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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Scanlon on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 120-101 at Towson University taught by Lauren Kuta in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Test 1 Biology 120101 Characteristics of Life The word science comes from a Latin word that means knowledge Science is a unique way of gaining knowledge about the natural world that starts with a question amp then tries to answer the question with evidence and logic Why do we study Science 0 People who are informed about science can 0 Make informed health decisions for themselves amp their families Understand information from the news amp media Think critically about topics relating to science amp technology Understand the use amp scope of newly developed technology Nature can be understood through systematic study Science cannot provide answers to all questions An observation is anything that is detected either through human senses or with instruments and measuring devices that extend human senses OOOOO Nature can be understood Scientist think that a single system can be controlled by natural laws 0 Strive to understand the nature 0 A scienti c law is a statement that describes what always happens under certain conditions in nature o The law of gravity states that objects always fall towards Earth because of the pull of gravity What is Biology Biology Study of life 0 Biology has its roots in Latin 0 Pre x bio means quotlifequot or living 0 Suf x oogy means the study ofquot De ning Life We know things are alive if there is movement reproduction respiration breathing or color 0 Reproduction is the process by which living things give rise to offspring o The process of maintaining a stable internal environment is called homeostasis o A cell is the basic unit of the structure and function of living things 0 An organism is an individual living thing Biotic living Abiotic nonliving contain some traits but not all of a living thing 0 Example Viruses All Living things are made of cells smallest units of life Bacteria are simple living things with shared characteristics o More advanced lifeforms are larger and more complex and may have advanced characteristics 0 Plants autotrophs 0 Animals heterotrophs 0 Living things have some means of acquiring and using energy and materials to maintain their bodies metabolism Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is found in all living things 0 Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is found in all living things 0 Continuity 0 Think Small They are able to maintain stable internal conditions homeostasis on a daytoday basis 0 Think Big They are able to maintain their species over time via heredity amp reproduction The Scienti c Method Science is about observing the world around us and trying to ascertain how things in that world work function interact and change In formal scienti c study we often utilize several distinct steps called the scienti c method The Scienti c Method As a MES l Observe amp identify a problem or issue to be studied 0 Scienti c thinkers always question the world around them 0 They want to know more about how things work and have an O insatiable curiosity Identifying a topic or question to study is your rst step what interests you What do you want to know about it Research your problem Develop a hypothesis educated guess 0 A hypothesis is an educated guess and you have to be 0 educated about your topic in order to make one A topic in science becomes a theory when enough evidence has been consistently compiled to support a single valid hypothesis A hypothesis cannot become a theory without repetitive testing hence why scientists need to take careful notes and communicate with other scientists A prediction is a statement that tells what will happen under certain conditions It can be expressed in the form If A occurs then B will happen Evidence is any type of data that may either agree or disagree with a prediction so it may either support or disprove a hypothesis Design amp run an experiment 0 An experiment is a special type of scienti c investigation that is performed under controlled conditions usually in a laboratory Collect data amp results from the experiment 0 During the course of an experiment data should be obtained and recorded 0 The types of data one expects to obtain will vary based on the 0 experiment Data should always be recorded with units in science metric is preferred but many Americans understand English units best Use your data to develop a conclusion 0 O 0 Evidence that agrees with your prediction supports your hypothesis Once you have obtained and displayed your data you have to interpret the data in order to draw conclusion or answers from it Sometimes your data may not answer the question adequately in which case you develop a new hypothesis and try again Sometimes the data reveals all new questions to be studied Communication between scientists is extremely important o Scientist can help other scientists discover problems with their experiments 0 Peer Reviewed Real scientists always seek to have their peers review their work They consider it to be bene cial to have others examine question and even disagree with their work By sharing and talking about their work scientists seek to improve it and build upon their initial ideas 0 Non amp Pseudo Science 0 Sometimes certain groups will attempt to give information under the guise of science that doesn t meet the requirements of science 0 We call this pseudo or nonscience Nonscience or pseudoscience can appear in courtrooms or in the news 0 Always think critically about any quotnew sciencequot or new studiesquot that are released in order to ensure that they are real science 0 How can you tell if something is quotreal sciencequot 0 Real science is Consistent Observable Natural Predictable Testabe Tentative 0 00000 Properties of Water 0 We live on a planet that consists mostly of water 0 About 75 of Earth is covered in water 71 of that is ocean Water is composed of 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen atom making it H20 0 Covalent Bonds strong A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms 0 Hydrogen Bonds weak Is the electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen 0 The chemical break down of water 0 Hydrogen Atomic 1 has 1 valence electron and needs 1 more to be full 0 Oxygen Atomic 8 has 8 total electrons with 2 tied up the rst electron level and 6 in the valence level leaving room for 2 additional electrons o In a water molecule a covalent bond forms between a hydrogen atom and the oxygen with each atom sharing an electron thus lling its valence shell water Molecule 0 Water is a polar molecule 0 Hydrogen is a positively charged ion and oxygen is negatively charged 0 It is these charges repelling against one another that causes the unusual bond angle between the atoms in a water molecule 0 Net charge zero H O The Physical Properties of Water Cohegon 0 water sticking to other water molecules Surface Tension 0 due to cohesiveness of water is so strong where it meets air at the surface the molecules tend to collect together in slightly tighter packed groups Adhesion amp Capillary Action 0 Water molecules stick to other polar materials due to the opposing charges generated by the atoms involved Capillary action is derived from the property of adhegon Universal Solvent 0 dissolve any nonpolar substance if given enough time to work 0 Why is this important to living things Nonpolar materials a Fats n Oils n Waxes Heat Capacity 0 extremely high speci c heat 0 requires a lot of heat inputquot to change temperature and holds onto heat well 0 sand absorbs heat well but cannot keep its heat after the heat source is taken away which means sand has a low speci c heat opposite of water Changing States 0 from gas to liquid to solid and back again with ease 0 solid form is less dense than it s liquid form Hydrophobic v Hydrophilic o Hydrophobic non polar amp repels water 0 Fats Oils etc o Hydrophilic polar amp attract water The Concept of pH 0 is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution AClllD The le Scale ALKAMNE H d lhl 39 G Torrluam Urilne T 09L a I I y rm mm a m 39 amid Amid Juim I PURE Water Snap Ammonia we M39lk Leadacid vinegar Emma I WATER Bleach Battery I Hear lt SUPERACIDS SUPERBASES p Equilibrium The condition of a system in which all competing in uences are balanced in a wide variety of contexts 0 When H is equal to OH39 the solution is considered to be neutral 0 Pure water is neutral pH 7 0 Every organism hopes to nd itself in equilibrium at one point in time if not all the time Macromolecule Macromolecules Macro large 0 Building blocks of living creatures Four types of macromolecules o Carbs Composed primarily of C H and O Ex Glucose breads amp pasta 0 Proteins assembled from subunits Meats Dairy amp Veggies build muscles skin hair cartilage amp other body structures serve as enzymes to regulate bodily functions and reactions 0 Lipidsfats component of cell membranes skin amp hair health 0 Nucleic acids the only macromolecule needed for life that is NOT obtained by feeding Nucleic acids are composed of DNA amp RNA which is received from out parents at conception DNA a Deoxyribonucleic Acid stores genetic information RNA a Ribonucleic Acid transfers genetic information Inorganic molecules are of the earth amp do not have carbon and hydrogen together in the same molecule 0 Water H20 0 Carbon Dioxide C02 0 Ammonia NH3 0 Sulfuric Acid H2504 Organic molecules are of living things amp have carbon and hydrogen together in the same molecule 0 Glucose C6H1206 o Testosterone C19H2802 o Ascorbic Acid C6H806 Cellular Organization 0 Cell Theory The smallest living things are composed of single cellsbacteria 0 There is no life below cellular level 0 Cell division is the process in which one cell called the parent cell divides to form two new cells referred to as daughter cells 0 After a cell grows to capacity it divides into two cells 0 The process of cell division is a continuous cycle 0Cells can be 0 Prokaryotic Binary ssion is how most prokaryotic cells divide u Simple Cells single circular chromosome ex bacteria cell very small need to use high powered microscopes to see very old 35 billion years old no nucleus membrane boundquot organelles DNA free oats in a section of the cytoplasm EIEIEIEIEIEIE o Eukaryotic Mitosis and cytokinesis is the two steps required to divide a eukaryotic cell Complicated Multiple chromosomes n ex all other cells animals plants fungus a large a visible in light microscopes in great detail a very young 15 billion years old a full of complex parts and organelles a DNA housed inside of the molecule 0 Both prokaryotic amp eukaryotic cells are alive Cell membrane I Also referred to as plasma membrane a Composed of phospholipids and 3 types of proteins Marker proteins provide a DNA tag that identi es the cell 0 Transport proteins move materials into and out of the cell 0 Receptor proteins accept signals from other cells that may modify cell functions Ribosomes a site of protein synthesis I found in all cells Cytoplasm Flagella 0 Cell organelles small units that make up Eukaryotic I each organelle has a speci c function Nucleus is the control center and home to DNA 0 DNA CAN NOT LEAVE THE NUCLEUS Animal Cells have 0 000000 Cell Membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Many mitochondria Many lysosomes digestive units of the cell Cilia amp Flagella for movement Animals NEED oxygen Plant Cells have 0000000 0 0 Cell Wall for structure Cell Membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Mitochondria Some lysosomes Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis where sunlight energy is changed into glucose food for the plant Vacuoles for storage Plants NEED carbon Types of Solutions 0 O A cell uses osmosis to maintain a uid balance Osmosis is a speci c type of diffusion when water diffuses across a semipermeable membrane It maintains water amp salt balances in cells and in the body The type of solution a cell nds itself in can cause physical changes in the cell Hypertonic Solutions more than a When H20 leaves a cell it shrinksplasmolysis I Think about a slug Hypotonic Solutionsess than a When H20 goes into a cell it grows or explodes due to pressurecytoysis Isotonic Solutions a Cells happy place because everything is equal Cells without water don t survive very well Active Transport when molecules cross a from a region of low concentration to higher concentration energy is required Passive transport No energy is required to go from low to high concentration
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