Introductory Neurobiology Final Exam Review
Introductory Neurobiology Final Exam Review Biol 3640
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by lucy allen on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 3640 at University of Denver taught by Dr. John C Kinnamon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Neurobiology in Biology at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
-electrical tuning -start in resting state with some calcium open -calcium influx causes opening -further depolarization, internal calcium rises -as this happens there are calcium activated K channels which open -potassium leaves the cell, hyperpolarizing -as this occurs, the calcium channels close and the internal calcium decreases (pumped out) causing calcium activated channels to close -how far the calcium activated potassium channels and calcium channels determines whether it is a high or low frequency cell -close together = high frequency -lower distance = lower frequency in the cell -impedance matching in the middle ear -want to transfer E from air into energy of pressure onto the stapes -pushing onto the oval window of the cochlea -amplification occurs because the eardrum is larger than the oval window -same amount of vibration on eardrum is focused onto smaller oval window -mechanical advantage in the ossicles -malleus longer than the incus, causing amplification as well -on/off signaling in application to inhibitory signals -off-center in the dark -photoreceptor is depolarized, releasing glutamate -glutamate stimulates horizontal cells which release Gaba onto photoreceptor cells in the light, hyperpolarizing them further -hyperpolarizes these cells to enhance the difference between the response in the dark/light -photoreceptor in the dark is depolarizes the off-center ganglion cell and hyperpolarizes the on-center ganglion cell -bipolar cell releases less NT so there is less stimulation of the on- center ganglion cell -off-center cell is depolarized, releases more NT onto the off-center ganglion cell -all helps to accentuate the difference between light and dark -range fractionation -example 1: visual system -whole spectrum of colors, but many photoreceptors respond to stimuli -tuned to specific parts of the spectrum -example 2: muscular system -receptors in joints do not respond to whole spectrum of possible joint angles, some are tuned in a range of degrees -type II taste cells -ultrastructurally tend to be 'fatter' and have 'browner' nuclei than type I or type III taste cells -also known as the receptor cell -type III also known as the presynaptic cell -three flavors of type II cells -bitter -sweet -umami -G-protein coupled pathway using TRPM5 -when cells are depolarized, they release ATP as a neurotransmitter, which is released in a non-vesicular way -no SNARE proteins or synaptic vesicles -large atypical mitochondria "oozing" out ATP -once depolarized, calhm1 channels stimulate the P2X receptors on the nerve fibers -or on the type III cells -suspected that the ATP released can also activate the type III cell -type II cell releases ATP, stimulates type III, release serotonin and GABA, which inhibit type II cell (NEGATIVE INHIBITION) -but type III cells respond to sour -outer vs. inner hair cells -inner hair cells -receptor cells, where sensory transduction occurs -send afferent information to the brain -stereocilia arranged in rows -outer hair cells -cochlear amplifier: amplification of effect of movement of basilar membrane -important to sound perception -treatment of outer hair cells with drugs, can no longer lengthen or shorten, response is incredibly inhibited -change shape -have molecular motors, can get longer or shorter depending on depolarization/hyperpolarization -receive efferent signals from the brain telling them what to do -stereocilia are arranged in a chevron shape -when they get longer they push on the tectorial membrane, moving it farther -when they contract they pull on it and contract it -amplify the movement and stimulation of inner hair cells -population coding (controversy between labeled line coding and population coding) -labeled line coding -there are sweet vest fibers which receive input only from these type of cells -bitter fibers -umami fibers -all travel in separate nerves into the medulla where processing takes place -in the sensory cortex, there are 'labeled lines' for each flavor -population coding -comes from electrophysiological results where they recorded from nerves which are carrying information from sweet vest fibers, bitter fibers and sour fibers -a single nerve fiber carries more than one type of information -it is thought that high up in the sensory cortex (where advanced processing of gustatory stimuli takes place) activity in the nerve fibers is compared and there is a decision made about the taste sensed -combinatorial receptor codes for odors -one odorant has multiple "keys" -each key activates a different receptor -the combination of receptors stimulated results in a certain odor sensed by the brain -two point discrimination -only used in touch -lateral inhibition -vision -smell -stimulation by one specific odor suppresses activity of closely related odors -differences between vertical and horizontal pathways in vision -vertical pathway -straight shot from photoreceptor to bipolar cell to ganglion cell then to the brain -horizontal pathway -A -mediated by horizontal cells -can connect adjacent photoreceptors and bipolar cells -B -mediated by amacrine cells -can connect ganglion cells and bipolar cells -both used for lateral inhibition -horizontal cells, when stimulated, release Gaba -adaptation -auditory system's way of keeping the receptors in the middle of their dynamic range
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