Applying Evidence-Conducting, analyzing, and evaluating experiments
Applying Evidence-Conducting, analyzing, and evaluating experiments social work 3402
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by MadsSwart on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to social work 3402 at Ohio State University taught by Lauren Haas-Gehres in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Applying Evidence in Social Work at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
APPLYING EVIDENCE STUDY GUIDE Conducting single subject research designs and formally presenting them Using the example of Art Therapy to decrease ADHD symptom frequency and severity Why are you doing the studv Why is this topic important why does it matter how did you come across the intervention you did what it feels like to struggle with ADHD why we want to decrease severity and frequency we came across art therapy because subject currently uses it for self care and wanted to see how big of an impact it made by stopping for a week and doing it for two weeks measuring frequency and severity at all points Finding evidence G00gle Scholar Easy but you will need to go to the university library to get access to the majority of the literature that you find I find that this is a great way to look through e books as well which you can usually see the references on OSU Libraries The easiest thing is to find databases that are designated to the general topics you are looking at 0 So go to search database by topic and search the GENERAL topic you are researching mental illness reducing symptoms art therapy etc Once you find a database you can search that for topics which will lead you to literature Either download the PDF or click Find at OSU If you find an article in Google Scholar that you don t have access to you can search the OSU library for articles by title author etc This is an easy way to see if OSU will give you access to that article Type of Research Design Single subject research design group of research methods that are used extensively in the eXperimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis with both human and non human participants Principal methods in this type of research are A B A B designs Multi element designs Multiple Baseline designs Repeated acquisition designs Brief eXperimental designs and Combined designs 0 A is baseline B is intervention Measurable Variables Impact of art therapy on the frequency and severity of ADHD symptoms 0 Art Therapy measured in minutes 0 Frequency measured by seeing which of the following 6 are eXperienced each day I 1 forgetting and losing things I 2 interrupting others andor talking too an interrupting extent I 3 lack ability to finish tasks esp related to school or daily activities I 4 Distracted or lack of attention to details I 5 fidgety andor constantly moving on the go I 6 Impulsive sparatic in thoughts and actions 0 Severity measured on a scale of l to 3 I 1 mildly present needed little time to be addressed and any outcome did not cause stress or anXiety I 2 moderately present required attention and time to address and any outcome caused stressed and anXiety I 3 very present inhibiting required great time and attention may have been reoccurring and any outcome was extremely stressful Baseline Data Observing the subjects in natural state before the measurable intervention is implemented Length of time One week days 1 through 7 Constant variables Time medication was taken Activity level each day 0 If different eXplain how you evened it out I Don t work out but am very active On days where less active did some yoga to keep activity level constant throughout study Extraneous stimuli affecting stress level 0 Think of things like roommates significant other school student org job etc and eXplain how stressful these things were during the study time and how this may have affected the measure of symptom frequency and severity Hours of sleep per night 0 Fairly consistent did not vary more than 1 or 2 hours per night What was Observed Variables O Symptom frequency and severity using measures above 0 No art therapy time I Deviance from this noted I days 3 and 6 have 15 minutes of art therapy Figure 1 This is because days 2 and 5 were particularly stressful So spending a short time on art allowed to keep symptoms manageable without significantly impacting overall findings 15 minutes is half the amount of the shortest interval of art given during the intervention Intervention What was implemented different from baseline to change behavior Varying intervals of art therapy from 30 75 minutes daily for two weeks What is being measured Continuing to measure symptom frequency and severity using measures above Averages What happens when a variable ends up having a ton of different numbers for one time slot How do I graph that Figure 1 shows how this was used for symptom severity With 6 different symptoms we have different severities for each symptom so to make one number for each day take the average of the day s relative symptom severities and then you have one number of severity associated with each day FIGURE 1 Once all of this data is collected we can construct a table to represent all of our data Therap Frequen lose talkin task Distra Fidge Impulsiv avg y cy g 5 ct t e 1 O 4 2 1 3 3 225 2 O 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 2 1 2 4 O 3 2 3 1 2 5 O 5 3 3 3 2 2 26 6 15 3 2 1 2 16 7 O 4 3 2 1 2 2 8 3O 3 2 1 1 13 9 45 2 1 2 15 10 3O 3 3 2 2 23 11 3O 2 3 2 25 12 6O 1 2 2 13 3O 2 2 1 15 14 6O 3 2 1 1 13 15 3O 1 2 2 16 45 3 1 1 1 1 17 75 2 1 2 1 5 18 45 1 2 2 19 6O 2 2 1 1 5 2O 3O 1 2 2 21 6O 1 2 2 Analyzing the data Graphs and Charts How many graphshow to split it up and create charts etc 0 In this example we have 2 key variables we are measuring severity and frequency Because of this we will have 2 graphs and ideally two charts however I combined them for simplicity reasons this is acceptable I Time always goes on the X aXis and in this example it is days that we are measuring the severity and frequency over time 0 frequency on the y aXis of one graph against days on the X aXis 0 severity on the y aXis of the other graph against days on the X aXis What to Calculate for variables Mean x Mean n 0 so obviously the mean is just all the scores added together divided by the number of scores 2 means sum x is the scores n is the number of scores Standard Deviation ZiXW n SD 0 We know 2 is sum of and that l is the square root of X times X y so X y 0 u is the mean so just plug in the mean that you calculated in the first equation I Subtract the mean from each score and times it by itself Then you add all of those squared numbers together and divide that number by the number of scores in the situation and take the square root of that number 0 If you do not take the square root the final step you have calculated the variance and not the standard deviation Shewhart LineControl Limits U CL u 2 gtilt o L CL u 2 O 0 Take the standard deviation calculated in the previous equation I Multiply by two 0 Add to the mean for the Upper Control Line 0 Subtract from the mean for the Lower Control Line I Note that here 0 denotes the standard deviation Frequen Frequency Severity Severity cy Interventi Baseline Interventio Baseline on n Mean 371 193 2207 1742 Standard Deviation 0756 0829 462 429 Upper Control Line 523 3586 3131 26 UCL Lower Control 2198 0271 1283 884 Know what your calculations mean MeaI Average Best representative of complete data one number with outliers use to analyze further Standard Deviation Overall difference that numbers have from the mean Shewhart Line 2 standard deviations above and below the mean One way to determine if intervention proved statistically significanteffective Which one to use What to look for What does it mean Upper Control Line 0 Baseline mean plus two standard deviations 0 If you are looking for an increase in a variable 0 By the end of the intervention data will be above this line I If above data shows a statistically significant difference from our baseline to our intervention periods which supports the intervention I If not above data does not show support for intervention lt Lower Control Line 0 Baseline mean minus two standard deviations 0 If you are looking for a decrease in a variable 0 By the end of the intervention data will be below this line I If above data shows a statistically significant difference from our baseline to our intervention periods which supports the intervention I If not above data does not show support for intervention lt gt kif data is not respectively above or below the Shewhart line which supports your intervention analyze the reasons why this happened 0 For example I ideally both frequency and severity would be below the LCL by the end of the intervention since we were looking to decrease both I Frequency was below while severity was not why was severity not What variables caused this Was there something that could have been done to improve this Does this matter I So noted was the fact that for an individual with ADHD having one symptom at a more severe level may perhaps be better for them than having multiple symptoms at a moderate level I Due to the overwhelming concept of having many symptoms at once 0 Back stuff like this up with more literature 0 ADHD and panicanXiety attacks 0 ADHD and anxiety 0 AnxietyPanic Attacks what they entail what cause them 0 It is always helpful to create a series of hierarchal topics to look for that support the idea you are trying to prove 0 Find literature for each hierarchy and then use this data to explain your train of thought peuJeuNuer uuee 01 peel SUJOldUJAS CHCV eJouJ J peuJeMuJer uuee LiliM leap S9nppu cqu MOL J sgtene AqagxueDgued ueemqaq saauaiaggp pue 39sansuaqaeieua 39sasnea J gt3ene Aqeixueaiued 01 peel uea peuJeuNuer buuee 1 J SDHSiJBDQJEHD sessoo Allensn eJouJ pue sesnea gt3ene Aqeixueaiued JOJpOLSBJL1 JeM0 eAeu Sl2nppu CHCV m in this case is always a really good SAFE way to start 0 Leaves out assumptions that this applies to everyoneeverything 0 State who elsewhat else would need to go through this study to further prove conclusions In this case 0 Art therapy proved to decrease the frequency of ADHD symptoms to a relatively statistically significant effect 0 Art therapy proved to decrease the severity of ADHD symptoms although the decrease was not statistically significant In other words 0 In this case art therapy proved to significantly decrease the frequency of the ADHD symptoms but not the severity of ADHD symptoms Figure 3 Art Therapy and ADHD Symptom Frequency B A Frequency of ADHD Symptoms v b0 9 3 N w Day of Data Collection Figure 4 Art Therapy and ADHD Symptom Severity A 4 B 0 N a Q I I l I l l I I l I I l l I l I l l I l I I l Il Severity Average N 3 3 399 5 1 Day of Data Collection
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