to the anterior cranial fossa ranges from the posterior edge of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone to the anterior region of the petrous part of the temporal bone houses the temporal lobes of the brain and the pituitary gland Anterior Cranial Fossa Shallowest of the three depressions formed by the frontal bone the ethmoid bone and the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone houses the frontal lobes of the brain Cribriform Plate Contains cribriform foramina for passageway of olfactory nerves 28 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Lesser wing of Sphenoid Lateral expansions of the sphenoid bone Sella Turcica Bony depression on the sphenoid houses the pituitary gland which is suspended inferiorly from the base of the brain Petrous part of temporal bone lateral regions of the cranial base are formed by this Jugular Foramen An opening between the temporal and occipital bones that provides passageway for the internal jugular vein and several nerves Foramen magnum big hole spinal cord enters the cranial cavity and is continuous superiorly with the brainstem Hyoid Bone slender curved bone located inferior to the skull between the mandible and the larynx does not articulate with any other bone in the skeleton Greater Cornu Lesser Cornu Cornua and body serve as attachment sites for tongue and larynx muscles and ligaments Vertebral Column Composed of 26 bones including 24 individual vertebrae and the fused vertebrae that form the sacrum and the coccyx Each vertebrae articulates with one superior vertebra and one inferior vertebrae 7 Cervical Vertebrae C1C7 form the bones of the neck cervical region First cervical vertebra C1 articulates superiorly with the occipital condyles of the skull Seventh cervical vertebra articulates inferiorly with the first thoracic vertebra Vertebra Prominens C7 29 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Transverse Process Lateral projections on both sides of the vertebral arch 12 Thoracic Vertebrae T1T12 Medium sized heart shapes present on body and transverse processes medium sized long most project inferiorly Intervertebral disc between 9 and 10 Form the inferior concave region of the back 5th lumbar vertebra articulates inferiorly with the first sacral vertebrae Intervertebral foramen Lateral openings between adjacent vertebrae provide a horizontally directed passageway through which spinal nerves extend to various parts of the body Spinous Process Projects posteriorly from the junction of the left and right laminae most can be palpated along the skin of the back 5 Lumbar Vertebrae L1 L5 Largest large oval or round not present large thick and blunt short thick and blunt project posteriorly Cervical Curvature Secondary appears when the child is first able to hold its head up without support Thoracic Curvature Primary curvatures present at birth arch posteriorly and result in the vertebral column being Cshapes Lumbar Curvature Secondary appear after birth arch anteriorly and are also known as compensation curves because they help shift the trunk weight over the legs appears when the child is learning to stand and walk Spinal Curvature Abnormalities Kyphosis 30 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Exaggerated thoracic curvature that is directed posteriorly producing a hunchbacklook Lordosis Often called swayback that is seen as a protrusion of the abdomen and buttocks Scoliosis Most common spinal curvature deformity abnormal lateral curvature that sometimes results during development when both the vertebral arch and body fail to form or form incompletely on once side of the vertebra also be caused by unilateral muscular paralysis or spasm in the back Thoracic Cage Composed of the thoracic vertebrae ribs and sternum protects and encolses the organs in the thoracic cavity True Ribs 17 Ribs 17 smallest is the first False Ribs 812 Their costal cartilages do not attach directly to the sternum fuse to the costal cartilage of rib 7 and thus indirectly articulate with the sternum Floating Ribs 1112 Have no connection with the sternum Sternum Breastbone a flat bone that forms in the anterior midline of the thoracic wall Manubrium widest and most superior portion of the sternum and right clavicles Suprasternal Notch Shallow superior indentation between the clavicular notches Clavicular Notch Two articulate the sternum with the left and right clavicles Costal Notch 31 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Articulations for the first ribs costal notches Sternal Angle Body and manubrium articulate here a horizontal ridge that may be palpated under the skin an important landmark in that the costal cartilages of the second ribs attach there may be used to count the ribs Body Longest part of the sternum and forms its bulk Xiphoid Process Very tip of sternum small inferiorly pointed cartilaginous projection doesn39t often ossify until after age 40 Costal Cartilages True ribs connect individually to the sternum by these separate cartilaginous extensions Features of Pelvis Pelvis Protects and supports the viscera in the inferior part of the ventral body cavity Pelvic brim oval bony ridge that subdivides the pelvis into true and false pelvis Pelvic inlet is space enclosed by the pelvic brim whereas outlet is inferior opening in the true pelvis Difference between male and female shown in anterosuperior view Female Coccyx Male Sacral promontory Chapter 9 Typical Synovial Joint 32 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY 3 g r I A WP l 39 395 tr 39 jr quoto W i A w quotl quotWquot Kl 51 tquot i39 i 3 1 i i I n Iquot 3 f 3 39 7 IL Iquot Y s quot a v 39r39eivvim r L g I v 7 quot 39 3 k7 1 A 39r N a H m Mi 1 w r I quot w 39 h J quot1quotquot 50 I39 39 x CORR W3an 4 kggia r fj TVU W J C I V 3 x A amp can w v Q 1 12 8Z I L m R 3 2 quot 392 ll 39 I I 39 Fill Ti 3 M 41m 2 m l J 3 m 4 Synovial joints are diarthroses and they allow for a wide variety of motion Articular Capsule Joint Capsule Fibrous Layer Outer layer formed from dense connective tissue strengthens the joint to prevent the bones from being pulled apart Synovial Membrane lnner layer composed of squamous epithelial cells lack basement membrane resting on an areolar connective tissue layer Covers all the internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage and lines the articular capsule and helps produce synovial fluid 33 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage covering all articulating bone surfaces in a synovial joint Reduces friction during movement acts as a spongy fusion to absorb compression placed on the joint prevents damage to the articulating ends of the bones Lacks perichondrium Mature cartilage gt avascular no blood vessels to bring nutrients and to remove waste products from the cartilage Joint cavity space that permits separation of the articulating bones Synovial fluid viscous oily substance located within a synovial joint Produced both from the synovial membrane cells and filtrate formed from blood plasma Lubricates the articular cartilage on the surface of articulating bones Nourishes the articular cartilages s chondrocytes Acts as shock absorber distributing stresses and force evenly across the articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases Ligament Composed of dense regular connective tissue connect one bone to another bone Function to stabilize strengthen and reinforce most synovial joints Bursa fibrous saclike structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined internally by a synovial membrane associated with most synovial joints and are where bones ligaments muscles skin or tendons overlie each other and rub together serve to alleviate friction Tendon Sheath elongated bursa wraps around a tendon where there may be excessive friction especially common in confined spaces of the wrist and ankle Classes of Levers First Fulcrum is located between the resistance and effort such as with a pair of scissors or the trapezius muscle in the neck Second 34 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Resistance is between fulcrum and effort such as with a wheelbarrow or the calf muscles 0 Third Most common type of lever effort is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum such as with forceps or the arm muscles Movement Gliding Motion Two opposing articular surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction the amount of movement is slight Angular Motion The angle between articulating bones increases or decreases Flexion The angle between articulating bones decreases in an anteriorposterior plane Opposing movement Extension Extension The angle between the articulating bones increases in an anterior posterior plane opposing movement Flexion Hyperextension Extension movement continues past the anatomic position Opposing movement Flexion Lateral Flexion The vertebral column moves bends in a lateral direction along a coronal plane Abduction Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline Opposing movement Adduction Adduction Lateral movement of a body part toward the midline Opposing movement Abduction Circumduction A continuous movement that combines fexion abduction extension and adduction in succession the distal end of the limb or digit moves in a circle Rotational Motion A bone pivots around its own longitudinal axis Pronation Rotation of the forearm where the palm is turned posteriorly Opposing movement Supination Supination Rotation of the forearm in which the palm is turned anteriorly Special Movements Types of movement that do not fit in the previous categories 35 Depression Movement of a body part inferiorly Opposing movement Elevation STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 ANATOMY Elevation Movement of a body part superiorly Opposing movement Depression Dorsiflexion Ankle joint movement where the dorsum of the foot is brought toward the anterior surface of the leg Opposing movement Plantar Flexion Plantar Flexion Ankle joint movement where the sole of the foot is brought toward the posterior surface of the leg Opposing movement Dorsiflexion Eversion Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole laterally or outward Opposing Movement Inversion Inversion Twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole medially or inward Rotation Allows a bone to pivot on its longitudinal axis Knee Joint Most complex Diarthrosis of the body Knee Ligament Cartilage Injuries Torn Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL when leg is hyperextended Arthritis group of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints that occur in various forms Swelling of joint pain stiffness 36 Gouty arthritis typically seen in middleaged and older individuals more common in males often called gout occurs as a result of an increased level of uric acid in the blood abnormal level causes urate crystals to accumulate in the blood synovial fluid and synovial membranes bodies response is joint pain Osteoarthritis Most common type chronic generative joint condition is also termed wearandtear arthritis because repeated use of a joint gradually wears down the articular cartilage typically seen in older individuals Rheumatoid Arthritis RA typically seen in younger and middleaged adults much more prevalent in women common age of onset is 4050 Symptoms include pain and joint swelling muscle weakness osteoporosis and assorted problems with both the heart and blood vessels Autoimmune disorder in which the body s immune system targets its own tissues for attack
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