BIO 201 EXAM 1 Study Guide
BIO 201 EXAM 1 Study Guide BIO 201
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Briana on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 201 at Arizona State University taught by Drake, Penkrot in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 391 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Chapter 1 Introduction Know the scientific method and why it is important 0 Used to find the answers to factually based questions 0 Can be used to separate science from philosophy What makes it different from other types of investigation 0 It helps support and disprove a hypothesis 0 Allows science to advance by trial and error Inductive vs Hypotheticodeductive reasoning 0 Inductive Basis for much of what we know and makes more assumptions to draw conclusions 0 Hypothetico Make fewer assumptions to draw conclusions Know what constitutes reasonable proof in science 0 Reliable observations 0 Tested and confirmed repeatedly 0 Not falsified by any credible observation Know the features necessary for a rigorous experimental design 0 Sample size Number of subjects used in a study Controls for chance events and individual variation 0 Controls Control group and treatment group Comparison of treated and untreated individuals 0 Psychosomatic Effects Placebo Effect effects of the subject s state of mind on his her physiology 0 Attempt to minimize eliminate experimenter bias Prevented with doubleblind study 0 Statistical testing provides statements of probability Know the difference between anatomy and physiology 0 Anatomy is the study of structure 0 Physiology is the study of how these structures function Know the four characteristics of living things 0 Organization 0 Metabolism 0 Adapt to the environment 0 Reproduction Understand the difference between reductionism and holism 0 Reductionism Theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying it simpler components 0 Holism there are emergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of the separate parts Five features of the external environment necessary for life 0 Pressure 0 Atmosphere 0 Heat 0 Nutrients 0 Water Know what homeostasis is 0 The body s ability to detect change activate mechanisms that oppose it and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions Understand what a gradient is 0 Gradients are regulated via homeostasis Understand the difference between negative and positive feedback loops 0 Positive feedback works with the direction of change Ex Occurs with childbirth blood clotting protein digestion fever and generation of nerve signals 0 Negative feedback works against the direct of change Chapter 2 Chemistry Know the general proportions of major elements in the human body 0 Nitrogen 32 0 Hydrogen 95 0 Carbon 185 0 Oxygen 65 0 Other elements 38 Know what protons neutrons and electrons are and what properties of an atom each determines 0 Protons determine atomic number 0 Neutrons determine nuclear mass and stability Electrons can be added or lost easily Understand What isotopes are Isotopes have the same number of protons so same element but different numbers of neutrons Know What a halflife is Average time for unstable isotope to decay Understand how ionizing radiation differs from regular radiation Ionizing Radiation alters the electron cloud of atoms high energy Molecular bond damage extensive chemical damage Radiation transfers energy low energy Thermal damage limited chemical damage Know What valence is Number of bonds that can be formed by an atom of an element Know What ions are An atom or molecule With a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons Know What covalent bonds vs ionic bonds are Covalent bonds sharing electrons in order to achieve octet configuration Ionic Bonds an electron is donated from one atom to another Polar vs nonpolar molecules Polar molecules a molecule in Which the bond dipoles present do now cancel each other out Nonpolar molecules Know the difference between hydrophilic hydrophobic and amphipathic molecules Hydrophilic mixes well With water Hydrophobic repelled Oil and water do not mix Amphipathic both a polar end and a lipid end Know the functional groups and their formulae Hydroxyl OH sugars alcohols Methyl CH3 fats oils steroids amino acids 0 Carboxyl COOH amino acids sugars proteins 0 Amino NH2 amino acids proteins 0 Phosphate H2PO4 Nucleic acids ATP Know the different types of mixtures 0 Solution solute completely dissolved in a solvent 0 Colloid consists of two phases dispersed and continuous 0 Suspension contains particles large and heavy enough to settle out Understand organic vs inorganic molecules 0 Organic based on carbon backbone 0 Inorganic based on some other element Know the unique properties of water 0 Liquid 0 High specific heat 0 Strange density 0 Polar Understand what hydrogen bonds are and why they are important 0 Hydrogen bonds come from weak electrical attractions between atoms Understand pH and what general ranges are acidic basic and neutral 0 pH is the density of H in a water 0 Acidic less than 7 more H 0 Basic more than 7 more OH Biological molecules monomers vs hydrolysis 0 Monomers 0 Hydrolysis taking a water molecule and breaking it in half Know what ATP is and why it is important 0 Adenosine Triphosphate The body s energy molecule Breaking of the terminal phosphate bond releases energy needed for many cellular processes Chapter 3 Cells Know the basic statements that make up the cell theory 0 The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life 0 Organismal activity depends on individual and collective activity of cells 0 Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by subcellular structure 0 Continuity of life has a cellular basis 0 Cells can only come from other cells Understand why cells are limited in their size 0 Cell growth increases volume more than surface area 0 Surface area of a cell is proportional to the square of its diameter 0 Volume of a cell is proportional to the cube of its diameter Know the components of the plasma membrane and be able to identify them in a figure Know what a Gprotein is 0 G protein relays signal to adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP 2nd messenger Know the difference between microvilli and cilia 0 Microvilli do not move in the plasma membrane and they exist to increase surface area for absorption 0 Cilia is much bigger and longer It s also capable of moving How do cilia work in a mucous membrane 0 It has a layer of saline to allow the cilia lining the respiratory tract to move Understand simple diffusion 0 The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Active vs Passive Transport 0 Passive transport mechanisms requires no ATP 0 Active transport mechanisms consumes ATP Which molecules can diffuse right across the plasma membrane and which need a carrier Why 0 Uniport carries only one solute at a time 0 Symport carries 2 or more solutes simultaneously in same direction cotransport 0 Antiport carries 2 or more solutes in opposite direction countertransport Know what specificity is 0 Transport proteins specific for a certain ligand 0 Solute binds to a specific receptor site on carrier protein 0 Differs from membrane enzymes because carriers do not chemically change their ligand Active transport vs facilitated diffusion 0 Active transport carriermediated transport of the solute through a membrane up against its concentration gradient 0 Facilitated diffusion carriermediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient does not consume ATP What five factors affect diffusion rates across a membrane 0 Temperature T temp T motion of particles 0 Molecular weight large molecules move slower 0 Steepness of concentrated gradient Tdifference T rate 0 Membrane surface area T area T rate 0 Membrane permeability T permeability T rate Know what osmosis is and how it relates to hydrostatic pressure 0 Flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other 0 Osmosis slows due to hydrostatic pressure Reverse Osmosis 0 Pressure of blood on capillary walls forces water and solutes into the surrounding tissues EX Heat drives water out of capillaries by reverse osmosis capillary filtration Understand what tonicity is and its effect on cells 0 Tonicity ability of a solution to affect uid volume and pressure in a cell Know the details of the nucleus and all of the other organelles 0 Nucleolus Site of ribosome production Know where they are in the cell 0 Nucleolus within nucleus Know their functions 0 Nucleolus ribosomes read RNA to build proteins Be able to identify them in a figure Know where in the body specific organelles may be especially abundant if mentioned in the slides Know the three major components of the cytoskeleton and what the cell uses them for 0 Cytoskeleton collection of filaments and cylinders 0 Microfilaments made of protein actin form network on cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane called the terminal web membrane skeleton provides physical support for phospholipid bilayer actin supports microvilli and produces cell movements 0 Intermediate fibers thicker and stiffer than microfilaments resist stresses placed on cell participate in junctions that attach some cells to their neighbors the junctions are called desmosomes line nuclear envelope and form cagelike nuclear lamina that encloses DNA 0 Microtubules cylinders made of 13 parallel strands called protofilaments Importance of centrioles Centriole a short cylindrical assembly of microtubules arranges in nine groups of three microtubules each Play a key role in cell division Know the parts of the endomembrane system Nuclear envelope nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi apparatus lysosome vacuole plasma membrane transport vesicle Understand the difference between endocytosis phagocytosis exocytosis and transcytosis 0 Phagocytosis consumption of a large object by another cell Uses pseudopods to engulf the object 0 Exocytosis secreting material out of the cell Replacement of plasma membrane removed by endocytosis 0 Transcytosis transport of material across the cell by capturing it on one side and releasing it on the other Chapter 4 Genetics Know which nitrogenous bases are complimentary 0 Adenine and thymine are complimentary 0 Cytosine and guanine are complimentary Know the structure of a nucleotide 0 Each nucleotide consists of one sugar deoxyribose one phosphate group and one nitrogenous base Know the types of RNA and their functions 0 Messenger RNA mRNA carries the genetic info from DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes in the cytoplasm 0 Transfer RNAs tRNAs bound to amino acids base pair with the codons of mRNA at the ribosome during proteins synthesis 0 Ribosomal RNA rRNA a structural component of ribosomes fold together with proteins to produce ribosomes 0 Small Nuclear RNA snRNA posttranscriptional modification and processing of mRNA Transcription and translation The difference between these two processes 0 Transcription is the process of copying genetic instructions from DNA to RNA 0 Translation is the process of reading an mRNA molecule and synthesizing the protein encoded in its nucleotide sequence The organelles enzymes involved 0 The enzyme RNA polymerase participates in transcription Where each process takes place in the cell 0 Transcription occurs in the nucleus where the DNA is located 0 Translation occurs in the cytoplasm Which type of RNA is used 0 Translation mRNA initiator tRNA Ribosome binds mRNA I a tRNA anticodon binds to a complementary mRNA codon I a new amino acid is linked to the growing peptide chain I the tRNA is released from the ribosome and is now available to pick up another amino acid Codons vs Anticodons 0 mRNA codons 0 tRNA anticodons
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