Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide NROSCI 0081
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Arielle Reiner on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NROSCI 0081 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Fanselow,Erika in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see DRUGS AND BEHAVIOR in Neuroscience at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Neurotransmitters 09182015 What happens to the postsynaptic neuron when its receptors are activated by a neurotransmitter or drug 0 Many neurotransmitter and drug effects reduce down to this 0 WHAT DO THE RECEPTORS THEY AFFECT DO 0 2 main effects of receptors that we will consider 0 Excitation of a neuron increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will initiate an action potential at the soma ie will send a signal of its own 0 Inhibition of a neuron decreases same 0 There are multiple ways to cause excitation or inhibition of the postsynaptic neuron and which one occurs depends largely on the receptor a neurotransmitter or drug binds to o How does one know whether a given receptor will cause excitation or inhibition What happens to the membrane potential if a K channel opens a Na channel opens etc 0 Many neurotransmitters and drugs bind to receptors that cause ion channels to open 0 What matters here is which ion the receptor allows through ESPSs and lPSPs o If Na channels open Na ow will push the membrane potential less negative depolarized o If K channels open K ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized o If Cl channels open Cl ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized 0 Which type of dendritic input wins 0 A balance of excitation and inhibition 0 Excitatory neurotransmitters bind to receptors opening ligand gated Na channels producing ESPSs in postsynaptic neuron o Axon hillock reaches threshold of activation triggering an activation potential 0 Inhibitory neurotransmitters bind to receptors opening ligand gated K of Cl channels producing lPSPs in postsynaptic neuron o lPSPs counteract EPSPs threshold of activation is not reached so no action potential is generated Neurotransmitters we will consider Amino acid neurotransmitters o Glutamate o GABA Monoamines o Dopamine o Norepinephrine o Serotonin o Epinephrine adrenaline Acetylcholine For each neurotransmitter we will consider 0 How it is made synthesis 0 Receptors 0 Removal from the synaptic cleft 0 Where in the body it originates and where it has its effects 0 Behaviors or uses it is associated with Neurotransmitter related terms Amino acids small molecules that are the building blocks of proteins Mono 1 or single Suf x quotasequot denotes an enzyme name eg decarboxylase these enzymes typically ass or subtract at a chemical group usually several atoms from a chemical eg a neurotransmitter precursor Lowercase Greek letters used to denote receptor subtypes 0 Alpha 0 Beta Amino acid neurotransmitters Glutamate synthesis 0 Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter ie causes EPSPs in the CNS brain and spinal cord 0 Precursor glutamine 0 Enzyme glutaminase o Neurotransmitter glutamate Glutamate receptors 4 types 0 lonotropic AMPA Na channel causes EPSPs Kainate Na channel causes EPSPs NMDA Na AND Ca2 channel causes EPSPs and 2nCI messenger functions 0 Metabotropic Affects neurons via second messenger systems Glutamate removal from synaptic cleft o Glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft by Uptake into glial cells Uptake into the presynaptic neuron Glutamate locations and effects O Glutamate is found widely in the brain and spinal cord CNS 0 Glutamate plays a key role in learning and memory because it activates receptors that can change the strength of a synapse Too much glutamate can cause seizures PCP acts on glutamate receptors 0 Tetanus refers to a way to activate neurons at a synapse in certain ways that make the strength of the synapse increase or decrease GABA synthesis 0 GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter ie causes lPSPs in the CNS brain and spinal cord 0 Precursor glutamate 0 Enzyme GAD o Neurotransmitter GABA GABA receptors 2 types 0 GABA A receptor lonotropic Cl permeable Multiple versions based on subunit composition Multiple binding sites for a range of ligands Fast inhibitory signal 0 GABA B Metabotropic The subtype we will consider is K permeable Slow inhibitory signal 00 o GABA removal from synaptic cleft o GABA is removed from synaptic cleft by Uptake into glial cells Uptake into the presynaptic neuron GABA locations and effects 0 GABA is found in many locations all over the CNS 0 GABA receptors are affected by Alcohol Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Muscimol o If there is insufficient GABA function seizures frequently result Loss of inhibitory neurons Reductions in number or function of GABA receptors eg due to genetics Monoamines Dopamine and norepinephrine synthesis 0 Monoamines get their name because each neurotransmitter molecule has 1 chemical part called an amine o The monoamines include Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Serotonin Monoamines dopamine receptors 0 There are 5 types of dopamine receptors but we will only consider 2 of the more common ones D1 and D2 0 All dopamine receptors are metabotropic 0 Note that D1 and D2 receptors have opposite effects on neurons Dopamine removal from synaptic cleft o 2 ways Reuptake into the presynaptic neuron by dopamine transporters Degradation by enzymes Dopamine locations and effects 0 Dopamine neurons project from the brain stem to the basal gangHa Involved in initiating voluntary movement Lack of function causes Parkinson s Disease 0 Dopamine neurons also project from the brainstem to the limbic system and the neocortex Involved in the drug abuse and schizophrenia Monoamines norepinephrine receptors locations and effects 0 2 types of noradrenergic receptors Alpha Beta Both alpha and beta receptors are metabotropic and have complex effects on neurons and brain function 0 Noradrenergic neurons project from the brainstem to many locations in the brain 0 Norepinephrine is involved in levels of attentionwakefulness cognition and memory formation O O Amphetamine and methamphetamine quotmethquot affect the noradrenergic system ADHS drugs eg Adderall Ritalin affect the noradrenergic system Monoamines serotonin synthesis 0 O Tryptophan is an amino acid found in meat turkey Tryptophan is a precursor to 5HT which is an abbreviation for the chemical name for serotonin Serotonin 5HT receptors locations and effects 0 O O O O O 5HT receptors have many types and subtypes that do many things Some 5HT receptors are metabotropic but some affect ionotropic receptors Removal from the synaptic cleft involves reuptake into the presynaptic neuron via a 5HT transporter Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used as drugs to treat depression Serotonin affects eating behavior anxiety pain learning 5HT neurons start in the brainstem and project all over the brain Acetylcholine synthesis and removal from synaptic cleft O O Acetylcholine is synthesized from the amino acid called choHne After release into the synaptic cleft Ach is broken down by the enxyme called acetylcholinesterase AChE Acetylcholine receptors 0 2 types Nicotinic n lonic mainly permeable to Na but also Ca2 n Named because nicotine is a ligand for them Muscarinic n Metabotropic but can open K channels a Named because muscarine is a ligand for them a Muscarine is a toxin found in some mushrooms Acetylcholine locations and effects 0 O 0 Many toxins act at acetylcholine receptors eg botulinum toxin aka botox Acetylcholine affects sleepwakefulness sensory processing the autonomic nervous system and causes muscles to move Acetylcholine can be found all over the brain Exam review 09212015 Dose response curves 0 X axis dose of the drug 0 Y axis effect of the drug 0 ED effective dose what you should start with 0 Drug A is more potent than B ie less of drug A is required than B to get an effect and A is to the left of B on a dose response curve 0 Drug A is more effective than C Le the maximum effect of A is greater than C drug A is ultimately higher than drug C on a dose response curve 0 Therapeutic index safe Tlgt100 and very unsafe Tllt10 o TD50ED50 Cell membrane 0 Forms the outer layer of a cell such as a neuron o Molecules in the membrane form a lipid bilayer Permeable to fatty substances lmpermeable to ions 0 Charged region hydrophilic Uncharged region hydrophobic Half life 0 30 minutes every 30 minutes the body gets rid of half of the drug circulating in the blood 0 OR o The concentration at a given time Ct equals the original concentration C sub 0 times half to the power of the number of half lives that have passed CtCO 05 quotnumber of half lives Blood brain barrier Other blood vessels readily allow molecules to get through because they have openings in their outer walls 0 In contrast blood vessels in the brain are surrounded by cells that limit most trans membrane transport Nervous system CNS brain and spinal cord THINKING PNS somatic muscles and sensory information o Autonomic automatic sympathetic ght or ight and parasympathetic calms you down PNS contains 0 Afferent brings signals to the CNS afferent arrives o Efferent sends signals from the CNS efferent exits Brain Forebrain o Basal ganglia o Limbic system 0 Neocortex Glial cells Astrocytes CNS contribute to blood brain barrier Oligodendrocytes CNS form myelin sheath Schwann cells PNS form myelin sheath Parts of a neuron Soma o Dendrite o Axon hillock o Axon o Myelin Terminal bouton lon concentrations 0 Potassium concentration higher inside cell negative inside cell but K Sodium and Chloride concentration higher outside cell positive Na negative CI but region charged positive Membrane potential Voltagepotential The presence of a voltage a separation or difference in charge means a cell has a membrane voltage Membrane voltagemembrane potential Inside of cell is negative NaK pump THE NAK PUMP MOVES 3 NA IONS OUT OF THE NEURON FOR EVERY 2 K IT BRINGS IN WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO THE NET negative CHARGE inside the neuron Too Slow to contribute to the termination of an action potential Ion ow directon If Na channels open Na ow will push membrane potential less negative depolarized If K channels open K ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized If CI channels open CI ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized Action potential At this membrane potential unconstrained Na channel opening causes the membrane potential to depolarize very rapidly Voltage gated K channels now open and K goes out of neuron which begins to hyperpolarize the neuron Also Na channels inactivate close so Na ow stops Membrane repolarizes ie goes back to the resting membrane potential Critical timing of voltage gated Na and K channel openings during an action potential Relative refractory period the still open K channels make it more dif cult to start a second action potential too close in time to the rst Absolute refractory period inactivated Na channels prevent another action potential from starting REMEMBER THE TOILET ANALOGY Synaptic vesicles Dock and fuse with membrane and become part of it from budding Endocytosis happens and vesicle now endosome because is completely inside Proteins in membrane of vesicle ll with neurotransmitter and dock and prime and connect with proteins in the presynaptic membrane and release them Ionotropic vs metabotropic Metabotropic indirectly affects processes inside the cell Acts via Gprotein activation Ionotropic directly open ion channels o Are not voltage gated or directly voltage dependent EPSPs and lPSPs o If Na channels open Na ow will push the membrane potential less negative depolarized o If K channels open K ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized o If Cl channels open Cl ow will push the membrane potential more negative hyperpolarized Neurotransmitters 0 Amino acid neurotransmitters o Glutamate Primary excitatory neurotransmitter o GABA Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter Monoamines o Dopamine o Norepinephrine o Serotonin o Acetylcholine Lecture 5 09222015 Man on death row attempted suicide and they nursed him back to health in order to execute him 0 Incompetent for execution not carried through but if they can make you competent they can carry through Evolving standards test o Is a person worthy of the death penalty 0 Has society evolved on its opinion on the 8th amendment Cannot execute juvenile under age of 16 otherwise violates 8th amendment 0 A year later they said nothing under age of 16 1989 Roper vs Simmons 0 2005 cannot execute anyone who committed crime under age of 18 ever Life without parole forjuvenile for non homicidal crime Grahm had multiple offenses armed robbery home invasions etc o 2012 you cannot have a mandatory life sentence without parole even for murder 0 Cannot have juvenile life without parole for non homicidal cases Miller vs Alabama 0 Cannot have mandatory life without parole forjuvenile Can have if not mandatory before sentencing California man for his 3rd offense walked out of pro shop with 3 expensive golf clubs and got 25 years to life and supreme court held it because it was considered a quotserious felonyquot Mandatory minimum sentences Fixed or determinate sentences Sentencing guidelines 0 If what you do is between here and here the punishment is between this and this 0 6th amendment right to counsel and jury trial 0 Guy shot into black family window and got charged with gun violation but added hate crime charges which judge can do because he had preponderance of evidence but appeals court said jury has to decide if that is fair judge can lessen a sentence as long as the judge considers the guidelines 0 College student involved with drug dealing o Sentenced to probation CH 3 Actus reus what was done Mens rea intentionality level of intentionality must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt Mens rea triggers actus reus Mental state plus particular act triggered harm to people 0 Willful bodily movement Actus reus corroborates mens rea On purpose or by accident Actus reus could be drugging someone and that is the evidence that the mens rea is on purpose Burrell case 0 Every act until the end of the crime does not have to be willful lf 1 movement is voluntary then the actus reus is on purpose 0 Sleep walking and hypnosis do not count Woman had dream she was being attacked by Korean soldiers and truly believed it and brought ax inside and killed her daughter 0 Jury found not guilty because her actions were not voluntary 1956 person had seizure while driving and killed people on the street voluntary involuntary acts 0 drive car when you know you are subject to seizures is reckless Person kidnapped people ad did not remember it because agent orange fumes from burning forests in Vietnam 0 No defense of automatism so he was convicted Then reversed because if a person MAY have been unconscious they can raise that defense 1997 sleep deprived man on ight fought with police and the same outcome happened Status in actus reus What category are you in 0 Condition of what and who you are 0 Not suf cient to be an actus reus not an act Robinson vs California 0 Illegal to be addicted to narcotics Lawrence Robinson convicted and overturned by supreme court because being an addict is a status Omission is also actus reus failure to do something 0 What is required of you
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