Notes/Study Guide for Exam 2
Notes/Study Guide for Exam 2 Psych 383
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shea Repins on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 383 at Clemson University taught by Pamela Alley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psych in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Adjustment Disorder: What is it? -Mildest diagnosis -Trauma/stressor related disorder -Develops often when someone gets a disease (ex. Diabetes) Demographics: More common in Adult women than man, but equally common in genders for kids Diagnostic Criteria: -Symptoms occur with identifiable stressor within 3 months -Once stressor goes away, symptoms go away within 6 months Treatment: Many different approaches can help (ex. Cognitive) PTSD: What is it? -Cannot be diagnosed unless extremely serious event Diagnostic Criteria: -Need to meet all criteria for a diagnosis -Re-experiences the event, avoids things associated with the trauma, negative changes in mood/thought processes, increased arousal -MUST occur longer than 1 month and follow the event Demographics: -Symptoms usually occur within 3 months of event -Separate criteria for kids under 6 years old -More common for women and lasts longer for women -Commonly co-occurs with depression and anxiety disorders -Lower SES, low education, prior mental issues, no coping skills are all examples of risk factors Treatment: -Crisis Intervention -Post disaster debriefing session (used when large groups are effected by one event ex. Tornado/school shooter, short term relief) -Telephone Hotlines- intended for people w/ specific problem (rape, suicide, etc.), manned by paraprofessionals, effective if person helping is warm/respectful/empathetic -Not clear if meds are helpful but since PTSD is usually accompanied by depression, meds can treat the depressive symptoms Rape: Data: -Most common reason women have PTSD (95% of all women will meet criteria for PTSD within 2 weeks and start to recover naturally in the first month) -Most common locations are the man’s apartment/home or a residence hall/parked car -Early 1990’s # of rape started to decline, it had been increasing for years -US as a whole is declining but Midwest and south are increasing while west and northeast are decreasing -15%-25% of us women have or will be raped -3% of all us men have or will be raped (usually prisoner or child raped by another man) -Women between 18-21 years old are victims of over 20% of rapes -82% of women know their rapist Effects: -Short term= trouble sleeping/eating, crying, withdrawal, confusion, guilt, fear, anxiety -Long term= health problems, impaired sexual functioning, anxiety, depression, PTSD Types: 1.Acquaintance Rape: -Know their rapist (82%) -Date Rape is a common form- use of alcohol/drugs in more than 50% of date rapes -Explanations for date rape: Communication ambiguity (man overestimate dates interest and women underestimates dates interest) or Token resistance (man thinks women doesn’t mean it when she says no) 2. Marital Rape: -Husband forces sex on wife -Not a lot of stats because many women don’t consider it rape -The “Hale doctrine”- exempted husbands from being prosecuted for raping wives (end of 1980’s most states removed this) 3. Stranger Rape -18% of victims don’t know rapists -Not much data to distinguish from acquaintance rape Treatment: -Talking about experience helps a lot -Rape conseling centers, rape hotlines, rape crisis centers (all manned by paraprofessionals) -Victim advocacy services- paired with someone who also had a similar experience, act as a support system Anxiety disorders: Treatments: Behavior or cognitive therapy helps most, drugs may or may not help Specific Phobia: What is it? -Unreasonable fear of a specific thing Diagnostic Criteria: -Unreasonable/excessive -Immediate anxiety almost always -Avoiding or enduring with anxiety -Out of proportion response -Lasts for 6 months or longer Subtypes: 1.Animal 2.Natural Environment (ex. Storms,heights,water) 3.Situational (ex. Elevators, public transportation, bridges, airplanes) 4.Other (ex. Choking, stairs, vomiting) 5.Blood-Injury-Injection (heart rate goes up immediately and then drops down dramatically which usually causes fainting) Demographics: -Often have more than one phobia -Symptoms usually appear b/w ages 7 and 11 -Wax and wane -If symptoms continue into adulthood, its unlikely to ever go away without treatment -More common in females -Can develop after seeing a tramatic experience or being told about one -If family member has phobia, risk goes up -More likely to develop other anxiety/depressive disorders Treatments: Systematic desensitization or exposure therapy Participant modeling (exposure therapy where therapist does it before client) Social Anxiety disorder: What is it? -Person could be anxious in only certain situation or in all social situation -Performance and/or social situation -If it only happens when performing= “social anxiety disorder- performance only” Diagnostic Criteria: -Almost always provokes a fear when exposed to situatin -Avoiding/enduring the fear causes high anxiety -Fear/anxiety last for 6 months or more Demographics/Etiology: -Median age onset-13 years old -Rare for onset in adulthood -Persistent -Severity is very variable -Those with disorder are more likely to drop out, not be employed, low SES, overall poor quality of life -Can be learned (ex. Laughed at when doing show and tell) -Kids more likely to have it when parent has it -Kids with Behavioral Inhibition (shyness/fearfulness) more likely to get it Treatment: -Cognitive therapy -Meds help reduce short term symptoms but when they stop taking it the symptoms return -Best to do meds and therapy together Panic Attack Diagnostic Criteria: -Need 4 out of the 13 symptoms (increased heart rate, sweating, shaking, short breath, choking, chest pain, nausea, lightheaded, chills or hot flashes, numbness/tingling, derealiztion/depersonalization, fear of going crazy, fear of dying) -Brief and Instense- Peaks at 10 minutes, goes away after 20-30 minutes -Different than anxiety attacks (those last longer) Expected vs. Unexpected -Expected- obvious trigger, can go with any anxiety disorder as a specifier -Unexpected- no obvious trigger, panic disorder involves unexpected attacks Panic Disorder Diagnostic Criteria: -Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks -One of attacks is followed by concern/worry about more attacks or a change in behavior related to the attacks -Period of at least 1 month Generalized Anxiety Disorder What is it? Excessive anxiety/worry about a number of events Diagnostic Criteria: -symptoms occur for at least 6 months -Need 3 out of 6 symptoms (restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance) Development: -Median age of onset= 30 years old -Long-lasting/chronic, waxes and wanes -People with it have a hard time getting things done -More common for women -Genetic component (behavioral inhibition) -Harder to treat than the more specific disorders Treatment: Most difficult to treat OCD: What is it? -Obsessive thinking and compulsive behavior -Severity varies a lot -Aim of compulsion is to diminish the obsession (ex. Always think they didn’t lock doors so lock door repeatedly) -Some people with OCD have good insight (know they are doing unhealthy things) Obsessions: -Recurrent thoughts that are unwanted/intrusive, cause distress, and are suppressed with some other thought/action 4 primary types 1.Contamination/germs 2.Fear of harming self accidently (might lose control) 3.Fear of harming others 4.Pathological doubt (cant remember if they did something they needed to) Compulsions: -Repetitve behaviors that the person feels driven to do in response to an obsession, purpose is to prevent distress, not realistic/clearly excessive 5 primary types 1.Cleaning 2.Repeating 3.Ordering/arranging 4.Coun6ting 5.Checking Diagnostic Criteria: -Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both (90% have both) -Need to be one of these: time consuming, cause significant distress, cause impairment in important aspects of life Demographics: -Mean age of onset=20 years old -25% begin prior to 14 years old -Gradually develops -Long lasting, waxes and wanes -Usually co-occurs with depression -Adult girls have slightly higher risk, but Children boys have higher risk -When it develops as a child, its more severe -Stress affects it -Genetic Component-Monzygotic twins risk is higher than dizygotic, mom/dad have it then risk goes up Mood disorders Causes: -Biological (moderate genetic link to depression and strong genetic link to bipolar) -Psychological (divorce, abuse, high stress are all risk factors) -Social (Lower SES people have higher rate of depression) Treatment: -Drug therapy MDD treated with SSRI Prozac most common anti-depressant in world Biploar treated with mood-stabilizers (lithium) -Cognitive therapy Commonly used for depression -ECT Serious episodes can be helped with this, good success rate Mood Episodes: -Not a disorder, building block for disorder -3 mood episode: depressive, manic, and hypomanic Major Depressive Episode: 5 out of the 9 symptoms for same 2 week period (NEEDS TO HAVE EITHER depressed mood most o the day or diminished interest in activities most of the day!!!, weight loss, insomnia/hypersomnia, move slow/a lot, fatigue, worthless feeling, cant concentrate, thoughts of death) Manic Episode 3 out of these 7 symptoms in same 1 week period (or if they cause hospitalization) -High self-esteem, decreased sleep need, talkative, flight of ideas, distractible, don’t finish what they start, excessive desire for high consequence activities (ex. Gambling, drugs, shopping) -Must cause marked impairment or need hospitalization or have psychotic features Hypomanic Episode -3 out of the 7 symptoms for 4 days -Same symptoms as manic -Not as serious as manic and lasts shorter -No severe enough to cause impairment, hospitalization, or psychotic features Depressive Disorders Demographics: -Depression and anxiety are comorbid -Avg. age of onset of depressive disorders=20 years old -Significantly less common in older people -Lifetime prevalence rate=17% -Way more common in girls than boys -Tend to be time limited – recovery begin in 3 months for 40% of people w/o treatment and will begin in 1 year for 80% of people Dysthymia: -Mild to moderate intensity -Chronic -At least 2 out of 6 symptoms for 2 years (1 year for kids) (Change of appetite, insomnia/hypersomnia, fatigue, low self-esteem, poor concentration, hopelessness) -NEVER had a manic or hypomanic episode Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode: -Presense of one major depressive episode -Never been a manic or hypomanic episode Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent: -Two or more major depressive episodes -Never had manic/hypomanic episode Seasonal Affective Depression: -Recurrent depressive episodes during certain seasons -Specifier -Usually comes during fall/winter and goes away during summer/spring -Must happen 2 different years consecutively -Probably due to lack of light during the seasons Pregnancy and depression: 1.Baby Blues -50-70% of moms -Symptoms occur in 3-7 days and go away by themselves -Hormones cause it -Not a disorder, pretty normal 2. Peripartum Onset -Specifier added to major depressive disorder - Begins when pregnant or within a month after birth -50% being during pregnancy, 50% a month after -3-6% impacted 3. Peripartum Onset and psychotic features -.1-.2% impacted - If they kill child, they usually have this disorder -Many experience command hallucinations or delusions -Cant distinguish b/w reality and fantasy -If already had a depressive disorder, more likely to have one peripartum Bipolar/related disorders Cyclothymic: -2 years of periods with hypomanic/depressive symptoms -Never had a full episode, just syptoms -Less serious, more longlasting/chronic -Equally common in males and females -Unforseen onset Bipolar 1: -One or more manic episodes -Can also have had depressive or hypomanic episodes, but not necessary -Mean age of onset=18 years old -Over 90% of people who have 1 manic episode will have recurrent mood episodes -No gender difference -Many will be fully functional b/w episodes -30% experience some impairment Bipolar 2: -Must have one or more depressive and hypomanic episode -NEVER been a manic episode -Usually starts with depressive episodes -5-15% of people w/ bipolar 2 will eventually have a manic episode and change to bipolar 1 -Mean age onset=mid 20’s -No gender difference -Commorbid with anxiety disorders -More chronic, more serious depressive episodes, and higher suicide rate that bipolar 1 -5-15% of people will be rapid cyclers (4 or more episodes every year) Suicide: Who? -more than ½ of people who commint suicide are in or recovering from a depressive episode -90% who attempt/commit have a psych disorder -8 -9 leading cause of death in US Contributing Factors? -Attempting: b/w 18-24 years old, more women, divorce is a big risk factor -Successfully committing- More common in 65 years and older, more men (b/c men usually shoot themselves and women will take pills) -Psych disorder, genetic vunerabilty, abuse are all risk factors -Caucasions have higher risk than blacks -More prevalent in Switzerland and Sweden than in US and more prevalent in US than Italy and Spain Prevention? -Hard to prevent b/c hard to know someone wants to -Suicide hotlinesno evidene they decreased rate but they still benefit people
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