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PSYC 110 Kazama Study Guide of Material After Exam 2 through Final

by: Bethanie Tabachnik

PSYC 110 Kazama Study Guide of Material After Exam 2 through Final PSYC 110

Marketplace > Emory University > Psychlogy > PSYC 110 > PSYC 110 Kazama Study Guide of Material After Exam 2 through Final
Bethanie Tabachnik
Emory University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Immediate Memory: Limited Attention and Awareness Storage, Retrieval, Multiple Memory Systems Long Term Potentiation From Spring 2015 term
Introductory Psychology
Andrew Kazama
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethanie Tabachnik on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 110 at Emory University taught by Andrew Kazama in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Emory University.


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Date Created: 03/10/16
Immediate Memory: Limited Attention and Awareness  Types of intelligence:  ● Verbal linguistics  ● bodily kinesthetic  ● musical rhythmic  ● intrapersonal  ● logical/mathematical  ● naturalistic  ● interpersonal  ● visual spatial  Spearman ­ G­factor (General Intelligence Factor)  ● Why are some children good at tests compared to others?   Inattention blindness/change blindness  ● focused on one particular point and blinded towards everything else in scene  ● distract with spatial information  Gradual change blindness  ● Can’t detect change when its slow  ● Illusion of attention  ● rapid eye movement ­ cicods  ○ eyes are jumping all over the place to get the full picture  Left vs. right brain intelligence ­ on going debate  ● Left ­ Logic  ● Right ­ Creativity  ● Zodiac  ● Left out corpus callosum ­ we don’t usually just use one side of the brain  Prefrontal Cortex: Executive function  ● Sensory Memory:  ○ There is a separate sensory store for each sensory system (vision, hearing, etc.)  holds brief traces of all information registered by that system.  ○ Unconscious processes may operate on these traces to determine which  information to pass on working memory   ● In charge of directing attention   ○ Updating, switching, inhibition  ● Immediate memory  ● Working memory construct (Short­term store)  ○ Conscious mental work takes place on information brought in from sensory  memory and long­term memory  ○ Quickly disappears  ○ Automatic Process:  ■ Central Executive   ● Visuospatial Sketchpad  ○ visual semantics  ○ Very limited capacity: 6­8 digits  ○ very limited duration (Seconds)  ● Episodic Buffer  ○ episodic LTM  ● Phonological Loop: maintains verbal information through subvocal  repetetion   ○ Language ­ someone repeats a phone #  ■ Needs active attention in order to maintain ­ quickly loses  ● Damage to prefrontal cortex:  ○ Difficulty planning and making decisions, regulating emotions, and inhibiting  thought and behavior  Visual: Iconic Memory ­ less than a second  ● The immediate, initial, recording of sensory information in the memory system  ● Sperlings iconic memory experiment:   ○ ½ letters reported back after flashing the letters for 1/20th of second  ○ high medium low tone flashed so recall for letters in  a row was almost perfect  ○ When the tone sounds right after the picture is flashed, we have time to retrieve  the letters from iconic memory  ○ After 3 seconds, only 50% is recalled, and after 12 seconds, nothing is  remembered  Auditory: Echoic Memory   The capacity of memory: a few seconds  ● Short term memory  ○ Limited capacity ­ 7 bits of information can be stored +/­ 2. Recall is better for  random digits than for random letters  ○ Recall is slightly better for what we hear than for what we see  ○ Without rehearsal, most people can retain about 4 information chunks in their  short term memory  ● Long­term memory (The repository of all a person knows)  ○ Unlimited capacity, but not as accurate as sensory memory or short­term  memory  ○ Organizes and stores information  ○ Information not stored in precise locations  ○ Duration of memory storage thought by some to be permanent  ■ Information stored here is dormant, being actively processed only when it  is brought into the short­term store.  How can we improve these abilities?  ● Immediate memory: not too much we can do to change it  ● BUT:  ○ increase the focus of our attention to that thing  ○ Reframe how we organize the information  ■ Chunk into organized pieces  ○ Create richer memories  Control Processes:  ● Attention brings information from sensory memory into the short­term store  ● Encoding brings information from sensory memory into the short­term store  ● Retrieval brings information from long­term memory into the short­term store  Attention:  ● Focused Attention  ○ Selective listening and viewing studies show that we can effectively focus  attention, screening out irrelevant stimuli  ● Shifting Attention: we unconsciously monitor stimuli in sensory memory so that we can  shift our attention if something significant occurs  ● Preattentive processing: through preattentive processing, unattended sensory  information can affect conscious thought and behavior  ○ Priming: Stimuli that are not consciously perceived can activate information in  long­term memory, which can influence conscious thought  ○ Stroop Interference Effect: automatic (color experiment)  ● Brain Mechanism: Cerebral cortex  ○ Spatial neglect: unable to processes info in opposite eye of brain hemisphere  lesion  Storage, Retrieval, Multiple Memory Systems  Long term memory (know the slide)    Explicit memory  Episodic (memory of particular past experiences) ­ relies on hippocampus  Semantic memory: general knowledge and beliefs  Implicit (Non­declarative memory) ­ branch of long term memory  ● Retention independent of conscious recollection ­ without conscious recall  ● Cannot be brought into conciousness but can influence thought and behavior  ● Processed by cerebellum  ○ Plays key role in forming and storing memories created by classical conditioning  ○ Damage to cerebellum disrupts forming conditioned reflexes.  ● Motor and cognitive skills  ○ Procedural memory  ● Motor skills, habits, unconsciously learned (tacit rules)  ● striatum  Priming  ● in neocortex  ● cue important words  ● Keeps us on track for organized thought  ● we are more susceptible to this than we might think  ○ students primed with elderly terms walked slower than other group  Classical Conditioning  ● Unconditioned stimuli  ○ calories (food, drink)  ○ sexual reproduction  ○ social reward  ○ secondary reinforcer (money)  ● Conditioned stimuli  ○ grades ­ a is associated with praise  ○ products/material  Nonassociative learning (Reflexes)  ● Fast adaptive behaviors  ● deep within your mind, knowing how to respond  ● not explicitly consciously recalling what to do  Declarative memory  ● encoding: Process of encoding information into Long­Term Memory  ○ rote memorization (ebbinghaus ­ repeating memorizing things)  ■ not effective ­ memory recall goes away eventually with time  ○ sent to hippocampus  ● elaborative encoding  ○ take a memory and enrich it by building a story around it ­ connect it with  information already in long­term memory  ○ mnemonic   ● chunking ­ facililitates encoding by grouping separate items into one higher­level unit.  Use previously learned chunks to create long­term working memories  Consolidating: organizing memories ­ sends back out to cortex ­ strengthens connections  ● process by which labile memory is converted to stable memory  ● Patient HM ­ seizures ­ removed hippocampus  ○ inability to make new memories ­ temporal lobe amnesia  ■ anterograde amnesia ­ couldn't form new memories  ■ retrograde amnesia ­ inability to access old memories  ● Frequent recall of memories can promote both their modification and their consolidation  ● Sleep shortly after learning helps to consolidate memories  Mental Associations and Retrieval  ● Mental associations are links among items of information in long­term memory, which  provide a basis for retrieval  ● Principles of contiguity and similarity ­ formation of mental associations  ● Retrieving a memory from long­term memory  ○ Cues  ■ Environmental context of learning resulting from associations created at  the time of encoding  ● False memory  ○ when retrieval goes wrong  ○ Schemas and scripts ­ general knowledge affect memory construction   ○ Leading questions  ○ OJ simpson trial  ■ Memories are distorted   ○ Your confidence in the accuracy of your memory has nothing to do with the  actual accuracy of your memory  Long Term Potentiation  LTP: Long Term Potentiation: the biomolecular process that your neurons go thru as you learn.  ● How the connections thru the neurons are strengthened thru repeated firing  ○ Neurons that fire together wire together using LTP  Synapse Review  ● Presynaptic Terminal (actual line is membrane)  ○ Vesicles  ● Postsynaptic Terminal  ○ Receptors  ● Synaptic Cleft in the middle  ● These are chemical signals → then converted to electrical  Macro Changes (from repeated stimulation)  ● From initial state → LTP → 1 Week later  ○ More receptors  ○ More vesicles  ○ Membranes get wider, which allows more receptors  ■ Also spine gets thicker → makes the signals faster  ○ The point is to get a larger action potential (amp up cell’s response)  Synapses are strengthened and maintained in stages   1. Generation  2. Stabilization  3. Consolidation  4. Maintence  ● Short sensory memories on the order of milliseconds to seconds  ○ Can stabilize with repetition   ● Changes in synaptic strength that support LTP evolve in stages that can be identified by  the unique molecular processes  Changes in Shape: Actin  ● Neuron goes thru costume change  ○ Structures in the neuron that cause the terminal to be a specific shape  ○ Post­synaptic density (denser than the rest of the terminal, holds many receptors)  ■ Actin creates a wider surface on the membrane which allows them to hold  onto more receptors. Changes the thickness of the spine, makes density  even thicker  ● Why is organization of Actin Critical  ○ Small spines learn  ○ Large spinesremember  ● Learning: Glutimate  ○ Excitatory   ○ Receptors for learning  ■ AMPA  ● Mountain Dew of the receptor  ● Fuel that makes the whole process happen  ● Lets sodium into postsynaptic terminal and exciting it  ● Receptors listen for glutimate, then receptor opens, lets in Na+  ● Constantly moving in and out of the postsynaptic membrane  ■ NMDA  ● Engines of learning and memory ­ keeps it going  ● Keep everything stable, prolongs the signal  ● Magnesium lodged in throat ­ needs to be kicked out by NMDA  ○ Helps flood the cell with more Na+ and Ca2+  ● They also morph over repeated firings  How do we create permanent memories in a dynamic system?  ● Receptors in our memory are constantly being replaced, but basic relationships remain  the same ­ the synaptic molecules are short­lived in comparison to the duration of our  memories.  ○ Everytime you refresh your memory, reinforced  ○ Another set of cells degrade memory  ○ By refreshing memory (occasional activation), you can help hold onto it even tho  brain is always changing (maintenance molecular processes)     


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