ES 3 Final Study Guide
ES 3 Final Study Guide ES 3
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Cooke on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ES 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Graves in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Social and Cultural Environment in Environmental Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
NEW SPAIN ● Spanish came into Americas and tried to convert them to Christians, but to enforce their rules they set up theEncomienda System o System of labor. The Spanish were the Encomienderos and the native people were the Encomienda. Tiered system of Spanish kings, native leaders, Encomienda (laborers). System of tribute and protection. Spanish would agree to protect the whole village in exchange for tribute labor. ● Mission System o When the Spanish came, they made colonies to convert to Christian. This process was known as Proselytizing. ● Jesuits, Dominicans ● California o Last region to be colonized by Spaniards, only reason being thSacred Expedition to take control of California Natives (Chumash). o Ruined 10‐20 years of culture, destroyed habitats o Brought cattle and sheep, all their native animals o Was pretty successful. Lots of baptized CA Indians, most common language is Spanish ENGLISH COLONIES ● Mercantilism o 1600’s. At this time, Spain was greatest power. English needed to step up their game. Had guns, germs, and steel but the Spanish didn’t (still medieval). Brought in system of mercantilism by finding raw materials from America, processing them, and selling them back. Scared at first ‐ first colony was in Roanoake. ● First and Unsuccessful attempts at colonization o Roanoke: Spain 1588 tried to colonize Roanokes (colonizers didn’t survive) when ship came back all they found was charred bones. Still don’t know what happened to Roanokes. o Navidad: Navidad was the Spanish’s first colonization; Columbus left colonizers there and when returned back to on 2nd voyage, they found skulls (found colony of cannibals) ● Success in Jamestown, VA o Jamestown was successful (established in 1607). People almost didn't make it because they couldn’t adjust to new environment during theStarving Time , when they couldn’t establish their own crops in the new soil. Natives introduced them to native crops so they could survive and build profit out of that. ● known as Starving time because they ate rats, insects, and human flesh because they couldn't colonize native English crops ● found cash crop and native Am taught them how to smoke tobacco ● New England o Colony in the north. English came for new religious persecution ‐ didn’t want to be under English religion so they buila city on a hi” god’s country (John Winthrop’s sermon). Pilgrims wanted separation from church of English. Invoked discussion of freedom and morale. o Jamestown was all about money and colonizing, but New England were all about religion. o Puritans ▪ Puritans came to this area (New England) in 1630 ▪ came with lots of people and have a big flotilla that had men, women and children and came to STAY in America (called it New England) ▪ brought businesses like lumbering fishing, fur (all very successful) ▪ Puritans in New England wanted to control everything (wanted Puritan church to control economy) ● went to south like NYC, and Philadelphia (middle atlantic colonies) ● began in 1650s when Dutch came in and settled indian issues ● trade started to come in through mid transatlantic ● why we have giant cities of NYC and Philly ● moved it from Boston ● Middle Atlantic Colonies o NYC and Philly immigration o Successful trading ports. o That’s why they’re so packed still. o Traded fish, furs, rum, tobacco from America to Europe. o Mass production of tobacco to sell and profit from. ● Cash Crop Farming o Tobacco became huge cash crop ▪ Huge rich guys (criminals) coming to England with no titles (tries to use Indian labor first but not reliable) ▪ Brought indentured servants (signed Contract in England and worked 7 years in Am; also was unreliable) ▪ Unreliability led to African Slave trade ▪ First taken to West Indies for sugar production, then went north to New England. ▪ Developed system of African Slave labor in southern colonies ▪ Big cash crops that needed labor for was tobacco, rice and indigo ● Tobacco, rice, indigo o Huge cash crops ● Indentured servants o brought indentured servants (signed Contract in England and worked 7 years in Am; also was unreliable) o turned to African Slave trade ● Spanish came to convert Indians to Christianity and colonize to convert ● English came to either leave Catholic church or start trading ● French came for furs NEW FRANCE ● Black Robe (1991) THE BRITISH ISLES ● Celts o 43 AD o First inhabitants of the British Isles o Fairly advanced, had class system o Priests were known as d ruids o Romans came in 1st century AD and developed trading centers with the Celts o With the Romans coming, there was a strong transfer of GGS in Western Europe ● Hadrian’s Wall o Hadrian was a king of British Isles o Built a wall to protect his country/land from other barbarians like the Scots ● Norm Conquest o At war with the Angles, Saxons (Germanic nomads who came to unsettled central/northern England while Rome was declining) o Duke William took his men to where the Anglo‐Saxons were in central and northern England and defeated King Harold in thBattle of Hastings, while the whole conquest was known as Norman’s Conquest. o William the Conqueror createdDoomsday (Domesday) Book in order to legitimize his control of the Anglo‐Saxons. Pay taxes and recognize government in control. o First report of how big England was. ● Magna Carta ● ZPG Movement: Original document to protect the rights of the nobility. A year later, the king died and people included rights for non‐royalty. ● Paul Ehrlich: how big England was, argued overpopulation. Shows that England was on its way to a non‐absolute government. ● Ecological economists INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ● Stemmed from the Enlightenment Period o Wrote that everything can be explained through science, explanation, rationale, and logic o Began separating from the church — let’s get what we want! Money! o Industrialization might not work out like its supporters believe it will ‐ will lead to big environmental problems and ultimately destroy the human race and other species as well ● Triangular Trade o Trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Sometimes New England took over the role of Europe and goods would go from New England to Africa. o Mass production spurred — needed more and more so they could get more and more wealth — led to mass consumption o Needed advanced steam power... ● Mercantilism o Risen during this time because of triangular trade. o Took American raw goods back to Europe to be modified and processed, then sold back to America. o More money flow. ● Capitalism o Had to be established in new area of trade. o 1600s. o Mercantilism was a modern form of capitalism. Developed system of trades with other countries, power dominated hierarchy. ● Mass production = Mass consumption o Mercantilism. More trade, more production, bigger market for consumption and buying. o Applied technology ● Steam Power o steam power was powered by coal which is unclean when burned o Had bad air quality days and began to try to figure out how to deal with this ● James Watt o steam techonology dates back to Greeks but didn’t apply until James Watt (Englishman) o Began the spinning wheel which led to trains ● Robert Fulton and Eli Whitney o Fulton used Watt’s inventions to steam to create power boat (1807) o Whitney used it to smooth pig iron (not as strong as steel but the strongest of the time) ▪ Hugely successful because it made guns precise and uniform o Eli whitney and Robert Fulton looked at power tech and adopted steam power in America ▪ were New Yorkers ▪ Fulton used steam to create power boat (1807) ▪ Whitney used steam engine to turn a drill which could smooth down metal and create gun barrels (made money off developing fire arms) ▪ precision of smooth pig iron could create a gun that shot far ● Eli Whitney o Possibilities in cotton cloth, old England’s staple export, were endless — spurred by John Kay's “spinning jenny” and Eli Whitney’s “cotton gin”, as well as coal, which called for better methods of pumping out water. ● Early externalities o Big problems with consequences of industrial activity that the marketplace didn’t foresee or capture. Paid for the bad air quality because steam is powered by coal which is unclean when it burns. o London Smog ▪ Steel mills, textile mills leLondon Killer Smog : severe air quality problems that killed people with respiratory problems ● Locomotives themselves started burning coal in 1870’s ● Big‐business‐created externality of air pollution ● 1870: when CO2 emissions started to skyrocket SMITHIAN REVOLUTION ● Revolution that started because of the work of Adam Smith. At this time, France was also industrializing but not as much as England. Was a bad time for England because of the air, but they had a really good navy, world trade, and new classes. France was a little behind. Was a good place for philosophers to think about the future and the consequences of industrialization — if we keep doing this, what will happen? ● 1766: Adam Smith published An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) which was the world’s first collected description of what builds the nations wealth and is the start of classical economics. Smith was a researcher of global political economy. Widely read book because he defines what economy is, as well as o Resource allocation: Smith questioned the dispersal and fairness of resource allocation — how do they get to the right place? o Market Capitalism: Role of government within the economy — should be free market — believed thegovernment role should be nonexistent (laissezfaire) ▪ Messes up the signals that economy gives about supply/demand ▪ Invisible Hand of the free market will guide the economy ● Classical Economic Theory people and the market will work it all out. ● Mainstream Economists o Today, Adam’s Smith represent mainstream economist views of capitalism ● NeoSmithian o Julian Simon ● Free Trade o Smith called for free trade to allow the world to prosper. International trade should be left to its natural discourse without taxes or import tariffs ‐ eliminate the fees to allow the Invisible Hand to take place without govt control. Walk in – Pink Floyd – Animals THOMAS MALTHUS ● Adam Smith says minimal government influence is what we should have! If you just let the marketplace take care of itself, it will. That;’s a big question we deal with today ‐ will the economy take care of itself? ● Doubling o Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population As It Affects The Future(1798) ▪ Concept of doubling ‐ saw geometric population growth in the industrial areas. Because of doubling, there was no way food production can keep up with modern world. ▪ There will be ‐ the poor will remain poor and only get poorer and sicker as scarcity hits. Not enough resources, poor won’t be able to afford those. ▪ Widely read, specifically Thomas Carlyle who called economics“the dismal science” ● Poverty and Scarcity o Believed that no one could restrain themselves from having children and that food production could not keep up with a growing world population ● Malthusian theories have not come to pass, at least yet o Why? The Green Revolution ‐ put many more acres into production, pesticidapplying technology into growing more food. Food production per acre has increased rapidly, stopping the idea of food outsourcing. Has at ldelayed Malthusian theory from fruition. o Also, birth control. Slows fertility of the human race, in turn slowing doubling. o Also, wars and famine have wiped out good amounts of the population. ● ZPG Movement : created by Paul Ehrlich, is a type of mutual coercion. Zero Pop Growth ‐ only replicate yourself. DAVID RICARDO ● Smith = always bigger, always better ● Malthus = the bigger the more likely the collapse ● Ricardo = who gets what in a capitalist society? ● Workers, capitalists, landlords o Workers have been brought from farm to factory to work for wages, revel in delights that keep them poor like drinking too much, gonna stay poor because they have too many kids. They’re always available, they’re always expendable. o Capitalists are plant managers. Can be anywhere in the management structure. Are the guys who hire workers to make their products, and try to sell their products to accumulate profit. They invest in more plants, increase economic activity to increase economic profit. Other plant managers are in competition ‐ want to eliminate other competition. At the mercy of the capitalist system as well. o Landlords ride their escalators straight up to the top. Rent is solid. ● Sheep, dogs, pigs; Pink Floyd’s “Animals” o Animal Farm (George Orwell, 1945) ‐Sheep, dogs, pigs hierarchy that reflects modern times o The tragedy is dealing with the position of the sheep (workers) and dogs (capitalists) ● The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) o His most famous work ● The Escalator o Who gets what in society? o Concerned about goods distribution o Doesn’t believe everyone benefits equally ● Wages: worker’s pay depends on economy ● Profits: Landlords will always profit becaurent will always be needed ● Corn Law o Protective tariff o Urged government to stop corn laws. o Government passed tariffs protecting English grain. o Other countries could produce cheaper grains and import it to England, but the government put tariffs so they wouldn’t do that. o This way they could keep grain prices high so the international prices would balance out. o Favored the landlord because the tariff eliminated international competition o He could exploit English workers ● Distribution o The distribution was skewed o Wanted regulation of how distribution worked o Wanted more Govt involvement ● Profit Maximization ● Economic Determinism o Economics were the only thing that mattered o Economic relationship between owner/capitalist and worker/proletariat. o Foundation on which all other social and political relationships are built. ● How to maximize profits? o Necessary for competition. In order to do this, they lowered wages, reduced environmental safeguards — why people left England to have better opportunity in America. KARL MARX (18181883) ● Feudalism was still prominent iPrussia, AustriaHungary. 90% of population was peasants. Tried to move away from absolute monarchy with education among peasants which resulted in the 1848 Revolution where peasants rebelled. Also the same year of the Communist Manifesto, which has a big influence on the peasants. o Georg Hegel inspired the book/revolution. Believed there would be a complete change. ● Dialectical materialism: belief that all historical growth and development comes from the struggle of opposites. i.e. proletariats/bourgeoisie. ● Fredrich Engels: Marx’s partner. Wrote both Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. o Communist Manifesto (1848) ▪ Capitalist to communist. Communist Manifesto ‐ history will eventually favor the working class. Dangerous thing to say when the working class is 97%. ▪ Describes that the work ing class will eventually be favored ▪ Thought to have inspired several social revolutions in Europe ▪ Eventually made their way to NYC. Marx and Engels eventually wrote multiple books. o Das Kapita l (1867‐1894) ▪ Das Kapital(1867‐1894) written by Marx and Engels. ▪ Identified forces that shaped history – all economics ▪ critical analysis of political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production ▪ Started the first Russian Revolution. Workers rebelled and eventually created the Soviet Union. Marx and Engels set the inspiration for Cold War, which took a huge toll on environment. ▪ At this time, resources didn’t have value until human manipulation was enforced. ● Farmers and merchants . Takes GGS until farm fades out and merchant culture is triumphant. Competition in history, merchants prevailed. ● Merchants vs. capitalists . Plant owners coming into dominance. Capitalists prevailed. ● Merchants/bourgeoisie and proletariat/workers . 1800’s = last struggle. Bourgeoisie prevailed. o Bourgeoisie and proletariats is going on right now but the proletariat will win and we will find a Socialist Utopia. ● Socialist utopia o Workers of the world will triumph! And that will be the end of history. o There will be no need for money or Govt, everything will be run by the people ▪ Eventually have proletariat workers in control, with a socialist utopia. No struggle, everyone is doing fine, everything is taken care of or going well. No need for government or royalty or money or property, authority, title. The essence of what the Cold War was all about. What many 20th century revolutions were about. Marx was saying, the workers won’t put up with this ● 1st Russian Revolution (1904) o Inspired by Das Kapital o They realized how bad they had it o Shot the Tsar and his family ● 1917 Revolution o Second revolution o Lenin grabbed power using Marx’s writing as an excuse ● Resource Valuation o Didn’t have value until manipulated by humans o Cold war was very expensive and env destructive o Marx said natural resources don’t matter unless theyre touched by humans and value is added to them o Resource intensive ● Economic Determinism ITS A TOUGH OLD WORLD ● Herbert Spencer (18201903): It’s a tough old world, let things fall where they may. For Spencer, man should not attempt to interfere in any way with the struggle for survival. If a person, race, institution, or nation could not adapt it should not survive. ● William Graham Sumner (18401910): William Graham Sumner, a professor of political science at Yale University, accepted and expanded Spencer's ideas and was the leading American spokesman for what became known as "Social Darwinism."Sumner insisted that natural laws applied to society and all social organisms and that man should not interfere with the workings of these natural laws. Those social organizations (businesses, races, nations, or any other social group) which survived and prospered were those who best adapted to the social environment. This set of ideas was summed up by the phrase "survival of the fittest." IRON HORSE ● The first big business: railroads o Through the early 1820’s to 1900’s o What the American Indians first called the trains when they first saw it ‐ the Iron Horse. Epitomizes much about the Industrial Revolution, technologies, because the railroads were the world’s first big business . Speaks a lot when you think about all the businesses we have today. o Sustained many spinoff industries for the extraction and refinement of natural resources, including iron, steel, and lumber. ● Transportation Revolution o State of the art sailing ships, few good roads were transportation methods until trains. Improvement of waterways through Europe (rivers to transport commerce and people) to stagecoaches (as roads got better), but the railroads took it to another level. Loads of freight and people give an idea as to how trains completed the transportation revolution. ● Spinoff Industries o i.e. iron and steel industry. Demand during early revolution, but with the development of trains, the industry boomed to build locomotives, machines, railroads, etc. Had to have precision machinery for precision parts — want to replace parts notmachines. ● Iron, steel, machine tools ● Bessemer process o The Making Of Steel (1850) ▪ Henry Bessemer Process : found way to blow air through pig iron, reducing impurities by 10‐fold. Pure, hard, non‐rustable element that we call steel. ● London Smog o Steel mills, textile mills led London Killer Smog : severe air quality problems that killed people with respiratory problems ▪ Locomotives themselves started burning coal in 1870’s ▪ Big‐business‐created externality of air pollution ▪ 1870: when CO2 emissions started to skyrocket ● Profit maximization o Had to look at huge amounts of capital to make their companies successful o Got accountants to maximize profits, never been done before o Tracked every penny going in and out of railroad industry o Cost‐accounting departments, treasury departments, finance departments ● Hierarchical Management o First created in Industrial Revolution o People in charge, bosses with people under them and people under them o Created the corporate structures we have in big businesses today ● Time Zones ● Sir Sandford Fleming o Created in train revolution o People set their watches by sun o Created Grenwich Meantime (0‐time) and extended time zones throughout the world for more accurate time with train arrival and departure ● Stocks and bonds o Railroads needed huge amounts of money to support their industry o Had to generate capital to improve their lines o Started selling securities in their companies, stocks and bonds o Shareholders thinking it will go up in price because they’re good in business o Literally created Wall Street ● The great resource gobbler o Power, wood, railroad tracks o Resources needed in vast quantities o As had never been used before o 1920’s transformation to car ● Transatlantic Transference o Able to transfer technology from England to The Continent to The US o Essential role in Civil War o From 30,000 to 250,000 miles of tracks from 1860 to 1914 ● LUDDISM ● Weavers, Stockingers, Croppers o Skilled workers thought they were secure but THEY WEREN’T. o Refers specifically to workers in the 1800’s who broke textile machines in response to the threat they were going to be replaced by them in the workplace o Railroads were the ultimate symbol of Industrial Revolution, but so were textile mills and the machines in them. Technology imposed on mills and forced workers out. o England is where people came to work. Transformed in 16/1700’s ● Against the Machine o “The Hidden Luddite Tradition in Art, Literature, and Individual Lives” o Textile workers and how David Ricardo’s model turned evil against them in the early 1800’s ● Nichols Fox: ● Capitalists, Skilled, Unskilled Workers o Weavers, stockingers, croppers = skilled people who take cloth and turn it into something else. Did pretty well, made good wages, thought they were secure. o Competition became cutthroat o Tariffs (corn laws) raised and food prices went even higher, hurting the whole country ▪ Harder to sell British goods abroad because of tariffs o Capitalists (plant managers) had to figure out a way to maintain profits in these rough times ▪ Cut wages in skilled and especially unskilled workers ▪ Desperate situation ▪ People locked into this lifestyle, can’t provide anything for themselves ▪ Needed more ‐ turned to technology ● Sometimes they themselves developed these machines ● Would put these machines into place ‐ power frames ● Brought machines into the skilled area ● Luddite Rebellion o Ned or King Ludd ▪ Legendary leader: was he a legend or did he actually lead it? o Occurred in Nottingham o Start of rebellion in the form of broken machines o Some might call it a Rage Against the Machine o Home to famous sheriff o Started breaking up machines o First at Knottingham, at a lace factory. Broke in at middle of night and started smashing machines with sledgehammers o Sent shockwaves throughout the manufacturing community ‐ new threat they hadn’t considered before o Machine breaking expanded in 1811 and 1812 with late night raids o Luddites attracted other people into their strife convincing them that they too would be replaced o Landowners hired armed guards and spies to infiltrate Luddite cells. Got British government to make Luddite crimes punishable by death. This response worked. o Fear of capitalism o Unholy relationship between government and business that environmentalists cry today ● Modern Luddism o Elements of Luddism in modern environmentalism — where is this world coming to? o Aversion to modernity o I like the natural world better than the human developed world o Humans becoming obsolete because of technology EARLY ENVIRONMENTALISM ● The Romantics o Urban Europe, urban U.S. ▪ London, Paris, Germany, North Sea ▪ Rapidly industrializing and changing ▪ People started saying the world was moving towards overcivilized situation ● Too much civilization? ▪ Intellectuals who were looking at Renaissance, Greco‐Roman texts. Started writing like them. High elites in their society, very smlamented that the world was losing its natural ways, wildness, and space. Wanted to revive romantic times and avoid over‐civilization of societies. ● Primitivism o Jean‐Jacques Rousseau: wrote about primitivism. Claimed America were the savages close to nature and we should stay savages. Wrote about nature in a favorable way. ▪ Primitivism: Savages of Americas, East Indies are much better than we are because they are much closer to nature. Primitivism was a virtue, not something to be tamed and civilized. ▪ Began to see English poets (Keats, Shelly, Byron) writing about nature in a favorable way o Primitivism viewpoint crossed Atlantic and found people who shared that viewpoints in Boston, big cities in U.S. o U.S. people adapted these viewpoints and called it TRANSCENDENTALISM ● Transcendentalism o Talked about improvement of the self o Being an individual, staying away from the mainstream of thought o Closeness of nature o More applicable romanticism to their own lives o Developed in mid‐1800’s in U.S. o Emerson developed it, co‐founder being Margaret Fuller who wrote about the Monstrous Me (greed is our worst enemy, through transcendental thought we can overcome these) ● Preservation Movement o A Naturalist movement (spiritual) o Keep things in their wild conditions o Preserve as much land as possible o Represented by John Muir (1838‐1914): came to California, fell in love with Yosemite/Sierra Nevadas, wrote eloquently about needing to keep the world in its natural state. o Painters painted romantic scenes of natural world, like Yosemite ● Spirituality vs. Science o Everything can be explained with rationale, industrialization will destroy humans and other species ● The Enlightenment o Wrote that everything can be explained through science, explanation, rationale, and logic o Industrialization might not work out like its supporters believe it will ‐ will lead to big environmental problems and ultimately destroy the human race and other species as well o Resource depletion o Degradation o Species Extinction o World conservation ● George PerkinsMarsh o Foreign diplomat who spent time in Turkey and Italy doing research o Wrote book saying human beings are the new glaciers, we can change the world indefinitely o If we want to do something about conservation, we need to do something about it o Inspired Conservation Movement ▪ Spread through various parts of government ▪ Pinchot (1865‐1947) ‐ student of Perkins‐Marsh. We are running out of resources. Chief of Florist Service. Changed the way we use resources now. Believed government role was the only thing that could change. Allocate resources worldwide. World conservation to change everything! Hasn’t happened yet, but he had a huge impact in how we conserve today. ● Both Pinchot and Muir thought government should control land, but should it be conserved, or preserved entirely in its natural state? ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARFARE YPRES (EEPUR) ● Belgium ● One of the first cities to experience several new types of warfare over the course of several battles, including machine guns, poison gas, and flamethrowers. The end result: a lasting wasteland and nearly 1 mil dead. Global war was all about getting resources. Had huge environmental impact that we still live with today, and will probably live with forever. Leaves toxic messes, engenders technology for nuclear weapons and energy (basic cannon ‐> hydrogen bomb in a single lifetime). ● World War 1/Great War overview: Although Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the nephew of Austria's emperor and heir‐apparent to the throne, was not very well liked by most, his assassination by a Serb nationalist was viewed as a great excuse to attack Austria‐Hungary's troublesome neighbor, Serbia. However, instead of reacting quickly to the incident, Austria‐Hungary made sure they had the backing of Germany, with whom they had a treaty, before they proceeded. This gave Serbia time to get the backing of Russia, with whom they had a treaty.▯The calls for back‐up didn't end there. Russia also had a treaty with France and Britain.▯This meant that by the time Austria‐Hungary officially declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, an entire month after the assassination, much of Europe had already become entangled in the dispute.▯At the start of the war, these were the major players (more countries joined the war later):▯ o Allied Forces (a.k.a. the Allies): France, the United Kingdom, Russia, Serbia o Central Powers: Germany and Austria‐Hungary ● Western Front: occurred in Western Europe along the North Sea. ● 1st Battle of Ypres (Summer and Fall of 1914) o Winston Churchill was a foot soldier in the first battle of Ypres. Eventually became prime minister of Britain during WW1 o Lasted several months in 1914 o Total of 237k casualties, including dead, wounded, and missing ▪ Mostly Germans, lots of French and English too o New technology ‐ machine guns (1900’s) ‐ never used in battlefield to this extent. Step up from bayonets and long rifles. Did the most to make the battle as extensive as it was. ● Second battle of Ypres o Between April and June, 1915 o Two new forms of technological warfare came out during this battle ▪ Poisonous gas andflamethrowers ● Trained with gas masks on to protect from poison gas ● Blister gas, tear gas, vomitting gas, nerve gas ● Tech had been around since 1850 with chlorine gas, but Germans introduced it in the second battle of Ypres ● Flamethrowers are oil backpacks that pump into a gun and burn you o 105k total casualties (least of the three) ● Third Battle of Ypres (July‐November 1917) o No new weapons beyond better tanks, but tanks were becoming more lethal as time went on o 500k‐600k wounded ● To this very day, they’re still picking up leftovers from WW1 in Eastern France ● Development of weapons: weapons to do damage. Kill a lot of people, waste a lot of land, put a lot of pollution into the world. Ecological damage. INFLUENZA ● Spanish Flu o Pandemic across Europe o Due to warfare and increased transportation ▪ WW1 and Iron Horse o In contrast to other diseases, this killed a disproportionate amount of healthy adults o Joint forces of Plague, War, and Death caused 50 million deaths worldwide ● Questionable origins o Spain or Asia? o Probably didn’t originate in Spain but it effected Spain to the point where it was named after. Probably originated in Asia (swine), but it made its way around the world ● Wartime conditions o Food production is disrupted, people are spreading, clean water and health care disrupted, sanitary services lacking… o Swine spread ● Alfred Cosby o “America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918 ” byAlfred Cosby ● First case in U.S.: March 1918. Patient 0 waAlbert Mitchell, a soldier Camp Funston , Kansas, where they were training for WW1. Reported to the infirmary one morning, and within 5 hours there were 107 soldiers sick on campus. ● US Public Health Service ● Woodrow Wilson was president at this time. Had visions for the world and U.S., but got the flu. Was bedridden and super sick, didn’t get his way with the negotiations, came back and had a stroke, so his wife basically took over for the rest of his termination. Survived the flu but was weakened to the point where he couldn’t be president. ● Franklin Roosevelt served in the navy during WW1. Went to France, got the flu, bedridden with double pneumonia, went home, a couple years later in 1921 he fought a forest fire on the main coast, came home and never walked again — got polio malignitis. Weakened by the flu? Susceptible to other problems? STALINGRAD ● Interwar Period o Between WW1 and WW2. Started when Germany was rearmed and Hitler had Nazis invaded Poland. Germany didn’t find oil in Poland so they went to Russia for oil, went into a battle ofStalingrad. Soldiers starved and froze to death. o Nazis tried everything they could to take ovStalingrad (oil point because it was around the Caspian Sea). Germans employed everyone, including women. Lila Litviok (German) was a fire pilot that killed 12 people from above. Killed at 22. o Russians call thisThe Great Patriotic War (1/4 Russians killed trying to protect Russia) o City was an important strategic area in WW2, providing access to oil fields near the Caspian Sea . After the Germans seized the city, the Soveits turned their artillery on it to retake it. 2 mil casualties from battles. ● Josef Stalin o the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid‐1920s until his death in 1953 ● Volgograd o Stalingrad is now called Volgograd. ● Environmental Impact o Russia let Germans come in so that they could expel them out. Destroyed the city. Lots of material gone to waste, resources depleted. SCORCHED EARTH ● Method of warfare focused on destroying environment so it cannot be utilized by the enemy. o In the past, Russians used this tactic to prevent the Germans o Because the environment wasn’t a priority during wartime ● The Ecology of War o Global war is all about getting resources. Has a huge environmental impact that we still live with today, and will probably live with forever. Leaves toxic messes, engenders technology for nuclear weapons and energy, kills people and animals and wildlife. ● Vietnam War was a carryover from WW2. Indigenous Vietnam forces joined with the French during WW2 but resulted in a power struggle. French pushed N‐S down Vietnam. US helped French because they thought were helping destroy communism in Vietnam. US had half a million American troops there. o Jungle‐y terrain made US need to overcome this landscape. Lowered the playing field by using Agent Orange by burning down the jungle so people couldn’t hide behind the trees. Whole operation known as Operation Ranchand : contaminated waters supply, ruined mango trees, killed animals. Caused longterm erosion/defoliation in Vietnam. ▪ Use Rome plows (bulldozer plows with spears that could clear mass forest, land, and jungle) ▪ Doused wood with kerosine and dropped burning wood into forest ● Defoliation: the loss of foliage ● Agent Orange o i.e. Agent Orange and Carpet Bombing in Vietnam ▪ Carpet Bombing : planes loaded with bombs and dropped on Vietnam to set jungle on fire withnapalm, a highly explosive age. Resulted indefoliation. ● Rome plows ● Weather modification o Sent planes spraying iodine in hopes of making abnormal weather/rain ● FuelAir Explosives o Contained napalm , an extremely flammable, explosive element. ● US eventually pulled out war in 1979 without winning ● Napalm ● Jacksonville, AR o City where Agent Orange was made o During the 80’s and 90’s, people contracted cancer diseases because water was damaged from Agent Orange plant sites. Lost a lot of population. o Nicknamed the city Dioxonville. ● Persian Gulf war o i.e. Sadam’s retreat from Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War ▪ 1990’s when Sadam demanded possession of Iraq by using Scorched Earth (burned down if he couldn’t have it). Bush didn’t want this to happen, so he organized a bunch of countries to take Kuwait back. ▪ 1991, the US coalition was ready to go into The Mother Of All Battles, but the Iraqis didn’t have good military power so US used technology and the Iraqis retreated. o Created huge oil fires that spilled into the Persian Gulf o US responded by threatening to cut off Iraq water supplies but they didn’t need to because Iraq fell apart o Smoke from oil fire went into air and killed birds/fish, soldiers inhaled smoke, lung damage, headaches, memory loss (“Gulf War Syndrome”) ▪ This is consideredenvironmental terrorism: an unlawful action or set of actions leading to short or long‐term harm/destruction of environmental resources and property to deprive others of its use. The term also refers to the unnecessary destruction of the environment for personal gain. ● HYDROGEN BOMB ● Atomic Cafe : movie. Nuclear war, weapons, and explosions. You could go into a fallout shelter and be safe. Pushed by US government, motivating view that nuclear waris andwill happen. Tornado drills, nuclear bomb drills that broke up class. ● Civil defense: told people that you can survive by building a fallout shelter and being able to access it. Public buildings had fallout shelters, big basements and fallout shelter symbol sign on them. Take comfort in that safety. ● Luxury homes were built with fallout shelters. Idea was that you could stay in fallout shelters for months, even years. Gave illusion that there was survivability in nuclear wars. ● Meanwhile, the US and Soviet Union were doing tests . The US did its test in the South Pacific, near the Marshall Islands, “as remote as you can get”. Blasted these islands to smithereens to test nuclear weapons. Soviets tested nearSiberia. Continued from the 1950’s into the 1960’s. Testing hydrogen bombs that had much more the power of those which were dropped on Hiroshima. ● Soviets built the biggest bomb ever. ● Dr. Strangelove: played by Peter Sellers. People started getting worried, and tried to make the point. Nothing makes a point better than a film in modern times, which was portrayed in Dr. Strangelove (or how I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb). Showed that an all‐out nuclear exchange will kill all life on earth. ● The two hydrogen bombs carried by each B‐52 are 40‐megatons — equal to 40 million tons of TNT or dynamite. Equal to the explosive force of all the shells and booms used by all the armies in WW2. ● Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Symbol (1958) became a peace symbol ☮ POSTWAR SHOCKERS 1:(OIL AND GAS) ● Cleveland, OH o First oil patch in the U.S., close proximitake Erie o Cuyahoga River ▪ Caught on fire over 13x in the 20th century, helped spur the environmental movement ▪ 1969, Times stated that in this river, a person does not drown but decays ● SB Oil Spill o 1970’s oil spill tangible in area Union Oil Co.’ Platform A o Caused UC professors to band together as Friends of the Environment and create theUCSB Environmental Studies Program ● Exxon Valdez o oil tanker spilled a lot of oil iPrince William Sound . Made a miscalculation on their way to CA and spilled millions of gallons into Sou Prudhoe Bay is where the oil is taken through the TransAlaskan pipeline. There was ownership taken and impressive effort from government and company to work together to clean up this spill. 1989. ● Bhopal, India o Bhopal, India : cyanide and other chemical leak that claimed 3000 liveUnion Carbide was the plant. Result of India trying to break into the industrial world. Based on energy and chemical production. ● Gulf of Mexico Spill o Home to nearly 4000 oil rigs, this region produces around 20 billion gallons of oil/year and is the site of the largest oil spill in history (210 mil gallons) ● British Petroleum Co. o Gulf of Mexico: British Petroleum Co. was drilling 3 miles below the very bottom of the ocean and an accumulation of pressure caused an explosion that blew a pipe. Tried to set spill on fire, but the concentration of oil had permeated too far and was ineffective Dispersants caused oil to coagulate, causitar balls that washed up on the shores. ● Cleveland, OH : one of the first cities to start the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing oil. o Lake Eyrie : Path of transportation next to Cleveland, heightening o Cuyahoga River : Flows through Cleveland and feeds into Lake Eerie. Lots of Cleveland’s air pollutants and waste went into river. 9 days of oil burning after a major spill in 1965, publicizing the terrible waste that the Industrial Revolution brought. ● SB Oil Spill: 1969. Largest oil spill in any U.S. waters at the time, now ranks 3rd behind 2010 Exxon spill. Came from Union Oil Co.’s (company) Platform A (site). Killed off lots of marine life. Attempted to downplay spill. Ruined tourist season and caused city to lose money. Inspired the creation ofUCSB Environmental Studies Program with the help of a few professors in 1970 ‐ how do humans impact environment? ● Exxon Valdez: oil tanker spilled a lot of oil Prince William Sound . Made a miscalculation on their way to CA and spilled millions of gallons into Sou Prudhoe Bay is where the oil is taken through the TransAlaskan pipeline. There was ownership taken and impressive effort from government and company to work together to clean up this spill. 1989. ● Bhopal, India : cyanide and other chemical leak that claimed 3000 livesUnion Carbide was the plant. Result of India trying to break into the industrial world. Based on energy and chemical production. ● Gulf of Mexico: British Petroleum Co. was drilling 3 miles below the very bottom of the ocean and an accumulation of pressure caused an explosion that blew a pipe. Tried to set spill on fire, but the concentration of oil had permeated too far and was ineffectiv Dispersants caused oil to coagulate, causing ar balls that washed up on the shores. ● Summed up environmental significance: increase in post‐war oil production has caused many environmental problems. As we continue our dependence on oil we will continue to face more problems. Some learned their lessons, some did not ‐i.e. Cleveland has turned into a rust‐built city, while UCSB has since thrived off their environmental embrace. Wars have huge impact on environment, but simply running cities and countries. When will another incident occur? We must learn our lessons and improve technique and technology to avoid facing future replications of these spills. POSTWAR SHOCKERS 2: NUCLEAR NIGHTMARES ● Nuclear energy is mostly used for electricity (currently 20%). However we have problems with nuclear waste, like spent fuel. ● There was a major accident on Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant nearHarrisburg, PA in 1979 . Combination of events while they were trying to do maintenance on one of the cooling towers — valve in gage didn’t work right — MELTDOWN. In order to deal with it, they had to release radioactive steam or the whole thing would blow up. There are many people living in this community, and everyone had to be evacuated. Media loves oil spills’ visuality. o Led to nuclear protest on power plants ● Metropolitan Edison ● Chernobyl, Kiev, USSR o Kiev, USSR .Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine which completely blew up. Massive explosion of one of the 4 reactors. This sent a plume of radioactive steam that sent a plume around the world. The only way the world learned about this is sensors picked up radioactive steam. Soviets were trying to keep it quiet — didn’t want the world to know. Long‐term effects of Chernobyl: mutated deer, mutated humans, continue to deal with this even 30 years later. Rest of world questioned the secrecy in the event. Huge blow to the Soviet reputation, especiallUSSR President Mikhail Gorbachev Legacies who said he wanted more openness in Russia. ● Japan Tohoko Earthquake and Tsunami : natural disaster. 9.1 earthquake created huge 30ft tsunami. Hit theFukushima Daiichi Power Plant . Japan turned to nuclear energy because they didn’t have energy — didn’t foresee this happening, debris is still showing up. Natural disaster but it goes to show that nature isn’t always harmonious with human development. We can be as careful and take extreme measures as we please but there’s always chance for something to go wrong. Kind of like fracking. ● Tokyo Electric Power Co. was forced to shut down after recompensing people. ● The next shocker: we have to be careful about the next. What happens next?? NEPA ● National Environmental Policy Act (1969) o Forced development to examine the environmental impacts of their actions and evaluate alternatives ● Rachel Carson o American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. o Silent Spring: environmental science book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin on September 27, 1962 ● Ladybird Johnson o Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Taylor Johnson was First Lady of the United States during the presidency of her husband, Lyndon B. Johnson. Notably well‐educated for her time, she proved a capable manager and a shrewd investor o Let’s keep America beautiful , let’s not litter, gave new philosophy to importance of outdoors. ● Council on Environmental Quality o The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) coordinates Federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. CEQ was established within the Executive Office of the President by Congress as part of thNational Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and additional responsibilities were provided by the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970. ● Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) o An environmental impact statement EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment[1 An EIS is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negativenvironmental effects of a proposed action, and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen instead of the action described in the EIS. SeverU.S. sta governments require that a document similar to an EIS be submitted to the state for certain actions. For example, in California, an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) must be submitted to the state for certain actions, as described in theCalifornia Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). o Created the Council on Environmental Quality , a committee that advises president on environmental issues o All federal actions required environmental impact statement o Written by Lynton Caldwell, a political scientist. ● Public Involvement o Involves public, interdisciplinary planning (multiple professional areas working together ‐ botanists, urban planners, engineers, etc.), interagency involvement (need permission and review of initiatives from governmental sectors) ● Interagency review ● Stockholm Declaration o (1972): United Nations passed initiative similar to global NEPA ‐ development needs to be done in harmony with the environment. All states in the Union have separate policies as well. ● UN Environmental Programmed ● Big government measure TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS ● Garrett Hardin : Born in 1915. UCSB professor in Environmental Studies program. Had a great career. Wrote 27 books, most of which coalesce into the tragedy of the commons. Up to 1978, popular classes, radical outlook. Actually had 4 children. Coined the term “Tragedy of the Commons”. Had polio. ● Jane Hardin ‐ developed generative diseases as well. In 2003, they went to the Hemlock Society and took their own lives. They decided they didn’t want to lead a life of suffering anymore. Chose their own time to die. ● Hemlock Society o Hardins took their lives by taking Hemlock ● Population, Overpop o Taught about this. Humans need to limit growth freedom. We need mandatory restriction on birth (rate is not sustainable). ● Mandatory restrictions o “Mutual coercion” ‐ mutually agreed upon. The only alternative. We have to agree to use less, have fewer children. Being coerced, but not by government. Happening because if it doesn’t, the consequences are dire. Resources will be used up. o Only replicate yourself ‐ 2 children per couple ● The Commons: late medieval English countryside. resources] ● The Tragedy : free land up for use by common people. The place where all the people of several villages raise their sheep. No problem if each shipper limits the number of sheep in the Commons. If one guy puts another sheep in, another farmer sees their economic advantage and puts one more sheep into his commons. [grass can’t grow fast enough for all the sheep that are eating] o Air o Water ‐ ocean is a dumping site. o Land ● Carrying Capacity : the amount of people who the earth’s resources can support. If it gets succeeded, all ships will sink, if too many sheep graze ● Lifeboat analogy : Titanic was loaded up with lifeboats, but most men had to stay behind because there were not enough lifeboats. If you pack on enough lifeboats for everybody, the ship is too heavy and will sink down and everyone will drown. o Shouldn’t have overloaded the boat with people — not enough resources for everyone. ● Growth is over ● Sustainability will impoverish the world ● Sustainable equilibrium JULIAN SIMON ● University of Maryland o professor at UofM o People are the most limited resource ● Cato Institute o conservative think tank o wrote for the Cato Institute ● NeoSmithian o believed letting the marketplace determine everything and it will work out ▪ Followed Adam Smith’s “Invisible Hand”, making him a classical economist o believed that there are not enough humans on earth and that we can keep increasing. As long as we have more innovation, we will c
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