GC 440 Test 1 - study guide 1
GC 440 Test 1 - study guide 1 GC440
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Weisenmiller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Commercial Printing in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
0 Be able to specify a color given values 0 R 127 o G 127 o B 127 Would be a gray neutral color See practice quiz 0 GRACoL 0 General Requirements for Applications in Commercial Offset Lithography 3 elements needed 0 observer light object Remember you need Object Light and Observer to see color 0 Theoreticagray is o RGB 127R 1276 1273 o CMYK 50C 50M SOY 0K 0 LAB 50L 0a 0b 0 Actuagray is o CMYK 50C 40M 40Y 10K D50 Illuminant and 2degree observer SOOOKelvin RGB and CMYK are device DEPENDENT 0 Lab is device INDEPENDENT Metameric pairs appears to be the same under one light but is different under another Color Theory A RGB has 256 levels within a channel making it the biggest color space Additive Color Theory vs subtractive ADIIVE SU BTTIVE To see color 1 Observer 2 Light source 3 Object When there is absence of color we see blackquot when you close your eyes you ve removed light and object thus no color Absorptionsreflections XltZO C39 minus R Iliketo drink my Y minus B ght quot39339 minus G down BYthe river CtIfholan We see a very narrow part of the electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum XFlays UV Infrared TVFladio lt l l gt Visible Spectrum 400 nm 500nm 600 nm 700 nm Blue Light Green Light Red Light small blue wavelengths to larger red wavelengths note the order xrays UV Light interacts with matter Different types of matter absorb its wavelengths in different proportions Ex light hitting an apple 0 the apple will ABSORB all wavelengths except Red which is REFLECTED CONES AND RODS Rods A type nerve ending in the eye that is sensitive to low levels of light Responsible for night vision Cones A type of nerve ending in the eye that can distinguish between the individual components of light creates the sensation we call color Commercial Printing Basics of Color Theory What is good color 0 Quality 0 Productivity 0 Value These 3 traits define good color but you must find a balance that fits your needsend goal Brand Specifications Very important to clearly define color values and specifications LAB L 100 Light a Green b Yellow b Blue a Red L 0 Dark LABCH Light a b Chroma and Hue Hue Broad categorization of color based on dominant wavelength R G B Y P 5 Base hues Red Blue Green Yellow And Purple Chroma Saturation Vivid vs dull neutral axis vs vivid Chroma is defined as the degree of departure of color from neutral color of the dame value Colors of Low chromasaturation are called WEAK dull High chromasaturation is called strong vivid Chroma Chrornaiscbfnedashodegeo oquaamxoofcolotfmmhe we Sm Density is measured with a densitometer measures light reflected doesnT see colorquot Spectrophotometer will give you LAB values Graphs of the wavelengths There are factors that affect our color perception 1 Observer Physiological Factors 0 Sex Male or Female 0 1255 women and 112 men have some form of color vision deficiency women have fewer deficiencies than men 0 Age 0 Color Vision 0 Eye Fatigue 0 Light source 0 Type of illuminant 0 Time of Day 2 Object o Substrate Surround 3 LightViewing Conditions 0 D50 or 5000K ISO standard for proofing Daylight 4500K Fluorescent 3400K Incandescent 0 THIS is why we use NEUTRAL gray light booth to view proofs 0 Light sources vary the color Metamerism o The eye will always adapt to the ambient light source and see it as neutral white adjusting the perception of any colors viewed under it Colors are defined by parameters definitions Chroma Hue Lightness Value We want a way to standardize colors CMYK but RGB value up to 255 Metamerism appears to be the same under one light but is different under another Retinal Fatigue staring at certain image for too long lens focus and become fatigued changing your perception of color 0 Ex staring at magenta will turn the image mintcyan o The red and blue are working hard EX Yellow turns to blue Black to white Cyan to Red Remember you need Object Light and Observer to see color Additive Color System 0 Tv computer monitor o R G B 0 Equal amounts produce white 0 Start with blacknothingness add color channels Red Blue Magenta Red Green Yellow Blue Green Cyan Subtractive Color System 0 Printing inks filters 0 C M Y K 0 Equal parts produce Black Cyan Magenta and Yellow to Subtract one of the Additive colors These inks are just chemical filters that absorb different wavelengths Cyan Yellow Green Cyan Magenta Blue Magenta Yellow Red I drink my RC cola down BY the river in my GM truck FHters The Blue lter absorbs Red and Green and passes Blue vAv lt D 9V4 The Green lter absorbs Blue and Red and passes Green gt lt D DVQ Yellow Absorbs Blue and Passes the other two Red and Green vAv lt D DVQ In THEORY mixing CMY should make BLACK However in printing usually creates a dark BROWN Need a neutral gray balance that is hard to achieve 0 Pigments are not pure 0 Paper is not truly white Hues Magentayellows create reds and hues Graying component the cyan creates shadow effects Graphic Design 0 Is somewhat subjective but requires a lot of strategic layouts thought and planning How do we evaluate the quality of an image Clarity sharp has depth wide tonal range pops detail saturation neutral casts striking Flat fuzzy outoffocus posterized banded color casts lowres lacking detail muddy dull trash in the details The graphic artist is limited by 0 Press Limitations 0 Format speed capacity Media 0 Substrate quality color gamut of colorantsubstrate combination 0 Technology 0 Don t misuse QR Codes don t do something just for the sake of doing it 0 Brand Specifications 0 Spot vs Process Colors Color Bridge 0 Time 0 Budget Five Principles of Design Contrast Rhythm Balance Unity Proportion 1 Contrast provides emphasis amp catches the eyequot directs o What Creates Contrast Color Sizevisual weight Shape Texture 0 Visual Weight Visual elements possess weight or mass Some elements are physically large or small Some elements are visually large or small Color Contrast stark vs subtle backgrounds should be subtle to allow for contrast in foregroundtypography Color matters Size Contrast Works with the element of Proportion for emphasis Principle of Proportion 0 Appropriate size relationships between visual elements 0 Textual proportion Text size should be appropriate to the format of the layout Shape Contrast Organic shape vs Geometric shapes Textural Contrast Tactile sensation depth Principle of Balance Balance employs the use even distribution of visual elements within a layout to create a pleasing effect 0 If a design is balanced the visual elements appear to be equaHzed 0 Formal balance symmetrical o Informal balance asymmetrical conceptual Principle of Unity Unity is the inclusion andor placement of visual elements so that they don t clash with one another or the overall tone theme or message 0 All visual elements should support each other 0 Common visual elements unify pages in a publication Common Design Errors 3 rules of Graphics Rule 1 Deliver the message Rule 2 Do NOT let the design Obscure the message Rule 3 Don t use COMIC SANS 0 Comic Sans Papyrus Bradley Hand Curlz MT Kristen ITC Viner Hand bad fontsfor most occasions Using bad artwork 0 Good original photosartwork saved correctly high res 0 Learn to scanexpose properly Typographic Concerns Line length Widows amp Orphans Spacing Letter Word Line Using ALL CAPS Being too Bold Unjusti ed Justi cation Bad Runarounds Tracking amp Set Width The Spacebar Hyphens f quot 39Iiccklisl im hccking Your i pc Using tabs amp indents Quotes amp Apostrophes Paragraph Indents Reverse Type amp 39 Headline Hierarchy amp Keep yourself in check Spacmg Serifs amp Sans Serifs Paragraph Indents Avoid default indents o Integrate these into InDesign Paragraph Stylesquot 0 Or use Em Quadsquot Em space the distance a font creates Insert whitespace gtEm Space ShifttCommandM Do 2 EM spaces at beginning of every paragraph justification 0 Choose justification for legibility void Rivers of Whitequot Tammiedin I982 Admit nglcms builds ward inning swimm mimims us With and prime pahlishiti39 u aphic dcsign imaging dynamic and authoring eonis ambit 39usnnmcn to create puih sh and driliscr sisuallly ric mun zinc various types of Th company39s products arc umd In Web and m s mwfcxsiLw publishers document imcmivc mgmitaim business man and csmsu u 39 ihc fourth urges 175 b Jeanna mfiw i company with annual revenue of biilion l employs met 1I employees u o du39v n as npzrminns in North Amoco mgr eh Paci c im Japan and Latina America Guru39s umldwidc headhqum m in San Jmc Califumi if its Web site is located unvagm 5mm Avoid ALL CAPS body text especially with script Avoid Underlining Avoid being too Bold Tracking vs kerning tracking is the whole moving Kerning refers more to pairs AV or We Widows and orphans Paper can be classified by either basis weight or gmz Basis Weight the weight of 500 sheets of the standard size of aer for that classi An Orphan is a word or several words on the next column or page and a widow is a single word or portion of a word on the last line of a paragraph gm2 the weight in grams of one square meter of any type of 0 M dash is used for punctuation it identifies a change in thought An N dash is used for duration of time Common Design Errors Spacefilleritis Make your message paramount Don39t be superfluous Respect the use of white space it can add drama sophistication a professional look Don t crowd the page OR the edges of the page 0 Respect your page margins Don t Just fill space ForreadabH y 0 710 words per line 0 3262 characters per line LeadingLine Spacing the space between lines of type topbottom Kerning space between individual characters Digital imaging Considerations What should you consider when assessing a digital image Type of Original Quality of CaptureFile Resolution Image Adjustments Output Considerations indoor outdoor small large FeedbackCritique Possible reason your image might be pixelated The original file type wasn t considered first Reflective Art CT Photos 0 Screened Photos Badcan t take pictures of prints can t scan photos well 0 ALL printing is a Halftone so you ve fourthtoned it 0 Line Art 0 Transparent Art 0 35mm slides negs positives chromes Digital files 0 File formats Compressed and Uncompressed 0 Digital Negatives RAW files Compression causes 0 Missing tones 0 Colors can disappear in individual channels 0 Produces Banding evident in subtle tone transitions a Interpolation causes Digital Noise affects small detail diagonal lines solids areas of high contrast most affected Underexposure also causes noise Data is king Capture good plentiful image data 0 Remember the GIGO principle 0 Consider the Photographic Lighting 0 Quality of the input device 0 Deliberate processingcorrectionenhancement Handling poor originals Look for detail amp retain as much image data as possible 0 Automate the process where possible RAW JPEG No image compression Image is compressed Large le sizes Smaller le sizes Sharpness contrast resolution Sharpness contrast resolution settings settings can be made during processing independently for each image or more quickly for all imported images Retains full range of image data captured by the camera 0 Tonal correction white balance and color interpretation are nondestructive Noise reduction and sharpening are customizable Require an additional processing step to be viewed or used in a work ow must be made on the y when shooting imagebyimage if necessary Limits image data to 8 bits per channel Tonal correction white balance and color interpretation are left to be done in Photoshop This is destructive to the image Noise reduction and sharpening are lockedin to each exposure Visual and practical immediacy RAW les can be admissible as evidence in a court of law RAW allows for more decisions no compression the truest original capture JPEG STAN DARDIZED How do we evaluate the quality of a digital image What is the working condition 3 View Window Help Proof Setup Proof Colors Gamut Warning Zoom In Zoom Out Fit on Screen Actual Pixels Print Size Screen Mode J Fytrac Pixel Aspect Ratio MxelAspectRadD Conecmon 32 bit Preview Options Custom 038 v Working CMYK Working Cyan Plate Working Magenta Plate Working Yellow Plate Working Black Plate Working CMY Plates Legacy Macintosh RGB Gamma 18 Internet Standard RGB sRCB Monitor RGB Color Blindness Protanopia type A H Color Blindness Deuteranopia type Manipulating the Tone CurveHistogram o What does a histogram tell you It indicates the range of tones that you ve captures indicated and over under or compressed capture Bit depth the total amount of colors allowed in a pixel o 256 rgb 8 bitschannel 16 bitschannel 32 bitschannel only in digital or expanded gamut Output considerations PaperSubstrate Solid Ink Density TVI Print Contrast Others 0 Density decreases as the quality of the substrate decreases Tonalrange Represented graphically by a histogram Tones are INTENSITIES Tonal Range is a Function of Bit Depth Indicates number of grey levels 1 Output Q Input 0 Want histogram to span the ENTIRE histogram not end short of steps inbetween of grey levels Height Density Range Densities tell how much light is reflected Print density is a measurement of light reflected off of the press sheet Density values indicate to the press operator whether the amount of ink should be increased or decreased Historically the primary control element to ensure accurate color Density is a logarythmic function expressed in base 10 see chart Why measure density Densitometer In the pressroom solid patches of each ink are printed and measured The density values indicate to the press operator whether the amount of ink should be increased or decreased In fourcolor process printing it is especially imprtant that the cyan magenta and yellow densities are in balance or the color hue of the Red Green Blue two color overprints will shift Measurement of density of print does not usually exceed a density of 2 Films often measure up to 4 Typical measurements for offset web are as follows 0 K 165175 o C 1 o M 145155 0 Y 1 D50 Illuminant Light source Display Receiver Electronics amp I 0 computer Analyzer Optics ltgt l Polarizing RX D A Optlcal denSlty filter 2 Color filter Optlcs I IUAPEUFBI Sampe IS l I l I i I l i 2 3 Paper lnk lnk film thickness 3 pm l V Reflectance B 2 Il Density D log I o Tonal Range is a Function of Bit Depth Indicates number of grey levels The range of tones from white to black and all the greys in between Dmax 39 Dmin o 1bit represents 39On39 or 39Off39 22 o 8blt 28 2 to the 8th power creates 256 levels of gray 1bit 21 2 8bit 28 16bit 216 65536 32bit 23243 billion 0000 Tones are compressed often 0 occurs because of many reasons 0 limitations of the printing process 0 substrate quality output tone compression 0 underexposureoverexposure input tone compression The purposes for a duotone o Create a mood or feeling 0 Draws attention adds impact to the overall picturequot Increases detail extends the tonal range adds realism 0 Reasons for using a doubledot black halftone Increased detail in the highlights and shadows Posterization Black 165 Orange On the DI KC KM K Y 0 One set of dots carries the detail in the full tonal range 0 The second color adds a cast in the midtones and expands the range of density in the lower midtones and shadows 0 The Light Printerquot always carries the highlights 0 The Dark Printerquot carries no detail above 30
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