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Study guide POLS Midterm #2

by: Grecia Sanchez

Study guide POLS Midterm #2 POLS 2310

Grecia Sanchez
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Politics
Dr. Taeko Hiroi

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About this Document

These notes cover all the material required for the midterm. We are going to be tested only on political beliefs until ideologies on the left (communism); you can see the complete notes on my other...
Introduction to Politics
Dr. Taeko Hiroi
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Taeko Hiroi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Politics in Political Science at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 03/10/16
POLITICAL BELIEFS They affect our behaviors and decisions motivate political actions base for candidates proposals focus on different problems of society IDEOLOGY set of ideas that guide human behavior they tell youwhat you should do and transform these ideas into actions FUNCTIONS OF IDEOLOGY explanatory means why things happen evaluate means if a situation is good or bad programmatic means linking ideas to action in order to solve the problem Politics is seen as a struggle of power environment not peaceful and without harmony you have to secure your own in order to survive only the powerful can rule STATE OF NATURE general state of people before government and society comes in existence for Realism is nasty human beings desire power to rule the others and they want to accumulate this reputation of power because they want to survive 0 MAQUIAVELLI Believed in natural inequality of human beings wrote The Prince ruler who is powerful and has lion and fox skills you either conquer or get conquered goal of ruler is to secure the state 0 THOMAS HOBBES One of the famous social contract s writers STATE OF NATURE for him is inequality unordered and without hierarchy of scale for humans everyone has the license to everything because of this chaos the society has few resources because of the selfish people it has the solution Hobbes tells us is Leviathan o LEVIATHAN Supreme sovereign authority The social contract in which all individuals cede some rights to establish order they are ok with the government taking abuses of power because they need order if the government puts order in the society then they have no problem with the abuse of power 0 GENERAL OVERVIEW EXPLANATION state of nature and lack of authority EVALUATION society is good meanwhile it is ordered if ordered then harmonious and prosperous PROGRAM strong should rule create a good central government This is Classical Liberalism Supreme Sovereign in each individual is emphasized human rights is important 0 JOHN LOCKE Liberal whose state of nature was a natural environment in which humans have liberty and property but are alienable to them his solution to this was to create a social contract based on consent this social contract would limit the power of government to prevent sovereign 0 JOHN STUART MILL He used ideas of utilitarianism and liberty in order for us to be happy you have to be satisfied if happy you are doing a purposeful action 0 GENERAL OVERVIEW EXPLANATION individual choices and actions EVALUATION free is always good PROGRAM emphasized liberty among citizens and prevent tyranny and sovereign Emphasizes tradition and continuity humans are not as intelligent as liberals think we are weakened by desires and passions we are not great rationalists aggressive changes cannot be done because of this nature humans have imperfect many consequences can go wrong if we risk it is better to follow traditionalist regulations because these traditions are still here which means they must be good to last even today if you want to make improvements it must be a slow and cautious process government intervention is needed for us to return to these traditions 0 EDMUND BURKE People cannot be completely free we have to protect the system we have his ideal form of government is based on a constitution he is referring to his British Constitution which was an anthology for past decisions traditions based on Britain circumstance change has to be gradually 0 GENERAL OVERVIEW EXPLANATION imperfection of humans EVALUATION Situation is good if it s stable PROGRAM changes made slowly and tradition varies between time and place Related to the idea of Constitution of Locke essence of democracy is the ruling of the people it represents one of the ideals for a perfect government ORIGIN Demopopulance Kratia kratia kratos cracy rule Together the word stands for the people rule 0 REPRESENTATIVE VS DIRECT Representative democracy citizens vote for representatives they will go to the meeting and vote on behalf of the people who they are representing Direct democracy democracy actually started this way but it s rarely practiced today it occurs when the people just vote directly 0 ELEMENTS You must empower the people You must protect their basic rights 0 FUNCTIONS 0 IDEALS Popular government we the people rule all the population has to be included in the process of elections the practice provides universal knowledge Representative government it is the way we implement liberal democracy today the indirect way to do popular government we put this in practice through elections government that represents people We have two ways of representation delegate when they are given specific mandatory issues certain interests to represent and they are not allowed to step out of this specific interest even if they don t agree and trustee when we just simply trust the representative is going to do well on any choice she makes when we have enough confidence in hisher judgment Responsible government when the government is accountable for its people a government has to have transparency towards its people and the people should be able to evaluate its government Constitutive government it is important to have law and due process the Constitution is going to be this thing that states how interaction between government and people is going to be limits power on both sides Pluralism most controversial ideal states that the best way to get better is through different ideals and individuals to discuss and compete between each other they debatediscussargueprove their interest towards society and if they win your interest gets to be implemented in society it is a consensus to promote discussion 0 DEMOCRACY AS REGIME Democracy is one of the actual regimes in the world based on procedures and rules for political competition and selecting government when looking at a country to see if it is a democratic country you look at the rules and procedures rather than what the people have substance Substantive judgment judgment in which you make a conclusion based on the physical things the people have 0 CRITERIA FOR A COUNTRY TO BE CONSIDERED DEMOCRATIC The criteria to define a country is if it has political rights it has to be universal meaning for all the population within the country and it has to have adult suffrage each country defines what is adult and a country must have the right to compete for office Elections must be free individual liberty free exercise of voting you are free to cast any vote you want fair all candidates compete under the same set of rules competitive there must be more than one political party with different candidate which represents different interests for the society periodic there has to be periods when the winner passes the power to others and there has to be equality in voting each vote of each person equals one point in elections no matter status CIVIL LIBERTIES No one is absent from law not the people nor the government There has to be freedom of expression in society Freedom of association is also important a clubsocial grouporganization is always going to fulfill the necessities of its members and they have the right to be a member of any org they want DEMOCRACY AS UNIVERSAL VALUE Amartya Sen winner of Nobel prize answered the globalization of democracy to What is the most significant event within 20th century 0 ARGUES VALUES 0 HUMANS NATURE GENERAL OVERVIEW 0 MAIN IDEA WHAT IS IT GENERAL OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA 0 GENERAL OVERVIEW


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