Study Guide For Exam I
Study Guide For Exam I Fw 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Potter on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Fw 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 450 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Biology Background DNA 0 Genetic code or blueprint that uses 4 types of molecules called bases ATGC o A series of three base pairs form a codon which is like a quotwordquot in a sentence that codes for a gene Genes use codons to say how to produce proteins like sentences DNA found in chromosomes of cell 0 Different organisms have different numbers of chromosomes Locus position of gene sequence on chromosome Alleles different versions of same gene code for different version of trait o Heterozygous traits different alleles from parents 0 Homozygous traitssame alleles from parents Genotypeindividual genetic blueprint Phenotype trait exerted on the outside of an organism o Genotype different but can still have the same phenotype due to dominant and recessive traits 0 Animals can also have the same genotype but a different phenotype because you have to take into account the environment also affects phenotypes Genotypic variation differences in genetic makeup Phenotypic variation differences in morphological physiological and behaviors in animals Mutation 0 Change in sequence of base pairs 0 Radiation chemicals replication errors etc 0 Important for evolution Evolution change in genetic composition of a population in a period can lead to new species 0 Natural Selection environment limits which genes get passed on 1 Genetic Variation advantageous genes are the ones that get passed on 2 Overproduction of Offspringproduce more offspring than can survive 3 Struggle for existence competition for food space and mates 4 Differential Survival and Reproduction 0 Sex creates new allele combinations Recombination during meiosis from chromosomal segments from diploid to haploid Randomly creates genotypes that may be less adapted to the environment Asexual reproduction keeps successful genotypes intact No variation can lead to diseases killing off species Costly in energy and time Adult has to develop by fertilized egg 0 Red Queen Hypothesis in order to keep up as a species species must constantly evolve Cost And Curiosity of Animal Orientation Ornaments advertise tness and genes to potential mates Courtship males compete females choose mate 0 Sexual selection is a form of natural selection Loss of Genetic Variation 0 Genetic Drift random chance in allele frequencies in smaller populations lnbreeding lose recessive traits Small populationsendangered species are at a huge risk Speciation new species produced by environment changing 0 Example Chimps and Bonobos look alike and eat the same food and live in the same environment but chimps are aggressive because they compete with apes on the ground for food bonobos are more peaceful because they have little competition for resources Evolution Is Important 0 Survival adaptation 0 Diversity Northern Elephant Seas Are An Example 0 Population genetic bottleneck 0 When a population s size is greatly reduced genetic drift and inbreeding happen 0 Reduces the long term viability of a species 0 Mexico set aside habitats to relocate males and give them an opportunity to breed since only dominant males get to breed 0 50 males breeding out of 1500 seals 0 50 breeding individuals needed to keep a population going but 500 breeding is much better 0 Evolution occurs at the population level natural selection impacts individual traits Counting Sheep Video Key Points Conservation is the main value expressed during the video Factors reducing Sierra Nevada Bighorn sheep were 0 Sheep diseases Mountain lions Horn rush Human development Living in higher mountain ranges avalanches poor diet leading to no breeding or unsuccessful breeding Animal rights activists and a ban on killing mountain lions in 199039s kept the conservationalists from reducing the mountain lion population to protect the Bighorns Finally John was able to put Bighorn sheep on the endangered species list which changed the California ban on killing mountain lions Predator control is known as a form of conservation Conservationalists and animal rights activists are not the same thing one was ghting to keep mountain lion populations though they were affecting the ecosystem and the other was ghting to control the predators to save the ecosystem Bighorn Males ght to establish dominance and compete for mates and they know when the females are ready to mate by smelling their urine to see if they39re in ovulation Females ultimately get to choose their mate Sheep poop was used to nd DNA of Bighorns Radio Collars were used to track mountain lions and nd out where they were and how long they occupied an area The role of the wildlife biologist in the lm was to help track the lions and gure out which ones were causing a problem so they could eliminate them In terms of focusing on individuals or the whole during the movie the whole was focused on the success or failure of one individual did not affect the entire population Domestic sheep were a problem because they spread diseases to the Bighorns The mountain lion Foundation changed their views during the lm from wanting to protect all the mountain lions to regulating them to help keep he bighorns and save the environment The management approach for BH sheep was becoming successful but the conservationalists wanted to continue their efforts so the sheep could be advertised over a broader area 0000 Ecology Science of relationships of organisms to their environment Levels Of Organization 0 Individual 0 Populationall individual of species in given area interact Community many species interacting with each other Ecosystemcommunity interacting with nonliving matterenergy Speciesgroup of populations that actually or potentially interbreed with each other and produce viable reproductive offspring o Reproductively isolated from other groups Seasonally geographically morphologically behaviorally and biochemically Examples sea urchins have proteins on their sperm and eggs so only certain ones can form a zygote Some ies look very similar but have reproductive organs that only t certain groups 0 Individuals from two different species can breed and produce viable offspring but very rarely o Endangered Red Wolf wolf coyote can reproduce with coyote but dilutes genetics Classi cation 0 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 0 Animals can look very similar but since reproductively isolated so long can be in different genuses Habitat place or area where a population or an animal lives 0 Provides welfare factors 1 Food Feeding type predator herbivore omnivore dentrivore Speci city specialists verses generalists 2 Water 0 1020 of water loss leads to death 3 CoverShelter Topography water vegetation Can vary seasonally example prairie chicken uses short grass to breed and long grass to nest 4 Space 0 Home ranges and territory 5 Oxygen Availability Welfare Factors Verses Ecosystem Services Welfare factors speci c basal requirements for a species to survive must be found locally within animals habitats Ecosystem Services practices benefitting humans Basic Concepts Niche species job within an environment 0 Fundamental niche characterizing all potential physical chemical and biological factors a species needs to live grow reproduce o Realized niche portion of fundamental niche actually occupied by a species May be restricted by competitive interactions with other species 0 Realized niche is often smaller than a fundamental niche Size of realized niche o Intensity and nature of competition 0 Human interference Principle of Competitive Exclusion two species cannot have the exact same niche Natural selection and speciation push niches apart Limiting Factor Principle Law of The Minimum 0 Organism s growth limited by factor in the shortest supply 0 Habitat manipulations can be done based on limiting factors Principle of Tolerance Limits Shelford s Law of Tolerance too much and too little of a good thing can be bad 0 Species with broad tolerance more exible Species Interactions In The Community Coevolution species interacting over a long period of time in uencing each other s traits via natural selection 0 Example predator and prey 1 Predation Offense ambush stalking cooperative hunting speedagility 2 Prey Defense Better speed and agility armor weaponry thorns stinger poisons obtaining poison from food they eat 0 Both predator and prey have camou age Symbiotic Relationships Depend on eachother Mutualism both species bene t Commensalism one bene ts and the other is harmed o Parasitism slow form of predation one bene ts while the other is harmed Competition factors from niches overlapping Example domestic grazers verses wid grazers Ecosystem o Biotic community and its physical abiotic environment of matter and energy Nutrients cycle in the ecosystem Energy ows through the ecosystem Biosphere sum of all ecosystems on Earth Food Chains Pathways over which energy ows through an ecosystem o Trophic levels feeding levels in food chain Food Webs More than one route energy ows Considers all connections among trophic levels Energy 0 First Law Of Thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed Second Law Of Thermodynamics food passed from one organism to another potential energy contained in food is reduced over time until all energy is dissipated as heat 0 Entropy energy loss in food chain 0 Energy goes to growth cellular respiration feces inef cient at processing food 0 Pyramid of Energy energy lost at each trophic level divide by ten to gure out 90 lost 10 kept Pyramid of Numbers biomasshow many of a species determined by energy available Nutrients Biomes And Succession Biogeochemical Cycles 0 Cycling from nonliving environment to living organisms Carbon Cycle 0 Cellular respiration releases carbon into atmosphere by breaking down foods animals Photosynthesis pulls carbon molecules and uses sun to make sugars etc plants 0 Greenhouse effect gases with water and carbon dioxide creates an atmosphere that holds heat from the sun Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen in gaseous form not useable bacteria in soil do nitrogen xation plants use it and then animals can use it 0 Human Impacts o Nitrogen can be turned into acid by burning fossil fuels leads to acid rain Nitrogen runoff gets in water and creates algae blooms taking all oxygen when they die Acid rain is higher in the East coal burned releases nitrogen into the atmosphere Nitrogen is found in vegetation and when there is no vegetation it runs off into water Water Cycle Evaporation water molecules escape liquid form by heat Condensation water vapor molecules lose heat stick together and create clouds o Precipitation 0 Transpiration movement of water out of plants through pores Ground water lakes streams Major transport system 0 Quantities of nutrients dissolve in water nitrogen sulfur How do humans intervene 0 Water withdrawal and chemicals Phosphorus Cycle Occurs on localized scale limiting factor Backbone of DNA forms bones and teeth Dissolved in water gets into soil through erosion ends up in bottoms of lakes or oceans in sediment geologic folding brings back to surface 0 Slow sedimentary cycle recycles with movement of Earth s crust Human In uence 0 Mine phosphate for fertilizers and detergent o Pollutes ecosystem and kills plants when we release it back into the system 0 Algae dies using up oxygen killing sh Sulfur Cycle 0 ln sul de rocks put into atmosphere by volcanic emissions and fossil fuel burning burning coal releases carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide gases 0 Human intervention 0 99 of sulfur dioxide is from burning coal and oil 0 Reacts with oxygen producing sulfuric acid acid rain 0 Primary region it covers is the East Biomes Large distinct ecosystems characterized by particular climate soil plants and animals 0 Effects on distribution of biomes 0 Climate temperature warm cold precipitation dry or wet 0 Primary Productivity 0 Rate at which primary producers capture and store energy in a given interval Gross total rate of photosynthesis for ecosystem during a given interval Re ected by total standing biomass Net rate of energy storage in plant tissues minus metabolic activities tat use energy 0 Photosynthesis Respiration net Humans impact grasslands tropical forests Tundra Short growing seasons cold desert most of time permafrost layer of ice under vegetation Animals caribou Taiga or Borea Forests Evergreen coniferous forests in cold areas trees don t shed leaves photosynthesis can occur in below freezing temperatures 0 Animals moose Temperate Rain Forests Colder and lots of precipitation 0 Animals spotted owl Temperate Deciduous Forests Located in the Eastern United States shed leaves 0 Animals high density of black bears Grassands 0 West short grass Midwest little longer less moisture Animals antelope Chappara Less moisture not much else but shrubs 0 Animals spotted skunk Deserts Cacti not much moisture often hot 0 Animals rattlesnake savannah Lions cheetahs zebras etc Tropical Rain Forests Most diverse ecosystem lots of water 0 Animals tree frogs Mountains 0 As you move up a mountain the temperature drops and it gets more dry vertical zonation kind of like moving North or South of the equator Succession Process of community development over time until a relatively stable stage in community development is reached which is called a climax community 0 Seral stages changes take place in overlapping stages 1 Primary Succession o Occurs in the rst time in previously uninhabitable sites no true soil so plants can t grow immediately 0 Conditions oVoIcanoes erupt and pave the landscape soil needs to reform lichens pioneer plants such as algae conducts photosynthesis and fungi breaks down nutrients in rock are the rst plant form decomposed soil accumulates plants that need soil begin to grow climax community oClimate determines climax community also Local topography soils and disturbances are also important 2 Secondary Succession Occurs in an area where primary succession has occurred at least once climax community is set back to an earlier seral stage by a disturbance such as forest res grazingbrowsing rooting insectsdisease weather damage Follows disturbances where soil and seeds are left unharmed Main difference between primary and secondary is speed due to a head start in secondary succession Management and Succession Leopold s tools for management 0 Axe cut trees 0 Cow grazing manipulation 0 Fire 0 Plow to expose nutrients in the soil Eutrophication Succession In Aquatic Systems Obligotrophic Lakes early stage colder in temperature really clear because few nutrients no algae deeper until plants and animals die building onto bottom layer of sediment as they decompose over time lakes warm not a lot of vegetation small food webs o Eutriphication rate of succession from obligotrophic lakes to eutrophic Humans accelerate this sewage fertilizers Eutrophic Lake lots nutrients more vegetation dissolved oxygen drops less deep more warm more plants food chains more complex lots of species Polar Bear Reading Terrestrial animals that live in a marine habitat Summer ice melts can t hunt seals hibernate and live off of body fat start with 50 fat and end at 10 Pollutants in air caused a group of female bears on an island in Svalbard to have messed up reproductive organs 0 Pollutants can be stored in their fat basic cellular structure or function fat metabolism messed up 0 PBCs polychlorinated biphenyls mimic sex hormones androgens and estrogens blamed for changes Fat soluble and accumulate in fat Seals have high levels predators eat them transferring them 0 Polluted air circulates from Europe and North America 0 Tissues of seals and sh migrating from the South also carry pollutants Polar Bear quotsea bearquot New climate change may cause extinction 0 Ice diminishing pushing polar bears inland and possibly exposing them to disease 0 Joined scavengers feeding on whale bones Different food disease and environmental exposure Scienti c Method Observation what is going on there You nd something interesting and need answers Inductive Reasoning bigger more generalized prediction of what you see Hypothesis restate observation and add an explanation Deductive Reasoning honing something down to nd out more about speci c processes Prediction quotIfquot Then statement a testable prediction 6 Test correlational study verses experimental study Theory tested over and over again and hypothesis held rm much support still needs to be tested in new ways Law theory tested so much that it is accepted to be true Guest Speaker Gene Decker39s Speech will be on quiz Wildlife Conservation 0 Social process 0 Professionals 0 Special interests groups 0 Concerned individuals 0 Decision makers politicians 0 General public 0 To determine and seek to attain wise use of resources 0 By maintaining populations and improving or protecting habitats Owned by the people 0 Resident Wildlife is managed by state federal and tribal agencies 0 Federal government works with states to protect migratory birds 0 Harvest recreational hunters 14 million or more 0 Licensed and regulated by state and tribal agencies Wildlife Values Aestheticpleasure from seeing hearing eating etc parks and stuff to be around wildlife Economic Funding 0 State sources issue license fees permits 85 of state budget 0 Federal Aid for wildlife 0 Taxes on sporting equipment 0 Duck stamps NGO39s funding to help habitats National and Local Economy 0 Products meat hides etc Purchase of equipmentclothing Tourism transportation food lodging guides fees Jobs manufacturing sale etc Other books bird feed photography National Geographic magazines 0000 Scienti c 0 Study conditions of environment Educational 0 Use wildlife examples in schools to teach environmental relationships Ecological Roles of different animals in environment 0 Predatorstake weak genes out of ecosystems o Interrelationships symbiosis food webs Cultural History heritage o Beavers led to exploration of Great Mountains 0 Bison important to Indians so Americans wiped them out professional railroad hunters hired Folklore 0 Little Red Riding Hood wolves o Bambi deer Symbols 0 Sports team logos 0 National and State seals Religions traditions Personal quotTotemquot Societal Vacations reunions Festivals art shows 0 Sales taxes for rural communities 0 Schools roads re police 0 Ice Fishing hunting camps EthicalMoral Stewardship thinking about the future not just our time 0 Save quotall the partsquot 0 Some animals may be useful for drugs or important to ecosystems in ways we don39t yet know Negative 0 Crop and livestock losses Destroying orchards and landscapes Disease vectors 0 CWD plague Lymne39s Disease etc affect humans and may come from animals 0 Vehicle accidents
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