CMM 308 : Study Guide for EXAM 1 Persuasion Spring 2016
CMM 308 : Study Guide for EXAM 1 Persuasion Spring 2016 CMM 308
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Winn on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMM 308 at Marshall University taught by Dr. Tarter Barbara in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Persuasive Communication in Communication Studies at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
EXAM 1 Persuasion Spring 2016 Name: ___________________________ (Answers will be graded based on your application of theory to each question, the completeness of your answer, and your understanding of the basis of the question. Should you have any questions regarding specific answers, please feel free to contact me) 1. Indicate four parallels between the Wag the Dog movie and the Jessica Lynch story. a) The similarities between two are : _ The image depicts a great message : appearances can be deceiving and that not everyone is genuinely trying to help you, which is definitely a recurring between the two aforementioned stories. - The US government used Jessica Lynch to their full advantage, with complete disregard to how their lies would affect the young girl’s life. => Lynch was rescued when eleven fellow soldiers died in the ambush. - In Wag the dog, Brean and Co. expertly spin a fake story in order to put the President in a more positive light .It shows how bureaucrats and politicians are the ones working behind the scenes, from using a traumatized girls experience and molding it for their own selfish purpose to casting a blindfold over the public’s eyes in order to the cover up the molestation of young girl by her very own president. _ In 2007, Jessica stated she had never fired an M16 in her life, and Bean shows how dangerous and effective a little spin can be, resulting in them convincing a whole country that there is a war going on. 2. How did Michael Jordan use the theory of Cognitive Dissonance to persuade his audience for his NIKE commercial, titled "Failure?" Which strategy did he use? - Cognitive dissonance theory : developed by Festinger ( 1957) , propose that individuals seek balance, or consistency, in their lives. Michael Jordan shows the information that he missed 9000 shots in his life , lost almost 300 hundred games and with 26 times for trusted shots in final, he missed. He shows how he fails and that failure makes him to be successful. In addition , he use the actions of seeking more information about how he fails to become successful. 3. The advent of a major solar flare would change communication, as we currently know it. How might the removal of technology affect your relationships with friends and family? Consider both the negative and positive results. Explain. 3 negative and 3 positive 4. How did Aristotle’s background affect the development of his rhetorical theories? Explain with examples. Trained as a biologist, he was interested in classifying the elements of persuasion. Concept Terminology Definition Example Types of persuasion Deliberative Determine future Legislative speech action Forensic Prove past action Court proceedings Epideictic Praise or blame a Eulogy speech person or even Artistic proof Ethos Proving the “I have the persuader’s experience credibility necessary to be your mayor” Pathos Appealing to “Purchase a cell audience emotion phone to keep yourself safe when tralveling” Logos Using logical “because studying reasoning hard can help you in the exam, you should study harder. 5. Drew Magary reported in the January 2014 issue of GQ, comments made by Phil Robertson (Duck Dynasty) regarding Robertson’s thoughts on modern immorality. Specifically, Robertson is reported as saying: “It seems like, to me, a vagina—as a man—would be more desirable than a man’s anus. That’s just me. I’m just thinking: There’s more there! She’s got more to offer. I mean, come on, dudes! You know what I’m saying? But hey, sin: It’s not logical, my man. It’s just not logical.” The fall-out to the release of this comment was immense and Robertson was temporarily suspended from the show. How would you apply TARES, the ethical guiding principles developed by Baker and Martinson (2001) to the journalist’s decision to report this comment? 6. Indicate which of the two VALS personalities you hold. How does this impact the purchases you make? Explain, based on the theory of VALS. - Innovators : I am motivated by ideals, achievement and self-expression. I like new ideas, talking about them and turning them into the real business. Moreover, I like changing to adapt the new life and new technology. The more ideas I have the more I feel happy about life. - Experiencers : I am motivated by self-expression. By experiencing the new problems, I know how important to put myself in other’s situation to show their problems. 7. How would you apply Bennett’s (2009) four news biases to the September 3, 2014 statement made by President Barack Obama following the beheading of a second American journalist, Steven Sotloff? (See Blackboard for the article under Persuasion and the Media) 8. Much of what we believe comes from the media. The media has played an extensive role in our perceptions of war. After watching the movie Wag the Dog, consider how much the media has contributed to our beliefs about war. How has the media contributed to at least five different wars? Why would the media be anything less than truthful? How might they profit from a deviation from the truth? 1- An explosion on the USS Maine led many newspapers, particularly those owned by Publisher William Randolph Hearst, to create the Spanish-American War -> get Teddy Roosevelt elected. 2- In 1964, President Johnson was able to obtain the congressional resolution he needed to enter the Vietnam War based on a claim that the Maddox, an American Destroyer, was fired at by the North Vietnamese, in an unprovoked incident 3- The United States government hired Director D. W. Griffith to “document” the war. Griffith staged and filmed several battle sequences that he brought back as newsreels to help the war effort => World War 1 4- Russian Filmmakers created attacks on the “imperialist culture” by re-editing Western newsreels. The Russian Filmmakers inverted the meanings of the original footage to create their own political views => Bolshevik Revolution – 1917-192 5- Hitler and Goebbels manufactured documentaries of huge pro-Nazi rallies and showed the German people as a mass of visionaries => World War II 9. Apply the three-part process of the “Agenda Setting” theory to a current issue that you believe has been greatly affected by the media. Provide examples. 1- Media agenda _ Wayne Wanta (1994) found that the higher the credibility of news coverage, the more susceptible the public is to media’s messages. 2- Public agenda _ The story of Donald Trump and his believes impact on the community. It affects the behavior of people in relationship with foreigner and the economy. 3- Policy agenda _ Numerous factors explain why media cover certain news stories and why they ignore others. A recent study (Stromback and Kiousis,2010 ) found that there was support for this argument. The authors wrote, “The results clearly show that the media are influential in affecting perceived issue salience- that is, the extent to which people think that the issue they find is the most important will affect their voting in the election” 10. Political persuasion can take many forms. Using Johannesen’s ethical standards for political persuasion, are the videos about Gaza, based on a song by Michael Heart, ethical? Explain. About the videos about Gaza , based on a song “We will not go down “ by Michael Heart , 11. Apply the five attributes of visual symbols to the following advertisement. 1- Color : red , brings the energy to the society. 2- Form : _ Lines : horizontal curve lines in the middle of picture _ Shapes : parallelogram : square for small poster , circle to the ball or rectangles to the building under the the bottle of Coca-Cola. 3- Lighting : is strong, indicating the knowledge about soccer, and elements around soccer such as mouth of peoples cheering. 4- Spatiality : Designers use the white space for the little poster in the corner and the red space for the main picture to draw attention to the audience. 5- Movement : Graphic movement : when we look at the image, we will look the big elements in the picture first such as a bottle of Coca-Cola or the soccer ball and then we will look to the smaller poster inside about the FIFA in South Africa in 2010. 12. Knowing what you know about the different VALS types, which two VALS personalities might be the best potential market for the Gate’s “water from poop” project? Explain. - Thinkers : they must be mature enough to estimate the risk, cost of all processes. They need to have enough knowledge and information about the technology and the weather condition for the project. The product they used must have a good quality and long duration. - Achievers : they must create a plan and target because they will be motivated by finishing or accomplishing one step of the whole project. As a big project, it will need a long-term plan so they must be encouraged when finishing each step of all the processes. 13. Compare and contrast the two word clouds below. The first is from President Obama’s 2010 state of the union speech and the second is from his 2015 state of the union speech. What do the two word clouds tell you about what the focus was of each speech? What was less important in each? How do word clouds indicate the importance of items in a speech? Explain. What are the problems with the interpretation of Word Clouds? 14. Christians believe that the “rapture” will take place during the “end times” and that all believers will be taken to heaven in an instant. The unbelievers will be left behind. The rapture has taken place and millions of people have disappeared off the face of the earth. Your task is to “spin the story” so that the people will stay calm. How will you “Wag the Dog”? 15. Indicate two ethical challenges that are evident in the following advertisement? Explain. - Oppresion : instead of making the products more valuable , it makes the shirt less valuable. In addition, the image does not fit in with the morality of society. It looks like two women using drug instead of wearing shirts. It affect negatively on the people’s mind about encouraging to use drug. - Deception : looking to the picture, people will definitely not trust in the message that image brings. If they use two womem wearing that shirt and taking a photo with fashion poses , it makes more sense for customers to believe that it can be fit with them. 16. Cartoons are often one of the most persuasive forms of communication. What does the following cartoon communicate? Why might an image be the best way to communicate this message? What are the limitations of using cartoons to persuade? - The following cartoon communicates with presidents and the future of United State about spending expenses and budget. - The reason why is : a) You can say things that may not be considered politically correct! b) You can always defend your position with “that is not what I meant” c) People have a tendency to remember humorous examples. d) People are more likely to pay attention to cartoons - Limitations : a) The meaning of the message may be lost. b) Cartoons sometimes take away the importance of an issue. c) Cartoons may have multiple meanings and may actually be interpreted exactly opposite of what was intended. d) Cartoons do not hold anyone accountable for the message 17. How can the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) be applied to product advertisements over the last fifty years? Why do you believe these changes have been made? What are the benefits and disadvantages of these changes? - It attempts to explain how attitudes are shaped, formed, and reinforced by persuasive arguments. The basic idea is that when someone is presented with information, some level of “elaboration” occurs. Elaboration, in this context, means the effort someone makes to evaluate, remember, and accept (or reject) a message. - Because I believe that people can express either high or low elaboration (that is, their level of effort) when they encounter a persuasive message. - Advantages : You can save time , energy and detrimental mistakes 18. Compare and contrast the two versions of We are the World. What makes each persuasive? Compare : the purpose of two versions of We are the World is to raise the fund and give charity to support the Africa. Contrast : USA for Africa : We are the world We are the world 25 for Haiti - - To famine relief in Africa - - Support the Haiti - - Everyone recorded at the same place - - Everyone from recorded from many - - The quality of video is not high places worldwide - - People participation in the USA - - Variety types of music: pop, rap and so - The reason to make this persuasive because it is contributed by a lot of people on. - - High quality of video with big effort and investment about time - - People participation from all over the and money. world. => Reason to make this persuasive because it created a help , a big community to support the Haiti from the disaster to gain high reputation from people in the world. 19. Apply the three functions of persuasive images to the following. - Iconically, Image as representation of reality : the ISIS growing up with a significant number of soldiers. - Indexically, Image as proof : the ISIS army inclue many kinds of people from young to old gemeration. - Symbolically , Image as Argumentative Claim : the increasing number of ISIS army is a dangerous signal for every nations all over the world. 20. How has the media affected the quantity and quality of news that we receive? How has this changed over the last fifty years, and has the change been positive or negative? Explain.
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