History Exam 1 Study Guide
History Exam 1 Study Guide ST 150 - 20
Popular in The West in the World
Popular in History
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 205 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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West in the World Study Guide Chapters 1245 Index Vocabulary Terms Important Dates Map to Memorize Summaries on Neolithic Age Persian Wars Egyptians Athens Bronze Age Alexander the Great Dark Age The Roman Empire Classical Age Vocabulary Terms Historical fact not necessarily true not necessarily proven something commonly accepted information among historians Historical interpretation a conclusion or an opinion based on historical facts ex Why we did things Primary source a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study historians view as the original source of history essentially any rsthand information ex Code of Hammurabi letters diaries physical laws written etc Paleolithic Old Stone Age period of human culture considered prehistory no writing nomadic huntergatherers stone tools control over re Neolithic New Stone Age period of human history beginning in the Middle East and later elsewhere farming and domesticated animals permanent settlements plow wheel sail pottery use of copper Polytheism the belief in or worship of more than one god Mesopotamia quota country between two riversquot Symbolic languages a language that employs symbols either extensively or exclusively Phonetic languages of or relating to spoken language or speech sounds Code of Hammurabi a wellpreserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia Pharaoh a ruler in ancient Egypt Rosetta stone A stone discovered in Egypt in the late eighteenth century inscribed with ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and a translation of them in Greek Mycenaean or Bronze Age Early civilization beings around 2000 BC in the peninsula Mycenaean Civilization Civilization on the Greek peninsula that peaked between 1400 and 1200 BCE Iliad The older of the two surviving ancient Greek epic poems traditionally ascribed to Homer but containing material composed orally over several centuries It begins with the wrathful withdrawal of the Greek hero Achilles from the ghting in the Trojan War and ends after his return to slay the Trojan hero Hector Odyssey The younger of the two surviving ancient Greek epic poems traditionally ascribed to Homer but containing much orally transmitted material composed over several centuries and concerning the adventures and ordeals of the Greek warrior Odysseus after the fall of Troy as he struggles to return home and reestablish himself as king of lthaca Citizen soldier army composed of citizens rather than a professional soldier Sparta A citystate of ancient Greece in the southeast Peloponnesus A protracted rivalry with Athens led to the Peloponnesian Wars Athens the capital and largest city state of Greece in the eastern part of the country near the Saronic Gulf merchant and naval power marking steps to democracy Dark Age Greek civilization has a period with no written record for years Classical Hellenic Age Greek civilization revives Humanism the individual matters their thoughts will and actions can and do make a difference City States colonies seen as individual nation states or countries with individual government structures that were relatively small Hoplite ancient Greek infantrymen equipped with large shields and long thrusting spears Barbarian term Greeks used to refer to anyone who was not Greek or spoke a different language Persian wars series of con icts fought between Greek states and the Persian Empire Battle of Marathon a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians Battle of Thermopylae The battle of Thermopylae was the rst between the Persians and Greeks during the Persian invasion of 480479 BC The Greek force was very small but was determined to make a stand against the huge Persian army Athenian democracy developed around the fth century BC in the Greek city state known as a polls of Athens comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica and is the rst known democracy in the world Peloponnesian war an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Socrates a classical Greek Athenian philosopher Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophyl Socratic Method series of questions to determine knowledge and beliefs Plato Socrates disciple his writings explored justice beauty equality cosmology along with political philosophy Founder of Academy of Athens one of the rst places of higher learning Aristotle a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great His writings cover many subjects including physics metaphysics poetry theater music logic linguistics politics government ethics biology and zooloov Credited for earlv formal logic Alexander the Great tutored by Aristotle King of Macedon in ancient Greece he created one of the largest empires of the ancient world stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas Battle of Gaugamela Persian King Darrius meets him there with half a million troopsl outnumbers Alexander Alexander picks an elite force to hide in the eld to attack chariots which retreat Alexander sees the king again drives towards him the king backs off the battle eld Victory at Gaugamela the Persian administration collapses Macedonians lost about 300 Persians lost 40300 thousand Roman republic began with the overthrow of the monarchy period with a republic gov39t Consuls highest elected political of ce of the Roman Republic 2 consuls each having veto power gurative representatives that held very little power and authority carry out laws 10 Tribunes an of cial of ancient Rome chosen by the common people to protect their rights had power to veto elected for one year Senate the deliberative body and in uential governing council of Rome made of upper class citizens patricians Composed of exmagistrates with lifetime membership not legislatures conducted foreign policy and warfare and authorized public expenditures Controlled the money so they controlled the power Carthage Phoenician citystate was known to be on hostile terms with Greeks in Sicily and the Roman Republic Punic Wars series of 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage likely the largest wars that had ever taken place Hannibal a Punic Carthaginian military commander generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history Commander during the rst Punic War Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Gaius Gracchus was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Gracchus A pair of tribunes of the plebs from the 2nd Century BC who sought to introduce land reform and other populist legislation in ancient Rome Julius Caesar A Roman statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire Octavian or Augustus Caesar Great nephew of Caesar gets control of Rome and stays in power for 40 years and establishes and reforms a roman republic in civil wars into the Roman Empire and rules as their rst emperor Very politically savvy and creates Pax Romana quotFive Good Emperorsquot Rome essentially had ve good emperors Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius quotPax Romanaquot the peace that existed between nationalities within the Roman Empire Roman culture Law majorly controlled by patricians upper class with some input from tribal assemblies of plebeians under the roman republic signi cantly more controlled by an emperor Religion Rome became a place with many religious concepts ideas and stories despite the of cial state religion that became stale to many citizens Different types of worship of Gods blended together Citizens searched for meaning in their life through many ideas Art statues stories and other art from cultures was utilized by the Romans but changed slightly to be more Roman For example statues of gods changed to be a Roman version of a god with select different attributes Architecture built harbors coliseums for mock naval battles and other entertainment Styles incorporated domes because they invented concrete but also combined that with Greek architecture with symmetry and form Silk Road an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants pilgrims monks soldiers nomads and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea Memorize Dates that need to be memorized for the exam CHRONOLOGY 1 Rise of Civilization through the Roman Republic A full timeline available in exam prep on blackboard or email me and I can forward it to you but these are the dates to know beginning of the Hellenistic Age age r Teal ia wul i J a quoth rr39rg srz39g F If 391 z 1 3 quot1 quot 1L 1 T i en T39 H E F r e r 3 gm a e a 5 i F hW 39 vHuJ r V i I A 39I A a r 139 1 4 l 15 quoti E 4 HI it H 42 a LP gm 1 l 1 7 93 a 39hu U 1 1 J r 1 in J h i q 1 L i I E ii q quot7 J Fr 6quot 1 1 1 Li 6 1 E 139 E L 5 39 ii 17 ra we I is1 L T w is H H quot quot Ill 1kg I i FEEL m 39 kit A be re ne I are see r 1 1 1 Lu 1i I 39 titequot fff i J quot391 J i a 39 1quot Jr Iquot K In b quotr f39 T I Q l IEquot39n 7 J w I m 3 i u3 w I LL E h aj1kn W l i 1i E i f w quot W f l m i r 39ILL39 quot1 are I I hf j i In 43 i R 3 i xi hI KT I EH E wa L1i mg Iii 1 H 7 7 V 3 r H a k l The Mediterranean 3 Middle East i j n 1 Canhage 5Egypi 2 Rome 6 Palesiine 3 Greece 7 Mesopotamia 4 Constantinople 8 Persia Be able to items one through 8 on a blank map Timeline to keep in mind L l air an ar quot3 i e pram Hill i f ro ni Pilaf 9 us 3M D e W I M 3935th Neolithic New Stone Age Cities people obtained special skills art physician and more Population agriculture and stabilization led to huge growth Written language phonetic easy to learn Rosetta stone contained writing in hieroglyphics Egyptian script and Greek Organized government 0 People join together voluntarily to accomplish similar goals Conquestl power force over people military forced labor taxing No democracy kingspharaohs Religion Polytheistic Religion strong ties to government 0 Religion used to gain control divine leaders 0 Want to please the Gods by listening to the instruction they tell yourleader Military 0 Traditionally tied to government Model for early civilizations 1 Polytheistic Gods active role 2 No democracy 3 Combined religion and government Egyptians Developed without outside con ict basing their lives with emphasis on order and balance relating to the Nile River Pyramids Built by conscripted civilian laborers Made of blocks weighing 27 tons each 0 Finishing layer was perfectly smooth over rough layers of foundann Later dynasties use these stones for building materials 0 Chambers empty King Tut Tomb was overlooked Not signi cant leader ruled in a time of transition 0 Tomb found in the 19205 Mycenaean Bronze Age Capable sailors traders went to war Society Separated by classes had kings and nobility 1860518705 Schliemann excavated ruins on the coast of Turkey and found a city that was likely Troy the Iliad then is based in some truth as in going to war with some city in Asia Minor Trojan War at the end of this time period Dark Age Greek civilization goes into a period with no written record Explanations disease war conquest Classical Hellenic A96 Known also as the Age of Greek City States or Political Age Literature Homer39s stories tell us what Greeks valued 0 Strength athleticism perseverance in battle Gods valued cultural values held at high regard Humans viewed as pawns of the Gods BUT Greeks eventually acknowledge free will amongst the in uence Gods have in daily life o The Iliad written in time of Trojan War focused on Achilles the greatest Greek warrior He decides not to ght after losing a great love Man Killing Hector from the opposing side ght killing Greeks Finally Achilles cousin is killed be Hector so nally he goes out and kills Hector Humanism the individual matters their thoughts will and actions can and do make a difference Geography 0 City States each area was seen separately essentially its own country or nation state Ex Athens Attica etc Colonies independent 0 Movement towards selfgovernment Athens gets to a direct democracy 0 Sparta eventually limits the kings power Society Barbarians anyone who was not Greek spoke a different language 0 Focus on science law drama democracy architecture Military Heavily armed infantry hoplites Army of citizen soldiers NOT paid Provided their own weapons food protection Poor didn39t ght could afford necessities of war Shared the winning in good outcomes Persian Wars Nearly wiped out Greek civilization Persian Empire Largest in this part of the world Conquered Greek city states on the coast of Asia Minor Greeks rebel in SOOBC Persians crush rebellion by 4998C o Athenians sent 20 ships to assist Greeks making Athens the new target for the Persian Empire Battle of Marathon Persians plan to march to Marathon to engage Athenians Spartans plan to come assist come too late missed all the ac on Athens takes a vote 6 to 5 in favor of attack 0 Advance on the Persian camp 0 Athenians push Persians to their ships even push them onto ships set some on re Persians barely escape Athenians have GREAT victory and want to notify their city of great victory o Persians could come back and attack since they sailed away 0 Send a runner 26 miles to tell the city they won and the Persians could be on their way 0 Army gets there in time as Persians sail in so they retreat Battle of Thermopylae Persians plan revenge with an army of about a quarter of a million in revenge largest eet of the time across the Aegean Sea Goal is to conquer and rule ALL of Greece Small Spartan force sent out to stop them Greeks often had wars against themselves those battles set aside and uni ed First force of 300 Spartans Battle of Thermopylae 2 0 Road narrow shelf bet ocean and cliffs 0 Several thousand Persians on the road and Spartans phalanx spanned the whole road so Persians lose their advantage on numbers Wave after wave of troops cut down 0 Greek navy lead by Athenians holds off Persians in a straight Persians ght for 3 days only ght in registered phalanx with spears o Kept fresh troops up front penalty for breaking phalanx was death because it endangers everyone s lives around you Persians bribe local goat herd to nd a path and get them from behind o Wipe out the Spartans and continue their march Battle becomes inspiring for other Greeks and uni es them Comparative to the Alamo in American History Athenians decide they can39t save the city and leave Battle of Platea Persian army defeated on land Defeat on sea Persian eet is defeated by united Greek eet 479 BC END OF PERSIAN WARS 0 What39s signi cant about the Greek victory over the Persians o Stops Persian advance and allows Greek Culture and civilization to survive 0 One side is servants ordered the other side is citizens ghting for their own way of life First victory of an army of free citizens over an army of ordered soldiers bv kind o Left its mark for future civilizations a sort of legacy Tremendous sense of destiny for the Greeks very inspiring o Greek39s can39t maintain unity they go back to ghting themselves in a civil war Peloponnesian War o Civil war between Athens and allies against Sparta and allies o Went on for nearly 10 years then a truce lasting a decade then ghting again Wrecking Greek society At the end of Persian wars Greeks leave themselves open to be conquered Lose political independence o Sparta won most land battles o Athenians rebuilt and thrived at sea Athens constantly looking back to early Greeks Roman republic for elements of self government 0 Athenian Government 0 Most decisions were made in the assembly adult male citizens 0 Direct democracv debating and voting on issues at hand expressing citizen opinions Tax issues war policies Counted or verbally expressed views for nal decisions Elected military generals BUT majority of of cials were not elected Citizens names were drawn to decide various political of ces 0 Serve for one year could not serve in that position again After serving citizens return to their previous job 0 Citizens would take a ostracon broken piece of pottery with names on them to vote people out of positions and banish them later comes the term ostracize After the battle of Marathon Themistocles proposes Athens builds a strong naval base in case Persians come back The poor who can39t afford weapons are hired to be in the navy largely funded by taxes Downfalls of Athenian Gov39t Slavery is a problem 0 Women have very little rights 0 Political factions developed 0 Times when the assembly made the wrong decision 0 quotmob rulequot problem with direct democracy just cause the majority is for a decision does not mean it is the right idea After the Persian War Victory the Greeks go back to competing against itself Athens is growing Sparta worries about Athens so they build themselves up A number of years go by then a proposal is made in Athens to start the war against Sparta again 0 The proposition was to take the entire army to attack a Spartan ally against Syracuse 0 They restart the war Athenians surrender by 413 BC 0 Athens LOSES their democratic power and is continually ruled by others PhHosophy For the Greeks philosophy was the pursuit of knowledge applying reason to understanding the physical world technology arts etc Pythagoras Geometry mathematics Hippocrates Hippocratic Oath studied medicine Socrates an Athenian veteran of Persian Wars Spoke debated met with people in the streets He wrote little down but one of his pupils Plato wrote discussions down Believed reason was the onlv prooer guide to human life and develooment humans should activelv build their character morals and knowledge 0 Made people look foolish and was ultimately charged with corrupting minds of children by contradicting common culture and ideas of the Gods o Plato led Socrates defense but he was convicted o Socrates would have been let go if he agreed to stop spreading his thoughts 0 Ultimately forced to commit suicide drank hemlock Plato grew up during the Peloponnesian war wrote a book called The Republic Thinks government needs to be done by the just and capable few to be the rulers 0 Tell people what jobs to do based on tests 0 Rulers can pick out mates for people Recognized people would not like this thought of ways to make people accept it o Told citizens people were made of different metals that went with certain jobs Mates picked by lottery when really of cials chose Children should be taken and raised in a communal setting Known as the quotNoble Liequot His ideas were NOT used at this time others interested in these ideas throughout the centuries Concept of capable few OOOO Aristotle student of Plato focuses on mathematics astronomy logic poetry drama tness Established the academy a place of higher learning Hired to tutor Alexander the Great 0 Very different political views from Plato o Advocated for selfgovernment based on law instead of individuals character 0 Rationally construct law to be supreme Becomes so well respected that it becomes hard to push against his ideas Art and Architecture Acropolis Built greatest feat the Parthenon here where the citizens met and debated architecture re ected balance order beauty in symmetry Greeks discovered created allusions of symmetry Amphitheaters Greeks learned acoustics developed along with Greek theatrical culture and dramas Greek Sculpture Blend of idealism an realism o Realism Greeks do better job of portraying the human form realistically o Idealism Almost always the perfect human form with beauty and physical tness Drama Originates with Greece Formally scripted play with de ned characters and lines o Tragedy Aeschylus 525456 BC 0 quotFather of tragedyquot Wrote The Persians Hubrisarrogant of Xerxes individual in con ict with moral universe Sophocles 496406 BC Oedipus Rex fate vs free will psychology of the individual Euripides 483406 BC Medea Passion vengeance betrayal Trojan Women commentary on Athenian slaughter of Melos Strong female characters Irrational forces Humanitarianism compassion for suffering 0 Comedy Aristobhanes 448380 BC quotfather of comedyquot 0 The Clouds pokes fun at philosophical fashions o Plato blamed it for a part of Socrates death Lysistrata women of Greece trying to stop Peloponnesian war 0 Played today with paci st or feminist emphasis Satire Study of History Herodotus o quotfather of historyquot 0 Writings before this was not complete only propaganda pieces 0 He gives Persian war history and Peloponnesian war history Gives credit note secondhand info opinion rsthand accounts Alexander the Great of Macedonia He is a Macedonian Emperor Macedonians say they are Greek Greeks don39t consider them to reall be Greek 0 Kingdom of Macedonia conquers Greek Peninsula 0 His father King Phillip had been planning an invasion to take Persia Alexander tells people this is his plan a select few know his real plan is to conquer and rule over the entire Persian Empire Goes with 35000 troops Persians have up to a million troops at once 0 Encounters force of his size defeats them Persian Emperor greets Alexander39s force at Issus with a much larger force 0 During battle Alexander spots the Persian King and he and his men wheel towards the Persian King The king sees Alexander and heads off the battle eld 0 This turns the battle to Alexanders bene t 0 Alexander swings south and captures a number of cities along the Mediterranean Sea Persia is multinational so when Alexander arrived at walled city he offered them surrender and he will not kill if they resist when he conquers he will wipe them out City of Tire resists and it takes Alexander 9 months to conquer and destroys them Kills males and sells the females 0 Alexander is good on his word doesn39t raise taxes or anything just puts in his governors once he gets a reputation Egyptians hail him as a liberator from Persia Gaugamela 331 BC 0 Persian King Darrius meets him there with half a million troops outnumbers Alexander 0 Alexander has to deal with Persian chariots with blades Picks an elite force to hide in the eld to attack chariots which retreat Despite his tragedy the battle goes against him Spots king again drives towards him the king backs off the battle eld Macedonians lost about 300 Persians ost 40300 thousand o Victorv at Gauoamela the Persian administration collapses Troops have been out for years returns to Babylon and plans an invasion to the West never carries that out because he dies of a fever in 323 BC at 32 years old Death of Alexander the Great is a point where the classical age of Greece over His empire does not survive him his generals divide into various kingdoms LEGACY as he conquered he planted cities Alexandrias he brought Greeks and Macedonians to settle and encouraged marriage between cultures to blend cutura ideas Took various philosophers with his troops to document things they came across perhaps inspired by Aristotle Brings east amp west together The Roman Empire Rome begins as a city state and is controlled by Etruscan King who is overthrown in 509 BC Rome evolves as a Republic not quite to a Democracy citizens develop some say so in their government Roman Republic Tribal Assemblies voting districts 0 Adult male plebeians common Roman Citizens 0 Vote on proposed bills from government officials 0 Elect some officials Senate 0 Apt patricians upper class About 300 members who serve for life 0 Not elected selfappointing body from the patrician class 0 Receive foreign ambassadors 0 Approve any expenditures from the treasury control the moneycontro the power Consuls o 2 both have to agree to take action as they carry out the laws 0 Executives with a term of of ce 0 1 elected by tribal assemblies 1 appointed by senate 0 During war time one consul could be appointed dictator for 6 months then system reverts to traditional structure 0 10 Tribunes O O O 0 Viewed as being so important to citizens so sacred they could not be touched because they need to be preserved Elected by the pebeians for 1 year terms Veto powergt to protect common citizens A voice for the people 5 P Q R the senate and the roman people statement meaning they govern together 0 Family Structure 0 Sacred starting point for society itself 0 Emphasized importance of character chastity good values honesty patriotism strict morality and duty to Rome 0 Military 0 Citizen soldiers serves without pay provides his own weaponry and food 0 Romans did NOT elect their of cers patricians were appointed 0 Romans put emphasis on training regularly o Patrician males expected to know how to control and command tactics of a military 0 Romans often outnumbered winning because of superior training Fight to preserve independence control over canals gradually conquer their neighbors 264 BC Romans have conquered the Italian Peninsula if people behaved romans were lenient Taxed put officials in power a stable base of allies rather than conquered enemies Interest to eastern Mediterranean and wester Mediterranean 0 Fight 3 wars with Carthage for control Punic Warsfouoht between Rome and Carthage o In the second war the Romans get a scare that last years Hannibal of Carthage shows up in Italy and destroys Romans which doesn39t happen often 0 Hannibal occupies Italy and the Romans live in fear Hannibal never knocks out Rome 0 The third Punic War 146 BC Rome destroys Carthage nished conquest of Hellenistic states complete rule over Mediterranean World GrecoRoman Culture 146BC Romans busy ghting each other for power civil wars a lot of wealth and power to ght over 0 Roman republic not functioning as it once did 0 Ex Tribune slaughtered in daylight can t traditionally be touched Julius Cesare Assassinated by fellow senators made it clear he was in power Notorious Octavian Cesar Augustus The Roman Empire 0 Great nephew of Cesare Gets control of Rome and stays in power for about 40 years and reforms the Roman government from dysfunctional Roman Republic to an Empire First Roman Emperor Very politically savvy didn39t aunt his power 0 Took title of rst citizen Princep 0 Senate still meets Octavian added ideas 0 Senate names him Cesar Augustus quotVenerable During Augusts39 Rule he reforms the of ces to work for the Empire to reduce corruption Reforms the Roman Army to a professional paid army bonuses retirement plan Simpy reforms gov39t army constructs so Rome is now and Empire 0 Roman Empire now at peace internally but expanding boarders peace continues on for about 2 centuries quotPax Romanaquot the great peace of Rome 0 Taxes relatively low continual conquest a lot of trade plenty of wealth Trajan39s Column Trajan one of the 5 good emperors Column depicts conquests Under Pax Romana Legal System 0 Roman justice not perfectly fair 0 Women had some rights o In theory right to hearing and justice in court Economy Life Relatively stable currency economic mobilitv Safe travel Fresh water in the cities through aqueducts Most water through pipes under the ground to fountains of fresh water Built coliseums gladiator battles mock naval battles entertainment and theaters For conquered slaves Rome is not an easy going life 0 Some cases people were happy to be ruled by Romans less taxes easier rule 0 Others felt the oppression of tyranny Religion Polytheistic Gods take fairly active role in life Of cial state religion became fairly stale Basically made into a bureaucratic institution Despite statues temples ceremonies many people did not think it was very ful lling 0 People begin to search for other ideas and concept religious ideasconceptsstories prevalent throughout the empire lsis Goddess originally from Egypt 0 Worship of Isis viewed as a mother gure Sabazius originally from eastern part of Roman Empire 0 Combined with roman view of Dionysus god of wine Mithra originally a Persian god 0 O O O 0 Worship popular amongst soldiers Viewed as a savior god who saved humanity Worshippers met in small congregations code of ethics ate a sacred communal meal regularly to join you were baptized Believers promised eternal life after death Celebrated birth of Mithra December 25 Rome ruthless to those they conquered that did not listen to them Romans cast concrete domes with a hole at the top to let in light and also equal force around a ring Romans adopt Greek science theatre literature architecture but Romanize each