Study Guide 1
Popular in Early Childhood Intervention
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariana Ruof on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CDE337 at Arizona State University taught by Gaertner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
CDE Notes Week 1 82415 History of Early Intervention 0 Meeting the Needs of Young Children I Most people are trying to do the best that they can I Different families have different goals and different capacities I Example of capacities time degree of education personalities mental health I Sometimes parents need help from outside sources I Families want their children to grow and thrive I When families don t have the capacity they need to take care of their childchildren they meet with more knowledgeable and caring helpers and refer to social policies What is Early Intervention EI I A system of services for family and children 03 years old example caregivers I A program protected by federal law example IDEA I An approach to working with families and young children Who is eligible for E1 by law I If child has a developmental delay must be 50 in AZ I Have conditions that could result in a developmental delay I Are at risk for a developmental delay determined by individual states AZ does not 0 Risk factors can include poverty teen parents etc What are the goals of El I Create a familyprofessional relationship I Support families and build capacities History of E1 I Changing views of children I 1600s1700s little adults few special needs valued for economic benefit I Shifting views in l600s1800s Puritanism kids are inherently bad I Contemporary views unique period foundation of character worthy of attention valued as a luxury need to be protected Developmental Theory and Research I Nature v Nurture 0 Arnold Gesell 1920sl930s O Documented development of childrenboth typical and atypical behavior 0 Biologically based unfolding of behavior as child matures O Mapped out stages children go through by age 0 Nature Approach amp E1 0 Did recognize impact of perinatal insults 0 E1 is rather useless experience can t alter what is biologically determined 0 Doesn t take into account all variations based on the child I John B Watson 1920s1930s 0 Children are a blank slate or tabula rasa O Madecreated not born 0 Nurture approach 0 Example Little Albert experiment 0 82615 History of E1 cont 0 Other research that supported the role of relationships I Spitz Infant deprivation in orphanages I Harlow Animal models of relationships I Bowlby attachment relationships I SkeelsDye classic intervention experiment 0 Having a caregiver improves IQ over time while kids who grow up in orphanages experience decreases in IQ I Brofenbrenner and Sameroff transactional models of development 0 History of Early Education 0 O O In late 1800s Industrialization and secularization First kindergarten 1872 St Louis Missouri I Focused on religious values and learning through supervised play Expanded during WWII for middle class EI and the disadvantaged child I Compensatory education I Head Start Program 1965 0 Designed to prepare children for school success I Gave education nutrition health care and socioemotional benefits 0 Parent involvement strongly encouraged I Head Start Evaluation 0 Westinghouse Learning Corporation Study 1969 0 First major evaluation found no long lasting effects but positive effect on parents 0 Lasting recommendations 0 Intervention should start earlier in infancy 0 Parents are key in results 0 Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project 19621965 0 Later in life program children had I Higher achievement test I Fewer specialized classes I More higher education I Higher employment rates I Less crime and delinquency I Fewer early pregnancies I 7 returned for ever 1 spent on program 0 Is EI effective I Brofenbrenner s conclusions 1974 0 Cognitive gains of preschool programs weren t maintained Poor children gain least and lose ground quickly Greatest lasting effects for parentchild intervention Overall conclusion the family is the most economical and effective system for supporting child development I Early Head Start 0 In 1944 Congress authorized expansion of Head Start to include children 03 years old 0 Home visiting and centerbased programs I EI for children with disabilities 0 Legislation for people with disabilities 0 In 1980s evidence suggested E1 was beneficial for children with disabilities 0 History for persons with disabilities I Ancient times often victims of euthanasia I Middle ages1700s tolerated beggars imprisoned institutionalized I 1800s residential placements focused on special education and integration I Late 1800s shifted to supervision and isolation I Early 1900s public schools few specialized resources children with mild disabilities were in regular classes but often dropped out I Post war shifting attitudes funding and greater support for those with disabilities 0 82815 0 How Children Develop and Learn I Key legislation 0 1968 Handicapped Children s Early Education Assistance Act 0 Provided funding to develop model intervention programs train disseminate 0 1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act EHA 0 Required free and appropriate education to disabled children and IEPs 0 1986 Amendments to EHA part H 0 Authorized an El program for infants and toddlers birth to 36 months and required an Individual Family Service Plan IFSP 0 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA Part C O Authorized the development of a system of coordinated services for infants and toddlers shifted focus to family as center of E1 services interprofessional collaboration natural environments 0 Recognized and supported family strengths I Linking Legislation and Learning 0 Developmental principles 0 Proceeds in an organized and symmetric manner 0 Builds on already acquired skills 0 Focuses on exploratory competence and relatedness 0 Changes quantitatively and qualitatively 0 Goals of Development 0 To pursue learning and relatedness With increasing I Complexity example being able to grasp chunks of food develops to being able to pick up Cheerios I Flexibility using certain skills in multiple settings I Stability using skills in multiple settings and contexts 0 Developmental tasks of infancy and toddlerhood What do kids learn 0 Competence in developmental domains domains include socioemotional cognitive physicalmotor communication and self help 0 Autonomy independence or sense of self 0 Relatedness friendships and social skills 0 Selfregulation self control I Where learning happens 0 Human Brain I 2 of total body weight I Uses 20 of body s energy I Learning takes place in a physical structure I Neurons brainnerve cells form connections 0 Blooming and Pruning of Neurons I Synaptogenesis creates potential I Creations of synapses or connections I Synaptic pruning promotes efficiency and adaptation 0 Little used synapses are gradually eliminated CDE 337 Notes Week 2 83 115 0 Brain Development in a Nutshell 0 Old view I Genes determine development I Brain today brain tomorrow 0 Recent advances I Genetics are important but experience contributes heavily I Affects how genes are expressed I Every experience sends signals through the neurons in the brain which form connections when repeated I Genes can be changed and passed on from generation to generation experiences can change biology I Brain plasticity ability of the brain t change in response to changing environmental demands I Ex Pruning makes it difficult to make distinctions between words in different languages 0 The Brain I ExperienceExpectant 0 Needs particular experiences in order to develop properly 0 Ex Language binocular vision I ExperienceDependent 0 Develops according to our experiences 0 Ex Grow up with sports play sports when older grow up with music play instruments I Neurons the fire together wire together 9215 0 The Developmental Context of Relationships 0 Development within relationships I Attachment is emotional bond that infants develop with their caregivers a dyadic regulatory pattern that emerges over time from a history of caregiverinfant interactions I Ex Video of child rolling over and dad encouraging I Ex Video of grandma changing baby s diaper 0 Attachment across the first year I Caregiver provides physiological regulation active infant more reciprocity caregiver as a secure base for infant exploration 94 15 0 Why do attachment relationships evolve 0 We need connectioncomfort when stressed or threatened 0 Attachment provides an evolutionary advantage I Ensure that infants remain in proximity and protection of caregivers I Ex Two year old in hospital asking for mom 0 Attachment is not 0 A characteristic of I An individual child I The caregiver 0 It is a characteristic of the relationship between a particular child and a particular caregiver I Do all babies attach 0 Universal biologically driven adaptation 0 Infants must become attached to an accessible caregiver regardless of treatment 0 All behavior is adaptive 0 Quality of caregiving 0 Quality of caregt attachment quality 0 Patterns of attachmentgt selfregulation and adjustment 0 Internal working models of the self and others 0 Cognitive models of self and relationships with their caregivers I Make sense of experiences I Guides future interactions thoughts emotions behaviors I Workingchangeable I Secure attachment working models 0 I am safe 0 The world is safe 0 I am valued O I can trust others I Secure attachment 65 O Caregivers are I Sufficiently sensitive responsive consistent and accepting 0 Children are I Able to actively use and feel confident in the caregiver to serve as a secure base and regulate emotions I Ex Mary Ainsworth s strange situation video child explores when mom is there but uses mom as base upset when mom leaves and happy when mom returns 0 InsecureAvoidant attachment 2030 0 Caregivers are I Often inconsistent emotionally unavailable or chronically rejecting 0 Children are I Unable to use the caregiver to support exploration and reduce distress 0 InsecureResistant ambivalent attachment 515 0 Caregivers are I Interfering ignoring and unreliably responsive 0 Children are I Preoccupied with their attachment figures but gain little comfort from them when distressed CDE 337 Notes Week 3 No school 9715 CDE337 Notes 9915 0 Disorganized attachment 0 Caregivers are I Frightening and confusing I A cause of children s stress and fear 0 Children are I Dis regulated and disorganized in their responses lacking a single coherent way of responding to caregiver I 80 of maltreated children I Also happens when caregiver cannot give protection or attention domestic violence victims as parents I This attachment is most related to psychological problems 0 Attachment differences and later development 0 Secure attachment I Can buffer the effects of envbio risks I Greater social competence persistence independence and empathy O Socioemotional difficulties linked to I Insecure esp Disorganized attachments I Disruptions in attachment 0 What do infants bring O Temperament not related to attachment quality I Sensitive care overrides infant difficulties 0 But challenging infants may pose risk to a tasked caregiving system 0 Children with disabilities 0 Can form secure relationship attachments I Sometimes more slowly 0 Challenges I Prolonged early hospitalization I Caregiverpsychosocial stress 0 A developmental framework 0 The quality of the attachment relationship does not determine later development but it can put child at risk 0 Attachment insecurity is not a disorder of the infant I A behavioral adaptation to the quality of care I A relationship marker of a beginning pathological process Notes 91 1 15 In class Worksheet we did not get to any notes CDE 337 Notes Week 4 CDE 337 Notes 91415 Notes we didn39t finish last week 810 of all families are extremely high risk 70 of these children have poor adjustment 65 of children with early severe difficulties who do not receive intervention will continue to have problems Rochester longitudinal study Children with greater number of risks had more mental problems Cumulative model of risk multiplicative effect of the number of risk factors on outcomes few single risk factors have major impact alone Strength based approach Focus on positive parenting and development adaptation and adjustment Discover multiple sources and pathways of adaption toward positive outcomes Transactional model of development Interactions in early childhood are dependent on how parent responds to child Children and families change one another over time through their transactions Development and transactions at one point can in uence later development Family centered principles Proposition 1 early experiences are important Proposition 2 children develop in the context of relationships Proposition 3 early intervention is inherently familycentered What do children and families need Positive parenting Positive family relationships Trusted sources of support Individual well being and fulfillment Families of children with disabilities No child is ever accurately anticipated Some babies bring additional worry or stress Families who adjust can make positive changes Help families learn about their child Brainstorm new strategies for learning and care Family centered intervention Relationshipbased and psychotherapeuticallyinformed Work from the inside out thoughts and feelings Work from the outside in behavior knowledge skills Familyprofessional partnership The family professional partnership Collaboration all members bring expertise Family has unique knowledge of child and their history EI professionals knowledge of developmental disability interpretations of behavior strategiesadaptations emotional support resources and concrete supports Notes 91615 Family priorities The purpose of E1 is not to change or add to what families already want for and do with their children Instead understand what the family envisions for their child and family and help them achieve that vision All kinds of outcomes Child level CARS embedded in Relationships Childrelated familylevel how can I parent this child Family level how can my family and each member be supported Families choose outcomes based on family priorities Determining family priorities Who is in the family What are the family values How does this family work What are the priorities for the entire family What are the priorities for each family member What does the priority look like for this family How will the family know when each priority is achieved How is the family currently trying to fulfill those priorities What resources does the family already have Begin where the family is Not where they wish they were Not where you see their potential to be Not where you39ve seen other families like them be Not where you think you could be if you were in their place Routines based intervention Principles of early learning Practice practice practice Participation is key The just right challenge The unique strengths of each child Responsive adults Notes 91815 Learning and family routines Routines occur with some frequency regularity Occur in the natural environment May be structured or spontaneous Differ across families EI assessment Understand the child39s developmental strengths needs interests and competencies How the important people and places in child39s life can help himher learn How well the intervention strategies working Authentic assessment During participation in routine activities of real life How does the child function in everyday life where it matters Sample routine questions What is everyone doing What is the child doing What is the child39s engagement like What is the child39s independence like What are the child39s social relationships like How satisfactory is this time of day
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