Study guide Test 1
Study guide Test 1 Psych 324
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 324 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Note underlined I think it is important I Physiological Psychology Biopsychology Branch of psych that studies the relationship between behavior and the body brain a Not Neuroscience i Neuroscience multidisciplinary study of the nervous system II Origins of Physiological Psychology a MindBrain Problem i What is the nature of the mind and the brain ii What is the relationship between the mind and the brain b Two philosophical Views i Dualism Mind and brain belong to two different worlds 1 The mind controls the brain by interacting with it ii Monism mind and brain belong to the same world physical world Materialism l The mind is the product of physical processes in the brain c Rene Descartes 17th century philosopher i Dualist mind non physical but body physical 1 Body of every organism human too is a machine a Therefore you can discover how the machine is built and how it works actions are mechanical 2 In humans the mind interacts with the body at a single point in the brain a Pineal gland the seat of the soul physical explanation of soul ii He put emphasis on the physical explanation of behavior III Model proposed mechanism for how something works a Descartes Hydraulic Model i Nerves are hollow tubes where a uid animal spirit ows ii Pineal gland pumps the uid through brain and nerves iii Mind soul tilts the Pineal gland to direct uid to specific nerves specific muscles in ate move iv Important because it can be tested b Galvani 1700 s and his frogs nerves are like wires conducting electricity c Helmholtz 1800 s how come nerves conduction speed is only 90ftsec IV Nature amp Nurture Heredity amp Environment Innate amp Learned a Basic philosophical question driving psychology along with mindbody problem i How much of Brain and Behavior is due to Heredity ii How much of Brain and Behavior is due to Environment iii How do heredity and environment interact b Must understand basic genetics to study brain and behavior V Genetics a Gene unit of heredity i Found in chromosomes inside nucleus of each cell b Humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs c Chromosome is composed of DNA Adenine Thymine Guanine cytosine VI Genes and their Effects a Dominant produces its effects regardless of which gene it is paired with b Recessive produces its effects only when paired with the same recessive gene on the other chromosome c Heterozygous 2 traits d Homozygous two of same traits e Characteristics determined by a single pair of genes eye color f Characteristics determined by several gene pairs height i Polygenic VII Structure and Function of the Nervous System a Microscopic Level i Neuron Specialized cells that receive information and send it to other cells carry info within the brain and throughout the rest of the body Transfer cells 1 About 100 billion neurons in the brain 2 Types a Motor Neuron receives information from other neurons carries information to muscle or glands b Sensory Neurons receives a particular type of sensory information and carries information to other neurons c Interneuron connect one neuron to another in a particular part of the CNS ii Glial cells cells that provide structural and functional support for neurons 1 Oligodendrocytes build myelin around axons in CNS brain and spinal cord interneurons 2 Schwan cells build myelin around axons in the PNS periphery sensory neurons motor neurons receptors andor muscles b Neural Membrane critical for the neuron s ability to carry information i Phospholipid fat derivatives molecules 1 Head is hydrophilic like water tail is hydrophobic afraid ii Protein molecules 1 Channels 2 Pumps active burns energy creates gradients EC amp GC unlike channel iii Polarization difference in electrical charge voltage between the inside and outside of the cell 1 Resting Potential difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest 70mv a Due to unequal distribution of ions on the two sides of the membrane i Atoms or molecules that are positive or neg charged ii Anion and Cation iv Membrane is Selectively permeable some chemicals can pass through it more freely than others 1 Protein molecules embedded in the membrane a Na channels closed at rest K channels slightly open at rest b NaK Pump repeatedly moves 3 Na out of the neuron and 2 K inside the neuron at Lst 2 Three reasons negative negative charge inside NAK pump K channel trickles K ions attracted inside by Electrical Gradient outside by Concentration Gradient for K the two gradients are almost in balance 4 Na ions attracted inside by both Electrical Gradient and Concentration Gradient Na would rush inside if Na channels were open 5 Na and K channels are voltage activated their permeability depends on the voltage potential across the membrane v Graded Potential and Action Potential Slides vi Rate law intensity of a stimulus is encoded by the rate of action potentials 1 Not on Action Potential Slide U c Spontaneous Activity firing of a neuron in absence of environmental stimulation 1 Resting potential a K ions attracted inside by the electrical gradient means a difference in charge and outside by he concentration gradient i So the electrical gradient is going inside the cell ii The electrical gradient would keep the K ions in the cell iii The concentration gradient does the opposite iv The concentration gradient is slightly stronger than the electrical gradient b So what would happen to sodium if open up the channels i The Na would go in for electrical AND the Na would go in for the concentration gradient ii Na goes inwards for both gradients both draw Na in iii What would happen if something made the Na channels open Na would move inside and this would change the charge of the neuron and this is how a charge is transmitted c So what causes the Na channels to open and close i Na and K channels are voltage activated their permeability depends on the voltage across the membrane ii When this is 70mV the channels are closed iii But if something causes the resting potential to change then all of a sudden the Na channels would open this is the electrochemical signal 11 Changes in the membrane potential a No polarization at 0 while resting membrane potential is 70 mv b On the y axis is the membrane potential and the x axis is the time c So nothing changes if the neuron stays at rest d This little changes in a membrane potential that has been caused is called hyperpolarization dips below 70mV more negative than rest e So what would see if it makes it more positive i We call this depolarization or a decrease in polarization anytime the membrane potential goes towards 0 that is depolarization ii For depolarization there is a limit on the size of the stimulus and the size of the response in other words there is a value called the threshold of excitation iii So as long as depolarization stays below threshold nothing changes iv As soon as it reaches threshold the neurons fires v This is called the action potential abrupt depolarization and slight reversal of the usual polarization of the membrane vi Always look at where the 0 is vii Allows the neuron to send signals over long distances 111 Action Potentials a Occurs only in axons not in dendrites or soma b It s strength is independent of the intensity of the stimulus allornone law c It does not decay as it travels down an axon nondecremental i Spontaneous Activity Neurons are always firing even when no stimuli is present ii The more the stimulus happens the more the neurons fire but the intensity doesn t change iii All or None Law 1 ex light it doesn t matter how hard you hit the light switch the brightness of the light isn t going to get brighter 2 Ex a smell stronger than other isn t going to change the intensity of the neuron just how fast it fires IV Propagation of an action potential a Propagation of an action potential slide b Axon hillock first part of the axon that you can see an action potential Is like a dent on axon near cell body and dendrites c Part of axon node naked d Explained Graph i Describes the uphill section of the graphs First section would be the axon hillock where the action starts Reaches excitation and the sodium channels opens up ii Shows the downfall part of graphs iii Starts it over ips back and forth as it goes Triggered as a brand new one all the time as it travels down the axon The section of the axon were nothing is happening is in the relative refractory period iv Peak gt resting point is absolute refractory period V Resting point gt on is relative refractory period V Myelination and Conduction Speed of Action potentials a Myelin produced by glial cells Oligodendrocytes and Schwann b Slide i Conduction speed in axon lmsec 120msec ii Two strategies for increasing conduction speed 1 Developing larger axons motor neuron of squid 2 Myelination by glial cells iii Saltatory conduction faster and cheaper c Myelin sheath is not continuous there are tiny spaces between them called Nodes of Ranvier d Hillock is naked node where picture has Na marked e What happens i Na channels open gt action potential ii Depolarization spreads within the axon very rapidly iii The action potential is triggered at the next node and the next and the next iv Essentially jumping very fast from one node to the next saltatory conduction means jumping v Saltatory Conduction faster 15 times and cheaper than in unmyelinated axons 1 Less energy used up by cell speeds up the process of the action potential going through VI Communication between Neurons a Synapse connection between two neurons b Presynaptic neuron sends information input neuron also contains the presynaptic terminal c Postsynaptic neuron receives information output neuron also contains VII Chemical Synapses graph a Vesicles membrane around neurotransmitter and makes into round ball b Exocytosis Greek exmovement from inside to outside cytocell There is calcium Ca2 in synaptic cleft The ca2 channels will open and ca2 will move in to presynaptic terminal causes the neurotransmitter to leak down c Neurotransmitters reach channels sodium potassium chloride which match up with shape of each other The part the neurotransmitter matches with is receptor sites Lock and key transmitter match d Inside of receiving neuron membrane potential 70mv As more sodium comes in the EPSP happens and the potential goes toward the threshold of excitation e EPSP reaches partial depolarization because it could reach action potential but it doesn t always i Makes an action potential more likely to occur in the post synaptic neuron 1 Higher rate of firing f Potassium leaves the neuron and returns to the synaptic cleft and the potential reaches below 70 i lower rate of firing VIII Test a EPSPs and IPSPs both graded potentials b Action potentials not considered either EPSP or IPSP c Postsynaptic Integration i A typical neuron receives EPSPs and IPSPs from 1000 other neurons ii EPSPs and IPSPs are combined at the axon hillock in 2 ways 1 Temporal Summation combines PSPs arriving a short time apart 2 Spatial Summation combines PSPs arriving at the same time from different locations on dendrites and soma d What happens to the neurotransmitter left in the synaptic cleft i Molecules are reabsorbed by the terminal and repackaged into vesicles reuptake 1 In come cases they are first broken down into simpler components ii Absorbed by glial cells I Chemical Synapse a Excitatory postsynaptic potential slide on bb b Inhibitory postsynaptic potential slide on bb i Firing faster will cause it to fire slower c Graph on EPSP and IPSP both are graded potentials different from action potential i Know the difference between graded and action potential II Postsynaptic Integration a A typical neuron receives EPSPs and IPSPs from about 1000 other neurons b EPSPs and IPSPs are combined at the axon hillock in two ways i Temporal Summation combines PSPs arriving a short time apart ii Spatial Summation combines PSPs arriving at the same time from different locations on dendrites and soma III What happens to the neurotransmitter left in the synaptic cleft a Molecules are reabsorbed by the terminal and repackaged into vesicles reuptake i In some case they are first broken down into simpler components ii SRIs serotonin reuptake inhibitor b Absorbed by glial cells absorb neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and recycle it for the neuron s reuse IV Synaptic Modulation adjustment of activity occurring at a synapse a Axosomatic synapse between terminal button of one neuron and some of another neuron b Axodendritic synapse between terminal button of one neuron and dendrite of another neuron c gt ltAxoaxonic synapse between terminal button of one neuron and terminal button of another neuron regulates i Remember calciumexocytosis ii Increase in the release of neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron Presynaptic Excitation iii Decrease in the release of neurotransmitter by the presynaptic neuron Presynaptic Inhibition d Autoreceptors special proteins in the presynaptic membrane sense the amount of neurotransmitter in the cleft Have the effect of keeping the amount neurotransmitter production somewhat constant regulates e Receptors in postsynaptic membrane change in sensitivity or in number to compensate for unusual increases or decreases of neurotransmitter in the cleft i Tolerance V Neurotransmitters the chemical signals that are released by one neuron at the synapse and that affect another neuron a Know Table 22 types of neurotransmitter category and function i Really important to know those that are excitatory and inhibitory b Agonist a chemical that mimics or increases the effect of a neurotransmitter i Morphine activates the receptors for Endorphins c Antagonist a chemical that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter i Curare block acetylcholine receptors at the muscles paralysis 1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System a Purpose of Ch 3 i Microscopic level basic structurefunction of a single neuron and its interactions with another neuron ii Macroscopic level how billions of neurons are grouped into functional components that make up the nervous system b Slide of man on bb and CNSPNS i Peripheral Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves ii Central Brain and Spinal cord 1 Bundle of axons are called nerves in the PNS and Tracts in the CNS 2 Group of cell bodies is called a nucleus in the CNS and a ganglion in the PNS II Anatomical Direction in the NS a Neuroaxis an imaginary line drawn through the center of the CNS from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain i Slide on bb of alligator and human b Slide on bb of Three planes of section i Horizontal section sagittal section and Coronal section ii know all of this 111 The Brain a Can see three subparts since embryonic development I The Forebrain Cerebral hemispheres Corpus Callosum Thalamus Hypothalamus a Cerebral hemispheres Frontal lobe central sulcus lateral fissure parietal lobe Parieto occipital sulcus Occipital lobe Temporal lobe i Outer surface is the Cortex wrinkled with ridges amp grooves 1 Ridge gyrus two grooves a Groove sulcus or fissure if big 2 Cerebral Cortex outer surface mainly made of unmyelinated cell bodies and dendrites a Gray matter unmyelinated cell bodies 3 In the center of gyruses are myelinated axon pathways a White matter mylinatea cell bodies b Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe II Frontal Lobe Thinkingprimary skills a The precentral gyrus Primary Motor Cortex sits in front of the central sulcus i Voluntary contraction of skeletal muscles ii One hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body cross control 1 Left primary motor cortex controls the muscles on the right side of the body 2 Right primary motor cortex controls the muscles on the left side of the body 3 Topographical organization of body muscles Can be followed as a map of body muscles 4 How body muscles are organized Motor Homunculus funny looking little man b Broca s Area language region of the brain Left side of the brain is dominant for language i Controls speech articulation ii Grammatical structure iii Lateralized to the left hemisphere the left side seems to be more focused in the language area iv Lesion causes Broca s Aphasia l Impaired word production 2 Unimpaired comprehension think properly can t speak c Prefrontal Cortex i Involved in planning ii Decision making iii Impulse Control d Central Sulcus e Lateral Fissure III Parietal Lobe TOUCH a Post Central Gyrus Primary S omatosensory Cortex i Processes skin senses body position etc ii One hemisphere serves the opposite side of the body iii Topographical organization Somatosensory Homunculus b Association Cortex Somatosensory Homunculus i Further sensory information processing ii More complex aspects of sensation amp perceptions iii Integrate info from other senses iv Location of objects in space 1 Unilateral Neglect ignoring objects on the side opposite to the damage c Parietooccipital Sulcus IV Occipital Lobe SIGHT a Very large part of the brain b Visual Cortex process visual information i Primary Visual Cortex Vl the very first neurons that receive stimuli from light I Receives visual input from the retina 2 Process simple features eg orientation 3 Topographical organization of visual space maps of the retina V Temporal Lobe HEARING a Separated from the rest of the brain by the lateral fissure b Auditory Cortex i Receives auditory hearing information from the ears c Wernicke s area i Language comprehension meaning of words ii Lateralized to the left hemisphere iii Lesion causes Wernicke s aphasia l Impaired word comprehension 2 Unimpaired word production logic is wrong but can speak iv Inferior Temporal Cortex 1 Visual identification of familiar objects without you can t remember faces although you know a person and recognize their voice VI Corpus Callosum Highway of Communication between LR Hemisphere a Horseshoe shaped structure b Large band of myelinated axons i Carries information between the two hemispheres c Cavities inside the brain i Ventricles 1 Contain cerebral spinal uid 2 Carries Nutrients from Blood Vessel to CNS 3 Transports Waste AWAY VII Thalamus Sensory Relay station VIII Hypothalamus Coordinates emotional and motivational functions a Sexeataggressionemotion b Controls Pituitary Gland regulates endocrineglandshormones IV Thalamus acts as a sensory relay station relays incoming sensory information to the cortex a Different parts of thalamus are for different senses chemical senses excluded smell V coordinates emotional and motivational functions sex eating emotion and aggression a Also controls the pituitary gland which controls the rest of the endocrine gland system hormones VI Midbrain a Tectum dorsal side of midbrain i Superior Colliculus vision eg eye vision direct eyes ii Inferior Colliculus hearing location of sounds b Tegmentum ventral side of midbrain i Control of movement 1 Substantia Ni gra dopamine producing neurons a These cells here die out w Parkinson s disease 2 plays a role in the rewarding effects of food sex drugs and rock and roll VII Hindbrain Pons Medulla Cerebellum a Pons means bridge i Sensory neurons pass through on the way to thalamus motor neurons pass through between cortex and cerebellum ii It is part of the Reticular Formation sleep and arousal l Reticular formation collection of nuclei running through the middle of hindbrain and the midbrain b Cerebellum Little Brain i Motor coordination and balance motor learning cognitive functions even language c Medulla i Lifesustaining functions heart activity and breathing VIII Spinal Cord a Cable of neurons i Carries signals from the brain to muscles and glands periphery ii Carries sensory info from the periphery sense organs to the brain iii Hub for re ex arcs neural pathways that produce re ex acts b Spine picture i Spinal ganglion due to collection of cell bodies c Re ex arc neural pathway that controls a re ex act d Re ex act simple automatic response to a sensory stimulus Re ex arc Dorsal root White Sensory matter neuron Gray matter Interneuron Motor neuron Ventral root i Muscle contraction or gland secretions IX Blood Brain Barrier prevents harmful substances toxins from entering the brain a Capillary membrane cells so tightly packed together that they form a barrier to most molecules b Fat soluble substances freely pass through the barrier i Psychiatric medications and other drugs c Other substances use special transport proteins to get through amino acids glucose d Some areas of brain are not protected by blood brain barrier i The area postrema in Medulla induces vomiting when certain toxins are in bloodstream X Peripheral Nervous System a Cranial Nerves 12 pairs come out of brain stem before spinal cord i Graph number name and function are all fair game for test b Spinal Nerves 31 pairs from spinal cord c Somatic i Motor neurons carry signals from CNS to skeletal muscles ii Sensory neurons bring info from sensory organs into CNS d Autonomic i Function 1 Regulates body s general activity level 2 Controls smooth muscles heart glands etc ii Sympathetic FIGHT or FLIGHT speeds up bodily processes such as heart beat respiration blood pressure sweat glands l Originate from middle of spinal cord 2 Passes through sympathetic ganglion chain a Simultaneous activation of organs works as a unit iii Parasympathetic REST and DIGEST slows bodily processes back down 1 Originates from ends of spinal cord iv 1 are active to some degree all the time 1 Body s activity reflects balance between the two Membrane potential mV Membrane potential mV 40 Graded Potential 30 0 can occur in axon dendrites and soma 20 quot 0 its strength depends on the intensity of the 10 stimulus 0 o it decays as it propagates decremental 10 20 3o 40 50 Depolarization decrease in 60 polarization 80 go Hyperpolarization increase in polarization 3 4 Stimulus 1 Stimulus 2 Time msec 4039 Action Potential 30 0 occurs only in axons not in dendrites or 20 soma 10 0 its strength is independent of the intensity of 0 the stimulus allornone law 10 it does not decay as it travels down an axon 20 30 4039 50 60 70 I f 8039 Threshold 90 2 3 Stimulus Time msec Membrane potential mV Membrane potential mV Na channels shut close no more Na enter K channEIsT open slowly K begins to quot leak outside K continue to leave cell causing membrane potential to return toward resting level Na channels open fast Na 39 rushes inSid Na VK pump restores the normal distribution of ions inside and T outside the membrane I Threshold 6 K channels close slowly K keeps leaking outside causing membrane 39 potential to go below the resting level 1 2 3 Stimu39us Time msec quot Absolute Refractory Period Nat channels cannot reopen cannot produce other action potentials Relative Refractory Period Only stimuli strongerthan usual can produce action potentials I I Threshold 4 J Stimu39us Time msec Axon hillock Propagation of an Action Potential at Axon quot39 quot quot39 quot segment t t 0 AP does not lose K Action potential strength as it travels down the axon 0 w p gt 0 AP cannot travel tlt t backwards because K Action potential of the absoute refractory period 0 W I J K CAIdown WesIcy trvq39nui trr Myelination and Conduction Speed of Action Potentials Conduction speed in axon 1 msec 120 msec 0 Two strategies for increasing it Developing larger axons eg motor neuron of squid Myelination by glial cells oligodendrocytes and Schwann I Sodium enters axon N 39 depolarizing that segment Myelm sheath 2 Sodium channel on adjacent node of Ranmer opens Nodes o Ranvie39 3 The action potential jumps from Na node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier Saltatory conduction faster and cheaper Shieran Synapses Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential EPSP partial depolarization hypopolarization of the postsynaptic membrane 0 makes an action potential more likely to occur at the axon hillock ofthe postsynaptic neuron 3 quot Threshold ofexcitation Membrane potential K K N a K N a K N a4 Qhemi icall Synapses Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential IPSP hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane 0 makes an action potential less likely to occur at the axon hillock of the post synaptic neuron iii NaKj Threshold of excitation r Membrane potential Na I Nat quot8 N8 Na quot8 K4 Nat Na Na quot3 Sodium Na potaSSIurn pump Na Kt Electrical gradient Concentration gradient Forebrain Cerebral Hemispheres Corpus oallosum Hypothalamus Midbrain amp Hindbrain Mid brain Pons Hindbrain Cerebellum Medulla Cranial Brain nerves Peripheral Nervous l central System Spinal gt Nervous Spinal cord System nerves J r Ne ron single cell I a bundle of axons of a ltTract many neurons Neuraxis Dorsal Dorsal 3 if Anterior Posterior Lateral coronal plane gt lt Medial V V t I Horizontal 11 en ra Ventra plane l 7 I w Dorsal Dorsal Posterior Lateral lt H Lateral 39 Medial a Medial Anterior i Dorsal Sagittal section j A L Kai 1 Horizontal section V Posterior Posterior Central Sulcus Parietal Lobe Parietooccipital Sulcus Frontal Lobe Occipital Lobe Lateral Fissure Temporal Lobe Ventricles cavities in the brain contain cerebrospinal fluid 1 carries materials Third Ventrice from blood vessels to CNS 2 transports waste away Thalamus Cerebral Fourth Aqueduct Central Canal Ventricle of Spinal Cord Re ex arc Dorsal horn Dorsal root White matter Sensory neuron Gray I matter Sp39na Interneuron ganghon V Ventral a 39 horn Receptor Motor Ventral I root neuron Spinal nerve Effector Spinal nerve A Ventral roots Dorsal gt roots Spinal nerve Gray matter Spinal cord White matter CerebroSpinal Fluid Meninges l Protect the CNS Vertebrae from trauma Spinal column 3 Oculomotor d Trochlear v 2 Opr 6 Abducensv 5 v I I 1 I pain I 39 lI ll l I I l ll I IIEW I Imovements l I I Tongue n movements 39 2 I 12 Hypogossai I V i V 39 quot W 39 ll 11 Spinal accessovy Neck muscles Muscles of throat and larynx Cranial Nerve Sensory Function Motor Function I Olfactory S m e ll Optic Vision Ill Oculomotor Eye muscles IV Trochlear Eye muscle V Trigeminal Facial sensations Jaw muscles VI Abducens Eye muscles VII Facial Taste Facial muscles VIII Auditory Audition balance IX Glossopharyngeal Taste Tongue and throat muscles x Vagus Sensation from trunk Internal organs XI Accessory Neck muscles XII Hypoglossal Tongue Chp 1 pp 112 39The Human Genome Project39 excluded Chp 2 pp 2344 39Of Neuronal Codes Neural Nets andComputers39 excluded Chp 3 pp 5374 39Development and Change in the NS39 excluded
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